John C. Calhoun, a senator from South Carolina who instigated the doctrine of nullification in his state.

John C. Calhoun

John C. Calhoun, a senator from South Carolina who instigated the doctrine of nullification in his state.

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are north, south, east, and west.

Cardinal Directions

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are north, south, east, and west.

This is a tropical shrub of the Americas, which bear red berries.

Surinam Cherry

This is a tropical shrub of the Americas, which bear red berries.

A tool used to tell direction.

Compass

A tool used to tell direction.

Diagram of points on a compass.

Compass Points

Diagram of points on a compass.

The Confederate Flag

Confederate Flag

The Confederate Flag

"Scene at the Cowpens. This name is derived from the cirumstance that, some years prior to the Revolution, before this section of country was settled, some persons in Camden (then called Pine-tree) employed two men to go up to the Thicketty Mountain, and in the grassy intervales among the hills, raise cattle. As a compensation, they were allowed the entire use of the cows during the summer for making butter and cheese, and the steers for tilling labor. In the fall, large numbers of the fattest cattle would be driven down to Camden to be slaughtered for beef, on account of the owners. This region, so favorable for rearing cows, on account of the grass and fine springs, was consequently called <em>The Cowpens</em>. The field was covered with blasted pines, stumps, and stocks of indian corn, and had a most dreary appearance."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Cowpens

"Scene at the Cowpens. This name is derived from the cirumstance that, some years prior to the Revolution,…

"The Earth, whose diameter is 7,912 miles, is represented by the globe, or sphere. The straight line passing through its center, and about which it turns, is called its axis, and the two extremities of the axis are the poles of the Earth, A being the north pole, and B the south pole. The line C D, crossing the axis, passes quite round the Earth, and divides it into two equal parts. This is called the equinoctial line, or the equator. That part of the Earth situated north of this line, is caled the northern hemisphere, and that part south of it, the southern hemisphere. The small circles E F and G H, surrounding or including the poles, are called the polar circles." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Earth Divisions

"The Earth, whose diameter is 7,912 miles, is represented by the globe, or sphere. The straight line…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox) as seen from the position occupied by the earth on June 21 (summer solstice). Rays of light and heat meet the earth vertically on the Equator, and the days and nights are everywhere of equal length." -Wiswell, 1913

Spring Equinox and Autumn Equinox

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on March 21 (spring equinox) and September 21 (autumn equinox)…

The Everglades are a subtropical wetland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large watershed. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles (97 km) wide and over 100 miles (160 km) long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state. The ever-changing Everglades are shaped by water and fire, with frequent flooding in the wet season and drought in the dry season.

Everglade

The Everglades are a subtropical wetland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida,…

The state banner of Georgia, the empire state of the south.

Georgia

The state banner of Georgia, the empire state of the south.

Robert E. Lee, the famous Confederate general.

Robert E. Lee

Robert E. Lee, the famous Confederate general.

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

Magnetic Field

Figure showing magnetic lines of force from a magnet, as well as both north and south poles.

A branch of an Ocotea catesbyana tree. They are commonly found throughout tropical climates, including Central and South America, and Madagascar.

Branch of Ocotea Catesbyana

A branch of an Ocotea catesbyana tree. They are commonly found throughout tropical climates, including…

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

Attractive poles

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

An illustration of Savannah, Georgia.

Savannah, Georgia

An illustration of Savannah, Georgia.

"Suppose the Earth to be in her Summer solstice, which takes place on the 21st of June. At this period she will be at a, having her north pole, n, so inclined towards the Sun, that the whole arctic circle will be illuminated, and consequently the Sun's rays will extend 23.25 degrees, the breadth of the polar circle, beyond the north pole." &mdash;Comstock, 1850

Seasons

"Suppose the Earth to be in her Summer solstice, which takes place on the 21st of June. At this period…

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those of an electromagnet, b much weaker than those of a similar coil having a soft iron core. Such a coil, if suspended...will assume a north and south position..." -Atkinson 1903

Solenoid

"A coil of wire through which an elecric current is flowing shows magnetic properties similar to those…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north of the Equator; winter and short days south of it." -Wiswell, 1913

Summer Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on June 21, the summer solstice. Summer and long days north…

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days north of the Equator; summer and long days south of it. 1, North Frigid Zone; 2, North Temperate Zone; 3, Torrid Zone; 4, South Temperate Zone; 5, South Frigid Zone." -Wiswell, 1913

Winter Solstice

"Relative positions of the earth and the sun on December 21, the winter solstice. Winter and short days…

"Cardinal Direction auxiliary signs carrying the legend NORTH, EAST, SOUTH, or WEST should be used to indicate the general direction of the entire route. To improve the readability, the first letter of the cardinal direction words shall be ten percent larger, rounded up to the nearest whole number size." -Federal Highway Administration, 2007

South, Black and White

"Cardinal Direction auxiliary signs carrying the legend NORTH, EAST, SOUTH, or WEST should be used…

Crumlin Viaduct, South Wales.

Crumlin Viaduct

Crumlin Viaduct, South Wales.

An Equadorian water-carrier.

Water carrier

An Equadorian water-carrier.