The American Bison (Bison bison) is a bovine mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. 'Buffalo' is something of a misnomer for this animal as it is only distantly related to either of the two "true buffaloes", the water buffalo and the African Buffalo. The bison once inhabited the Grasslands of the United States and Asia in massive herds, ranging from the Great Slave Lake in Canada's far north to Mexico in the south, and from eastern Oregon almost to the Atlantic Ocean, taking its subspecies into account. Its two subspecies are the Plains Bison (Bison bison bison), distinguished by its smaller size and more rounded hump, and the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae), distinguished by its larger size and taller square hump. Wood Bison are one of the largest species of cattle in the world, surpassed in size only by the massive Asian gaur and Wild Asian Water Buffalo, both of which are found mainly in India and Southeast Asia.

North American Bison

The American Bison (Bison bison) is a bovine mammal, also commonly known as the American buffalo. 'Buffalo'…

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are north, south, east, and west.

Cardinal Directions

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are north, south, east, and west.

A instrument used for navigation. The needle is magnetic and always points to the north pole.

Compass

A instrument used for navigation. The needle is magnetic and always points to the north pole.

A tool used to tell direction.

Compass

A tool used to tell direction.

Diagram of points on a compass.

Compass Points

Diagram of points on a compass.

The constellation, with the north star also shown.

The Dipper

The constellation, with the north star also shown.

"The Earth, whose diameter is 7,912 miles, is represented by the globe, or sphere. The straight line passing through its center, and about which it turns, is called its axis, and the two extremities of the axis are the poles of the Earth, A being the north pole, and B the south pole. The line C D, crossing the axis, passes quite round the Earth, and divides it into two equal parts. This is called the equinoctial line, or the equator. That part of the Earth situated north of this line, is caled the northern hemisphere, and that part south of it, the southern hemisphere. The small circles E F and G H, surrounding or including the poles, are called the polar circles." —Comstock, 1850

Earth Divisions

"The Earth, whose diameter is 7,912 miles, is represented by the globe, or sphere. The straight line…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox) as seen from the position occupied by the earth on June 21 (summer solstice). Rays of light and heat meet the earth vertically on the Equator, and the days and nights are everywhere of equal length." -Wiswell, 1913

Spring Equinox and Autumn Equinox

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox)…

A hand holding a bar magnet.

Hand with magnet

A hand holding a bar magnet.

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some places, the magnetic needle does not point ot the geographical north. The angle that the axis of a compass-bneedle makes with the geographical meridian at any place is called the declination or variation of the needle at that place...Lines drawn through places on the earth where the declination is the sam are called isogonic lines, as shown." -Avery 1895

Isogonic Lines of Earth

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some…

"The polarity of the solenoidal magnet may be determined by holding it in the right hand so that the fingers point in the direction of the current; then the extended thumb will point toward the marked or north-seeking pole of the magnet." — Avery, 1895

Solenoidal magnet

"The polarity of the solenoidal magnet may be determined by holding it in the right hand so that the…

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

Magnetic Field

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south." —Wells, 1857

Magnetic Needle

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south."…

(1815-1872) American soldier in the Mexican War and Union general in the Civil War.

George Gordon Meade

(1815-1872) American soldier in the Mexican War and Union general in the Civil War.

"Cardinal Direction auxiliary signs carrying the legend NORTH, EAST, SOUTH, or WEST should be used to indicate the general direction of the entire route. To improve the readability, the first letter of the cardinal direction words shall be ten percent larger, rounded up to the nearest whole number size." -Federal Highway Administration, 2007

North, Black and White

"Cardinal Direction auxiliary signs carrying the legend NORTH, EAST, SOUTH, or WEST should be used…

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

Attractive poles

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

Repelling poles

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

"We have an example of resultant motion in a boat which a person attempts to row north across a river, while the tide carries it to the east. Each force produces the same effect as if acted alone; and the boatman, when he has crossed the river, will find himself neither due north nor due east of the point from which he started, but northeast of it." —Quackenbos 1859

Resultant Motion with Boat

"We have an example of resultant motion in a boat which a person attempts to row north across a river,…

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those of an electromagnet, b much weaker than those of a similar coil having a soft iron core. Such a coil, if suspended...will assume a north and south position..." -Atkinson 1903

Solenoid

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north of the Equator; winter and short days south of it." -Wiswell, 1913

Summer Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days north of the Equator; summer and long days south of it. 1, North Frigid Zone; 2, North Temperate Zone; 3, Torrid Zone; 4, South Temperate Zone; 5, South Frigid Zone." -Wiswell, 1913

Winter Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days…