Embryo of Abronia umbellata; one of the cotyledons very small.

Abronia

Embryo of Abronia umbellata; one of the cotyledons very small.

Half of an acorn, cut lengthwise, filled by the very thick cotyledons, the base of which encloses the minute caulicle.

Acorn

Half of an acorn, cut lengthwise, filled by the very thick cotyledons, the base of which encloses the…

Nut (acorn) of the Oak, with its cup or cupule.

Acorn

Nut (acorn) of the Oak, with its cup or cupule.

Utricle (pyxis) of Amaranth, opening all around (circumscissile).

Amaranth

Utricle (pyxis) of Amaranth, opening all around (circumscissile).

"Image: Anther of Aquilegria. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Aquilegria. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the…

"Image: Anther of Aquilegria, expanded. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Aquilegria, expanded. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised…

"Image: Anther of Lilium. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Lilium. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity…

"Image: Anther of Berberis. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Berberis. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the…

"Image: Anther of Solanum. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Solanum. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity…

"Image: Anther of Ecbalium. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the extremity of a filament."-Whitney, 1902

Anther

"Image: Anther of Ecbalium. The essential polliniferous part of a stamen, generally raised upon the…

Section of a seed of Barberry, showing the straight embryo in the middle of the albumen.

Barberry

Section of a seed of Barberry, showing the straight embryo in the middle of the albumen.

A Beech-nut, cut across.

Beech-nut

A Beech-nut, cut across.

Beginning germination of the Beech, showing the plumule growing before the cotyledons have opened or the root has scarcely formed.

Beech-nut Germination

Beginning germination of the Beech, showing the plumule growing before the cotyledons have opened or…

Older beech with the plumule-leaves developing, and elevated on a long internodes.

Beech-nut Germination Older

Older beech with the plumule-leaves developing, and elevated on a long internodes.

Akene of a Buttercup.

Buttercup

Akene of a Buttercup.

Akene of a Buttercup, divided lengthwise, to show the contained seed.

Akene of a Buttercup

Akene of a Buttercup, divided lengthwise, to show the contained seed.

Embryo of Calycanthus; upper part cut away, to show the convolute cotyledons.

Embryo of Calycanthus

Embryo of Calycanthus; upper part cut away, to show the convolute cotyledons.

One of Catalpa, the kernel cut to show the embryo.

Catalpa

One of Catalpa, the kernel cut to show the embryo.

Seed of a Chickweed, campylotropous.

Seed of a Chickweed

Seed of a Chickweed, campylotropous.

"Flower of Clerodendron in two stages. In A (earlier stage) the stamens are mature, while the pistil is still undeveloped and bent to one side. In B (later stage) the stamens have withered and the stigmas have separated, ready for the reception of pollen." -Bergen, 1896

Clerodendron

"Flower of Clerodendron in two stages. In A (earlier stage) the stamens are mature, while the pistil…

Embryo of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); caulicle bent down over edge of cotyledons.

Common Bean

Embryo of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); caulicle bent down over edge of cotyledons.

Caulicle well lengthened and root beginning; thick cotyledons partly spreading; plumule (pair of leaves) growing between them.

Common Bean Seedling

Caulicle well lengthened and root beginning; thick cotyledons partly spreading; plumule (pair of leaves)…

Flower of a Crassula.

Crassula

Flower of a Crassula.

"Cupressus sempervirens; 1. a scale of a male cone with pollen; 2. a scale of a female cone with naked ovules; 3. a ripe cone; 4. the same with one of the scales removed." -Lindley, 1853

Mediterranean Cyprus

"Cupressus sempervirens; 1. a scale of a male cone with pollen; 2. a scale of a female cone with naked…

Of the Dandelion, its pappus raised on a long beak.

Dandelion

Of the Dandelion, its pappus raised on a long beak.

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

Elaters of Jungermannia

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

Samara of the American Elm, winged all around.

American Elm

Samara of the American Elm, winged all around.

A fig-fruit when young.

Fig-Fruit

A fig-fruit when young.

Magnified portion of a fig-fruit, a slice, showing some of the flowers.

Fig-Fruit Flowers

Magnified portion of a fig-fruit, a slice, showing some of the flowers.

A fig-fruit when young in section.

Fig-Fruit Section

A fig-fruit when young in section.

Section lengthwise of flax seed cut half away, bringing contained embryo into view.

Flax Pod Cut in Half

Section lengthwise of flax seed cut half away, bringing contained embryo into view.

Section of a flax-seed magnified and divided flat-wise: turned round, so that the stem-end (caulicle) of the embryo is below: the whole broad upper part is the inner face of one of the cotyledons: the minute nick at its base is the plumule.

Flax-seed

Section of a flax-seed magnified and divided flat-wise: turned round, so that the stem-end (caulicle)…

Section through a flax seed turned edgewise, showing the thickness of the cotyledons, and the minute plumule between them.

Flax-seed Cut Sideways

Section through a flax seed turned edgewise, showing the thickness of the cotyledons, and the minute…

Section of a seed of the Iris, or Flower-de-Luce, enlarged, showing its small embryo in the albumen, near the bottom.

Flower-de-Luce

Section of a seed of the Iris, or Flower-de-Luce, enlarged, showing its small embryo in the albumen,…

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

Fruiting

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

Germination of Silver Maple, natural size; merely the base of the fruit, containing the seed, is shown.

