"View from above of the Atlas, the first cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

Atlas

"View from above of the Atlas, the first cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

Axis

"Side view of the axis, the second cervical vertebra."—Finley, 1917

Deep layers of the muscles of the back.

Back Muscles

Deep layers of the muscles of the back.

The bone of the middle line of the back.

Backbone

The bone of the middle line of the back.

"Diagram of the left half of a vertical median section of the brain. H, H, convoluted inner surface of left cerebral hemisphere; Cc, corpus callosum; Th, optic thalamus; c.q., corpora quadrigemina; Cb, cerebellum; Sp.c, spinal cord; Mo, medulla oblongata; P, pons Varolii; oc, oculo-motor nerve; pt, pituitary body; op, optic nerve; Ro, fissure of Rolando; Po, parieto-occipital fissure; Fr, frontal lobe; Pa, parietal lobe; O, occipital lobe." —Martin, 1917

Brain

"Diagram of the left half of a vertical median section of the brain. H, H, convoluted inner surface…

The brain and spine.

Brain and Spine

The brain and spine.

"Brain and spinal cord, with the thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves." — Tracy, 1888

Central Nervous System

"Brain and spinal cord, with the thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves." — Tracy, 1888

A cervical vertebra of the spine, inferior surface. Labels: 1, spinous process, slightly bifid; 4, transverse process; 5, articular process, inferior surface. Below the arch, or hollow portion, is seen the solid portion, or body.

Human Cervical Vertebra Bone

A cervical vertebra of the spine, inferior surface. Labels: 1, spinous process, slightly bifid; 4, transverse…

The chest or ribcage of the human body.

Chest

The chest or ribcage of the human body.

A deformed thorax and spinal column.

Deformed Thorax

A deformed thorax and spinal column.

Side view of the dorsal vertebra.

Dorsal vertebra

Side view of the dorsal vertebra.

"Archaeocidaris Urii, Flem (spine and intermediate plate); Carboniferous, Ireland." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fossil Echinidea

"Archaeocidaris Urii, Flem (spine and intermediate plate); Carboniferous, Ireland." — Encyclopedia…

"Cidaris glandifera, Goldf (spine); Jura, Mount Carmel." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fossil Echinidea

"Cidaris glandifera, Goldf (spine); Jura, Mount Carmel." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Cidaris florigemma, with spine, a, and single ambulacral plate, magnified, b, (after Wright; Coral Rag." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fossil Echinidea

"Cidaris florigemma, with spine, a, and single ambulacral plate, magnified, b, (after Wright; Coral…

The last lumbar vertebra and the sacrum seen from the ventral side.

Lumbar and Sacrum of Spine

The last lumbar vertebra and the sacrum seen from the ventral side.

"The spinal cord and medulla oblongata. A, from the ventral, and B, from the dorsal aspect; C to H, cross-sections at different levels." —Martin, 1917

Medulla Oblongata

"The spinal cord and medulla oblongata. A, from the ventral, and B, from the dorsal aspect; C to H,…

Sagittal section of a man.

Sagittal Section of the Neck and Head

Sagittal section of a man.

"The spinal cord and nerve-roots. A, a small portion of the cord seen from the ventral side; B, the same seen laterally; C, a cross-section of the cord; D, the two roots of a spinal nerve; 1, ventral fissure; 2, dorsal fissure; 3, surface groove along the line of attachment of the ventral nerve-roots; 4, line of origin of the dorsal roots; 5, ventral root filaments of spinal nerve; 6, dorsal root filaments; 6', ganglion of the dorsal root; 7, 7', the first two divisions of the nerve-trunk after its formation by the union of the two roots. The grooves are much exaggerated." —Martin, 1917

Nerve Roots

"The spinal cord and nerve-roots. A, a small portion of the cord seen from the ventral side; B, the…

"The Cervical and Thoracic Portions of the Sympathetic Nerve and their Main Branches. In the center of the figure, running almost vertically, is shown the right pneumogastrix nerve. To the left may be seen a chain of ganglia of the sympathetic nerve, running along the vertebrae. The distribution of some smaller ganglia and nerve branches in the neck and chest regions are also shown." — Blaisedell, 1904

