A crowded species of sugar cane. The branches grow up to 12 inches in length, and the stems up to 7 feet high. It is native to Algeria.

Saccharum Aegyptiacum

A crowded species of sugar cane. The branches grow up to 12 inches in length, and the stems up to 7…

"The apron is supported and carried by flanged wheels, fixed at distances apart upon shafts, one of he shafts begin placed near the mill, and the other at the outer extremity of apron. A chain band, adapted to a chain wheel on the end of the feeling roll shaft, and leading from thence to a similar wheel upon the end of the flageshaft nearest the mill, communicates motion to the apron. It should travel somewhat slower that the surface of the rolls." -Commissioner, 1865

Cane-apron

"The apron is supported and carried by flanged wheels, fixed at distances apart upon shafts, one of…

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2 or 3 feet of the ground, and hollowing the top of the portion left standing in the ground into the form of a mortar, A. A small hole is then bored obliquely through from the bottom of the cavity to the outside, and a pipe, f, conveys the juice into a jar, g. B is a cylindrical piece of wood, sharpened at each end, to act as a pestle, which is kept in its place with sufficient pressure by the lever C and the ropes at E. Two men are required: one at I has a basket supplied with small lengths of freshly-cut cane, which he places, two or three at a time, in the mortar, and when necessary, removes the crushed ones; the other man sits on the other end of the train, balancing it, and at the same time drives oxen which are attached to the end of the beam D, and keep the movable parts of the mill constantly turning round." — Chambers, 1881

Chinapatam Sugar-mill

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2…

"See here's a man who is quite generous found, / His sunshine friends are gathered thick around, / From many parts they come, both far and near, / He fully feasts with them all with much good cheer; / To all who call, he makes himself their friend, / With feelings kind, he doth his money lend: / They eat him up - when some help he's wishing, / His numerous friends are fond among the missing."—Barber, 1857

He Makes Himself Sugar, the Flies Eat Him Up

"See here's a man who is quite generous found, / His sunshine friends are gathered thick around, / From…

"The sugar maple tree resembles the sycamore, and abounds in the northern parts of the United States, and in the British possessions, where large quantities of sugar are made. "-Lupton

Gathering Sap to make Maple Sugar

"The sugar maple tree resembles the sycamore, and abounds in the northern parts of the United States,…

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made to embody all the improvements which have been suggested by experience, and to furnish a complete vertical cane mill. In this machine the hearing is placed between the rolls, giving access to the boxes; the small wheels are lapped, bringing the minor rolls close together, and dispensing with the guide plate or 'dumb returner;' the main roll has a wide flange; the sweep cap has a square eye fitted to the squared end of the main shaft removable by hand; the weight of the rolls is supported upon the ends of the shafts in adjustable oil-tight boxes; the feed roll is fluted to facilitate the entrance of the cane to the mill; the top and bottom plates are diagonally braced as represent, and the construction of the whole machine is such that the mill may be taken entirely apart by simply unscrewing the corner bolts, no keys being used in any part of the machine." -Commissioner, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"The accompanying engraving is an illustration of a new style vertical mill in which an attempt is made…

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing to and fro with cane and bagasse, the plan has been adopted by one manufacturer at least, of prolonging the main shaft of the mill down through the floor, and there coupling it with another shaft which continues down and rests in a step on the floor of a lower story or basement. The sweep is attached to the shaft below, and the team is thus removed from around the mill leaving the space unobstructed." -Commission, 1865

Vertical cane mill

"To avoid the inconvenience of having the team travel around the mill, interfering with the passing…

An illustration of corn starch cells.

Corn Starch

An illustration of corn starch cells.

An illustration of potato starch cells.

Potato Starch

An illustration of potato starch cells.

Tall grasses native to the warm temperate and tropical climates. They contain stout fibrous stalks with sap rich in sugar.

Sugar Cane

Tall grasses native to the warm temperate and tropical climates. They contain stout fibrous stalks with…

In a sugarcane mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives.

A Sugarcane Mill

In a sugarcane mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives.

"The plant tillers like wheat, but not to the same degree. The cane ground is kept clean by hand-hoeing, or by the plough." -Lupton

Gathering, Sugar Cane

"The plant tillers like wheat, but not to the same degree. The cane ground is kept clean by hand-hoeing,…

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations. It is generally made of copper, of a spherical form, and from six to nine feet in diameter. The bottom is double, leaving a space of an inch or two for the admission of steam between the two bottoms, and there is generally a long coiled copper pipe of three or four inches diameter above the inner bottom, so as to still further increase the amount of heating surface." — Chambers, 1881

Vacuum-pan

"The vacuum-pan is in universal use in all European sugar-refineries, and in all well-provided sugar-plantations.…