Germination of Silver Maple

Germination of Silver Maple, natural size; merely the base of the fruit, containing the seed, is shown.

Virginia Cut Grass (Leersia Virginica) is a small flowered white grass, and is smoother than white grass known as "false rice". The panicle is simple, slender, the spikelets closely appressed, and oblong.

Annual Spear Grass

Virginia Cut Grass (Leersia Virginica) is a small flowered white grass, and is smoother than white grass…

Half of a horse-chestnut, similarly cut; the caulicle is curved down on the side of one of the thick cotyledons.

Horse Chestnut

Half of a horse-chestnut, similarly cut; the caulicle is curved down on the side of one of the thick…

Horse-chestnut in germination; footstalks are formed to the cotyledons, pushing out in their lengthening the growing parts.

Horse Chestnut in Germination

Horse-chestnut in germination; footstalks are formed to the cotyledons, pushing out in their lengthening…

A germinating seedling of the Iris, its plumule developed into the first four leaves (alternate), the first one rudimentary; the cotyledon remains in the seed.

Iris Germinating

A germinating seedling of the Iris, its plumule developed into the first four leaves (alternate), the…

Capsule of Iris, with loculicidal dehiscence; below, cut across.

Capsule of Iris

Capsule of Iris, with loculicidal dehiscence; below, cut across.

Caulicle with plumule developed into internodes and pair of leaves.

Large Common Bean Seedling

Caulicle with plumule developed into internodes and pair of leaves.

Follicle of Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris)

Marigold

Follicle of Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris)

Pod of a Marsh St. John's-wort, with septicidal dehiscence.

Marsh St. John's-wort

Pod of a Marsh St. John's-wort, with septicidal dehiscence.

Akene of Mayweed (no pappus)

Mayweed

Akene of Mayweed (no pappus)

Seed of Milkweed, with a <em>Coma</em> or tuft of long silky hairs at one end.

Milkweed

Seed of Milkweed, with a Coma or tuft of long silky hairs at one end.

Section of the seed of Mirabilis or Four-o'clock, showing the embryo coiled round the outside of the albumen.

Mirabilis

Section of the seed of Mirabilis or Four-o'clock, showing the embryo coiled round the outside of the…

Embryo taken out whole and unfolded; the broad and very thin cotyledons notched at summit; the caulicle below.

Morning Glory Embryo

Embryo taken out whole and unfolded; the broad and very thin cotyledons notched at summit; the caulicle…

Seed of Morning Glory divided, moderately magnified; shows a longitudinal section through the centre of the embryo as it lies crumpled in the albumen.

Morning Glory Seed

Seed of Morning Glory divided, moderately magnified; shows a longitudinal section through the centre…

Seedling of Morning Glory more advanced (root cut away); cotyledons well developed into foliage-leaves: succeeding internode and leaf well developed, and the next forming.

Morning Glory Seedling

Seedling of Morning Glory more advanced (root cut away); cotyledons well developed into foliage-leaves:…

Morning Glory seedling advanced.

Morning Glory Seedling Advanced

Morning Glory seedling advanced.

The fruit is a multiple fruit, 2-3 cm long, red ripening to dark purple, edible, and sweet with a good flavor in several species.

Mulberry

The fruit is a multiple fruit, 2-3 cm long, red ripening to dark purple, edible, and sweet with a good…

One of the grains younger, seen to be a pistillate flower with calyx becoming fleshy.

Mulberry Grains

One of the grains younger, seen to be a pistillate flower with calyx becoming fleshy.

"Ochranthe arguta. 1. grain of pollen; 2. perpendicular section of its pistil." -Lindley, 1853

Ochranthe

"Ochranthe arguta. 1. grain of pollen; 2. perpendicular section of its pistil." -Lindley, 1853

Section of an Onion-seed, showing the slender and the coiled embryo in the albumen.

Onion Seed

Section of an Onion-seed, showing the slender and the coiled embryo in the albumen.

A diagram of the various parts of pollen of orchid. po- Pollinia; c- Caudicle; vd- Viscid Disk; vg- Viscid Glove; r- Rostellum; lr- Lip of Rostellum.

Pollen of Orchid

A diagram of the various parts of pollen of orchid. po- Pollinia; c- Caudicle; vd- Viscid Disk; vg-…

Fruit (cremocarp) of Osmorrhiza; the two akene-like ripe carpals separating at maturity from a slender axis or carpophores.

Osmorrhiza

Fruit (cremocarp) of Osmorrhiza; the two akene-like ripe carpals separating at maturity from a slender…

Embryo of pea, i.e. a pea with the coats removed; the short and thick caulicle presented to view.

Pea Embryo

Embryo of pea, i.e. a pea with the coats removed; the short and thick caulicle presented to view.

Pea germination: the plumule has developed four or five internodes, bearing single leaves; but the first and second leaves are mere scales, the third begins to serve as foliage; the next more so.

Pea Germination

Pea germination: the plumule has developed four or five internodes, bearing single leaves; but the first…

Section of a seed of a Peony, showing a very small embryo in the albumen, near one end.

Peony

Section of a seed of a Peony, showing a very small embryo in the albumen, near one end.