(1845-1894) Emperor of Russia from 1881-1894

Alexander III

(1845-1894) Emperor of Russia from 1881-1894

Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, England and Scotland were united as a single state, the Kingdom of Great Britain. Anne became its first sovereign, while continuing to hold the separate crown of Queen of Ireland. Anne reigned for twelve years until her death in August 1714.

Queen Anne of Great Britain

Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March…

Personal appearance of the ruler of Korsabad.

Babylonian Ruler

Personal appearance of the ruler of Korsabad.

Bookbag with slate, apple, ruler, and books

Bookbag and contents

Bookbag with slate, apple, ruler, and books

Charles I, (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. Charles famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England. He was an advocate of the Divine Right of Kings, and many subjects of England feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power. Many of his actions, particularly the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent, caused widespread opposition.

Charles I of England

Charles I, (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from…

Charles II (Charles Stuart; 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. According to royalists (and retrospective English law), Charles II became king when his father Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, the climax of the English Civil War. The English Parliament did not proclaim Charles II king at this time, passing a statute making it unlawful, and England entered the period known to history as the English Interregnum. The Parliament of Scotland, on the other hand, proclaimed Charles II King of Scots on 5 February 1649 in Edinburgh. He was crowned King of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651.

Charles II of England

Charles II (Charles Stuart; 29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland,…

(1294-132) King of France from 1322-1328

King Charles IV of France

(1294-132) King of France from 1322-1328

Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his abdication in 1556.

Emperor Charles V

Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his abdication in 1556.

(--) King of France

Charles VI of France

(--) King of France

(1403-1461) King of France. During his reign , Joan of Arc led the troops and the war against Britain came to an end.

Charles VII of France

(1403-1461) King of France. During his reign , Joan of Arc led the troops and the war against Britain…

(--) King of France

Charles VIII of France

(--) King of France

(1818-1906) Crowned King of Denmark in 1863

Christian IX

(1818-1906) Crowned King of Denmark in 1863

"Draw three-inch square. Draw lines AB, BC, DE and EF at 30 degrees. Divide lower side into seven equal parts with the dividers. Draw the vertical lines, and mark divisions on AC with pencil as each line is drawn. Through the division points on top and bottom draw the converging lines using the triangle alone as a straight-edge." —French, 1911

Drawing Converging Lines

"Draw three-inch square. Draw lines AB, BC, DE and EF at 30 degrees. Divide lower side into seven equal…

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style– 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 Old Style– 3 September 1658 Old Style) was an English military…

"Through the center of the space draw a horizontal and a vertical line, measuring on these lines as diameters lay off a three-inch square. Along the lower side and the upper half of the left side measure 3/8' spaces with the scale. Draw all horizontal lines with the T-square and all vertical lines with the T-square and triangle." —French, 1911

Drawing Exercise for T-square, Triangle, and Scale

"Through the center of the space draw a horizontal and a vertical line, measuring on these lines as…

Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327?) of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. His tendency to ignore his nobility in favour of low-born favourites led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition. Edward is perhaps best remembered for his supposed murder and his alleged homosexuality as well as being the first monarch to establish colleges in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge; he founded Cambridge's King's Hall in 1317 and gave Oxford's Oriel College its royal charter in 1326. Both colleges received the favour of Edward's son, Edward III, who confirmed Oriel's charter in 1327 and refounded King's Hall in 1337.

Edward II

Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327?) of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307…

Ten notable ancient Egyptian rulers, including Ramses III, Seti I, Gemahlin Amenophis III, Ptolemaeus Euergetes II, Nefertari, Arsinoe II Philadelphus, Aethopian, Cleopatra II, and Mutemua XVII.

Celebrities of Ancient Egypt

Ten notable ancient Egyptian rulers, including Ramses III, Seti I, Gemahlin Amenophis III, Ptolemaeus…

Draftsman's second method for drawing an ellipse

Ellipse Second Method

Draftsman's second method for drawing an ellipse

(1831-1888) The second German emperor and eighth King of Prussia.

Fredrick III

(1831-1888) The second German emperor and eighth King of Prussia.