Sympathetic nerve

"The Cervical and Thoracic Portions of the Sympathetic Nerve and their Main Branches. In the center…

"Part of the nervous system viewed in front." —Davison, 1910

Nervous System

"Part of the nervous system viewed in front." —Davison, 1910

"Part of the sympathetic nervous system seen from in front, n, one of the two chief cords, t, i, and p, branches to organs." —Davison, 1910

Sympathetic nervous system

"Part of the sympathetic nervous system seen from in front, n, one of the two chief cords, t, i, and…

"The spinal column consists of abdominal and caudal vertebre, the coalescence of the parapophyses into a complete hemal ring and the suspension of the anal fin generally forming a sufficiently well-marked boundary between the abdominal and caudal regions." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Perch Skeleton

"The spinal column consists of abdominal and caudal vertebre, the coalescence of the parapophyses into…

"Illustrating the path of a simple nervous reflex action." — Blaisedell, 1904

Reflex action

"Illustrating the path of a simple nervous reflex action." — Blaisedell, 1904

Ribs and corresponding vertebral bodies in their ligaments, viewed from the right.

Ribs and Corresponding Vertebral Bodies

Ribs and corresponding vertebral bodies in their ligaments, viewed from the right.

The ribs of the left side, with the dorsal and two lumbar vertebrae, the rib-cartilages and the sternum.

Ribs of the Left Side

The ribs of the left side, with the dorsal and two lumbar vertebrae, the rib-cartilages and the sternum.

Scaleni muscles.

Scaleni Muscles

Scaleni muscles.

An illustration of the dorsal view of the scapula of a rabbit. "A, acromion; m, metacromion; g, glenoid fossa; c, coracoid process; v, vertebral border; s, spine." -Century, 1889

Dorsal View of the Scapula of a Rabbit

An illustration of the dorsal view of the scapula of a rabbit. "A, acromion; m, metacromion; g, glenoid…

"Fig 56 - Axial skeleton, minus the skull, of an owl, Asio wilsonianus, life size; from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, USA.at, atlas; ax,axis; cv, cervical vertebrae; c, c', cervical ribs, or free pleurapophyses; dv, dorsal vertebrae, excepting the last one, which joins the sacrum; R, two of the six true ribs (pleurapophyses), whereof sr is sacral; u, one of the five uncinate processes or epipleura; cr, two of the six sternal ribs(haemapophyses), whereof the sixth floats; p, pelvic or sacral region of the spine, comprehending one dorsal, and several lumbar, sacral proper, and urosacral vertebrae; I ilium; Is, ischium; P pubis; a, acetabulum; in, ischio-iliac foremen; o, obturator foramen; clv, caudal or coccygeal vertebrae, whereof py is the pygostyle; s, scapula; ohs, os humero-scapulare; cl, clavicle; C, coracoid; S, sternum." Elliot Coues, 1884

Axial Skeleton

"Fig 56 - Axial skeleton, minus the skull, of an owl, Asio wilsonianus, life size; from nature by Dr.…

Scheme of the origin, connection, and distribution of the spinal accessory nerve. Labels: Sp.Acc, spinal accessory nerve; C.1-4, first four cervical nerves (dorsal roots); Va, pneumogastric nerve; R, ganglion of the root; t, ganglion of the trunk; G.Ph, glossopharyngeal nerve; S.M, nerves to sternocleidomastoid; Tr, nerves to trapezius; F.M, foramen magnum; J.F, jugular foramen.

Spinal Accessory Nerve

Scheme of the origin, connection, and distribution of the spinal accessory nerve. Labels: Sp.Acc, spinal…

The conus and medullaris and the filum terminale exposed within the spinal canal.

Sacral Region of Spinal Canal

The conus and medullaris and the filum terminale exposed within the spinal canal.

"The <em>spine</em> or backbone, serves as a support for the whole body. It is made up of a number of seperate bones called vertebrae, between which are placed elastic pads, or cushions, of cartilage." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Spinal column

"The spine or backbone, serves as a support for the whole body. It is made up of a number of…

The spinal column. 1, 2, and 3: Vertebrae. 4 and 5: The sacrum and cocyx bones of the pelvis. 6: Processes.

Spinal Column

The spinal column. 1, 2, and 3: Vertebrae. 4 and 5: The sacrum and cocyx bones of the pelvis. 6: Processes.

The human spinal column

Spinal Column

The human spinal column

Side view of a human spinal column.

Spinal column

Side view of a human spinal column.

Side view of the spinal column, with the vertebrae numbered: C1-7, cervical vertebrae; D1-12, dorsal vertebrae; L1-4, lumbar vertebrae; S1, sacrum; Co1-4, coccyx.

Spinal Column

Side view of the spinal column, with the vertebrae numbered: C1-7, cervical vertebrae; D1-12, dorsal…

Lateral view of the spinal column. Labels: 1, atlas; 2, dentata 3, seventh cervical vertebra; 4, twelfth dorsal vertebra; 5, fifth lumbar vertebra; 6, first piece of sacrum; 7, last piece of sacrum; 8, coccyx; 9, a spinous process; 10, 10, intervertebral foramina.

Spinal Column

Lateral view of the spinal column. Labels: 1, atlas; 2, dentata 3, seventh cervical vertebra; 4, twelfth…

View of the entire spinal column. The bodies of the vertebrae are in the front with the spinous processes on the other side. Between the row of the bodies of the vertebrae and the row of spinous processes you can see the canal in which lies the spinal marrow.

The Spinal Column

View of the entire spinal column. The bodies of the vertebrae are in the front with the spinous processes…

The spinal column.

Spinal Column

The spinal column.

Lateral view of the vertebral column.

Spinal Column

Lateral view of the vertebral column.

A section of the brain and spinal column. Labels: 1, The cerebrum (large brain). 2, The cerebellum (small brain). 3, The Medulla Oblongata. 4, The spinal cord in its canal.

The Spinal Column and Brain

A section of the brain and spinal column. Labels: 1, The cerebrum (large brain). 2, The cerebellum (small…

Side view of spinal column, without sacrum and coccyx. Labels: 1 to 7, cervical vertebrae; 8 to 19, dorsal vertebrae; 20 to 24, lumbar vertebrae; A, A, spinous processes; C, D, transverse processes; E, intervertebral aperture or foramen; a, atlas; 2, axis.

Human Spinal Column

Side view of spinal column, without sacrum and coccyx. Labels: 1 to 7, cervical vertebrae; 8 to 19,…

Side view of the spinal column. Labels: C 1-7, cervical; D 1-12, dorsal; L 1-15 lumbar; S 1, sacrum; Co 1-4, coccygeal.

Side View of the Spinal Column

Side view of the spinal column. Labels: C 1-7, cervical; D 1-12, dorsal; L 1-15 lumbar; S 1, sacrum;…

"Magnified view of transverse section of the spinal cord through the middle of the Lumbad Enlargement: showing, on the right side, the course of the Nerve-roots, and on the left, the position of the principal tracts of Vesicular Matter. A, anterior columns; P, posterior columns; L, lateral columns; a, anterior median fissure; p, posterior median fissure; b, anterior roots of spinal nerves; c, posterior roots; d, tracts of vesicular matter in anterior column; e, tracts of vesicular matter in posterior column; f, spinal canal." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Spinal Cord

"Magnified view of transverse section of the spinal cord through the middle of the Lumbad Enlargement:…

The spinal cord.

Spinal Cord

The spinal cord.

Portion of the spinal cord. 1: Body of cord; 2: A spinal nerve from left side of cord; 3: Anterior roots of a nerve; 4: Posterior roots.

Spinal Cord

Portion of the spinal cord. 1: Body of cord; 2: A spinal nerve from left side of cord; 3: Anterior roots…

The spinal cord (medulla spinalis).

The Spinal Cord

The spinal cord (medulla spinalis).