A French Curve is used by connecting sufficient points to sketch a curve. The sketch should be line lightly with pencil, without losing points, until the a smooth line is drawn.

Using French Curve

A French Curve is used by connecting sufficient points to sketch a curve. The sketch should be line…

An ellipse French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw short elliptical radius curves by using points.

Ellipse Curve French Curves

An ellipse French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw short elliptical radius curves by using…

A Logarithmic Spiral French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw short elliptical radius curves by using points. The log curve is approximately closely shaped to a cycloid and other mathematical curves.

Logarithmic Spiral Curve French Curves

A Logarithmic Spiral French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw short elliptical radius curves…

A Polar Spiral French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw engineering diagrams and steam curves, and is plotted by using the polar equation.

Polar Curve French Curves

A Polar Spiral French curve, or irregular curve, is used to draw engineering diagrams and steam curves,…

Adjustable limit gage is used to measure the diameter of an object by adjusting screws on both sides of the U shaped gage.

Adjustable Limit Gage

Adjustable limit gage is used to measure the diameter of an object by adjusting screws on both sides…

A micrometer depth gage used to measure irregular holes in narrow boring. The gage measures the holes by inserting the rod into the gage while the pointer measures the bore.

Depth Micrometer Gage

A micrometer depth gage used to measure irregular holes in narrow boring. The gage measures the holes…

An illustration of a planer height gage for fine, or precise, work. The gage measures the object's height by moving the extended arm and fastening it with the conical pin. The height is read by the measuring stick attached to the arm.

Planer Height Gage

An illustration of a planer height gage for fine, or precise, work. The gage measures the object's height…

(1660-1727) King of Great Britain and Ireland 1714-1727

George I, King of England

(1660-1727) King of Great Britain and Ireland 1714-1727

(1851-1917) Governor General of Canada

Earl Albert Henry George Grey

(1851-1917) Governor General of Canada

Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189). Henry was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England and was the great-grandson of William the Conqueror. Like his grandfather, Henry I of England, Henry II had an outstanding knowledge of the law. A talented linguist and excellent Latin speaker, he would sit on councils in person whenever possible. His interest in the economy was reflected in his own frugal lifestyle. He dressed casually except when tradition dictated otherwise and ate a sparing diet.

Henry II

Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189). Henry…

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. Despite his long reign, his personal accomplishments were slim and he was a political and military failure. England, however, prospered during his century and his greatest monument is Westminster, which he made the seat of his government and where he expanded the abbey as a shrine to Edward the Confessor.

Henry III

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John "Lackland" as…

"Curves other than arcs of circles are drawn with the pencil or ruling pen by means of curved or irregular-shaped rulers, called irregular curves. A series of points is first determined through which the curved line is to pass. The line is then drawn through these points by using such parts of the irregular curve as will pass through several of the points at once, the curve being shifted from time to time as required." — Hallock, 1905

Irregular Curves

"Curves other than arcs of circles are drawn with the pencil or ruling pen by means of curved or irregular-shaped…

James II of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Parliament of England deemed James to have abdicated on 11 December 1688. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689 declared him to have forfeited the throne. He was replaced not by his Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by Mary II and William III. William and Mary became joint rulers in 1689. Mary was the eldest daughter of James and a Protestant. William was both his nephew and son-in-law. James II made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689.

James II of England

James II of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was…

He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary, Queen of Scots. Regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1581. On 24 March 1603, as James I, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died without issue. He then ruled England, Scotland and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain, until his death at the age of 58.

James the First

He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother…

(1830-1916) Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia and Hungary

Francis Joseph I

(1830-1916) Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia and Hungary

A depiction of Julian the Apostate, a noted philosopher and Roman Emperor, and his death.

Death of Julian the Apostate

A depiction of Julian the Apostate, a noted philosopher and Roman Emperor, and his death.

John (24 December 1167 – 19 October 1216) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199, until his death. John acquired the nicknames of "Lackland" for his lack of an inheritance as the youngest son and for his loss of territory to France, and of "Soft-sword" for his alleged military ineptitude. As a historical figure, John is best known for acquiescing to the nobility and signing Magna Carta, a document that limited his power and that is popularly regarded as an early first step in the evolution of modern democracy.