The skull and spinal canal of a child from behind with the Dura Mater slit open and ribs with the transverse processes of vertebrae dissected out.

The Position of the Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves in the Spinal Canal

The skull and spinal canal of a child from behind with the Dura Mater slit open and ribs with the transverse…

Diagrammatic transverse section of the spinal cord showing the conduction paths.

Section of the Spinal Cord

Diagrammatic transverse section of the spinal cord showing the conduction paths.

Different views of a portion of the spinal cord from the cervical region, with roots of the nerves slightly enlarged. Labels: In A, the anterior surface of the specimen is shown, the anterior nerve root of its right side being divided: in B, a view of the right side is given; in C, the upper surface is shown; in E, the nerve roots and ganglion are shown from below; 1, the anterior median fissure; 2, posterior median fissure; 3, anterior lateral depression, over which the anterior nerve roots are seen to spread; 4, posterior lateral groove, into which the posterior roots are seen to sink; 5, anterior roots passing the ganglion; 5', in A, the anterior root divided; 6, the posterior roots, the fibers of which pass into the ganglion 6'; 7, the united or compound nerve; 7', the posterior primary branch, seen in A and D to be derived in part from the anterior and in part from the posterior root.

Different View of the Spinal Cord

Different views of a portion of the spinal cord from the cervical region, with roots of the nerves slightly…

Lowered end of the spinal cord and the cauda equina, dorsal aspect. The dorsal roots of the right side have been removed.

Lower End of the Spinal Cord

Lowered end of the spinal cord and the cauda equina, dorsal aspect. The dorsal roots of the right side…

"Diagram of a slice across the spinal cord, showing the roots of a spinal nerve to the arm on the left. The arrows show which way the messages travel. The little circles are the cut ends of fibers extending up and down the cord. Only a few of the thousands of fibers really present are here shown." —Davison, 1910

Section of Spinal Cord

"Diagram of a slice across the spinal cord, showing the roots of a spinal nerve to the arm on the left.…

Transverse section of the spinal cord at the middle of the thoracic region. The neuroglia septum has been removed from between the dorsal columns.

Transverse Section of the Spinal Cord

Transverse section of the spinal cord at the middle of the thoracic region. The neuroglia septum has…

Transverse sections of spinal cord at different levels.

Transverse Sections of Spinal Cord

Transverse sections of spinal cord at different levels.

Diagram of the spinal cord and its fissure. The figure to the left is a ventral aspect and the figure on the right is a dorsal view.

Ventral and Dorsal Views of the Spinal Cord

Diagram of the spinal cord and its fissure. The figure to the left is a ventral aspect and the figure…

A lateral view of the spine divided into its cervical, dorsal, and lumbar portions.

Spinal Divisions

A lateral view of the spine divided into its cervical, dorsal, and lumbar portions.

Diagrammatic representation of the roots and ganglia of the spinal nerves, showing their position in relation to the spinal column. The nerves are shown as thick black lines on the left side.

Spinal Nerves

Diagrammatic representation of the roots and ganglia of the spinal nerves, showing their position in…

Table giving approximate areas of distribution of the different spinal nerves with a diagram showing their respective levels of exit from the vertebral column.

Distribution of the Spinal Nerves

Table giving approximate areas of distribution of the different spinal nerves with a diagram showing…

"The spine, sawn in two lengthwise, showing the spinal canal and the holes between the vertebrae, where nerves and blood-vessels pass out." &mdash; Tracy, 1888

Spine

"The spine, sawn in two lengthwise, showing the spinal canal and the holes between the vertebrae, where…

The spine showing the seven vertebrae of the neck, cervical; the twelve of the back, dorsal; the five of the loins, lumbar; the sacrum (a), and the coccyx (b), comprising the nine "false vertebrae".

The Spine

The spine showing the seven vertebrae of the neck, cervical; the twelve of the back, dorsal; the five…

Diagram on frozen section, showing relations of bodies and spines of vertebrae to levels at which spinal nerves escape from vertebral canal.

Spine

Diagram on frozen section, showing relations of bodies and spines of vertebrae to levels at which spinal…