King John

John (24 December 1167 – 19 October 1216) reigned as King of England from 6 April 1199, until…

"A representation of an Egyptian king." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian king

"A representation of an Egyptian king." — Goodrich, 1844

(1289-1316) King of France from 1314-1316

Louis X of France

(1289-1316) King of France from 1314-1316

(1423-1483) King of France form 1461-1483 who united most of France under one crown. He also laid the foundations for absolute monarchy in France, patronized the arts and sciences, and founded three universities.

Louis XI of France

(1423-1483) King of France form 1461-1483 who united most of France under one crown. He also laid the…

(1754-1793) King of France 1774-1793 who married Marie Antoinette and allowed France to become involved in the War of American Independence

King Louis XVI of France

(1754-1793) King of France 1774-1793 who married Marie Antoinette and allowed France to become involved…

Two students measuring the blackboard. The boy is using a ruler and the girl is using a yardstick.

Measuring

Two students measuring the blackboard. The boy is using a ruler and the girl is using a yardstick.

A man measuring the height of a boy against a wall.

Measruing height

A man measuring the height of a boy against a wall.

Wild mustard the proper size for spraying.

Wild mustard

Wild mustard the proper size for spraying.

(1165-1223) King of France

Philippe Auguste of France

(1165-1223) King of France

(1214-1270) King of France

Philippe III of France

(1214-1270) King of France

(1268-1314) King of France from 1285-1314

Philippe IV of France

(1268-1314) King of France from 1285-1314

To draw a straight line, the pen must be perpendicular with the straight edge ruler, as shown in A. A one sided ragged line will result if the pen is positioned at C. If the pen is positioned at B, the ink will run under the edge and form a blot.

Positioning Pen with the Straight Edge

To draw a straight line, the pen must be perpendicular with the straight edge ruler, as shown in A.…

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He was known as Richard the Lionheart, or Cœur de Lion, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus, and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.

Richard I

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death.…

Richard II (6 January 1367 – ca. 14 February 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard, a son of Edward, the Black Prince, was born in 1367, during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. Richard became second in line to the throne when his older brother Edward of Angoulême died, and heir apparent when his father died in 1376. With Edward III's death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

Richard II

Richard II (6 January 1367 – ca. 14 February 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was…

A narrow board with parallel edges having a stright line drawn through the middle, and a string carrying a metal weight attached to the upper end of the line. It is used by masons, bricklayers, and carpenters to determine a vertical.

Plumb Rule

A narrow board with parallel edges having a stright line drawn through the middle, and a string carrying…

An instrument with straight edges or sides, for drawing lines; a rule.

Ruler

An instrument with straight edges or sides, for drawing lines; a rule.

Ruler and with a lens and screen, used for demonstrating refraction.

Ruler and lens

Ruler and with a lens and screen, used for demonstrating refraction.

An Architect's Scale ruler for drawing machinery and structures.

Architect's Scale Ruler

An Architect's Scale ruler for drawing machinery and structures.

A straightedged strip, as of wood or metal, for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths.

Drawing Ruler

A straightedged strip, as of wood or metal, for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths.

An Engineer's Scale ruler for plotting and map drawing.

Engineer's Scale Ruler

An Engineer's Scale ruler for plotting and map drawing.

Ruler in inches and cm

Inches CM Ruler

Ruler in inches and cm

Illustration of a child measuring with rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving comparison, measurement, etc.

Child Holding Rulers

Illustration of a child measuring with rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving…

Illustration of two children holding rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving comparison, taller, shorter, highest, lowest, etc.

Children Holding Rulers

Illustration of two children holding rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving…

Illustration of children holding rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving comparison, taller, shorter, highest, lowest, etc.

Children Holding Rulers

Illustration of children holding rulers that can be used to write mathematics story problems involving…

A shaper micrometer scale by clamping onto the material to measure the thickness reading the rotation dial at (C).

Shaper Clamp Micrometer Scale

A shaper micrometer scale by clamping onto the material to measure the thickness reading the rotation…