"To illustrate roughly the passage of air through the glottis, force air through such a tube by blowing hard, and if the strips are not too far apart a sound will be produced. The sound will vary in character as the bands are made tight or loose." — Blaisedell, 1904

Air Passage

"To illustrate roughly the passage of air through the glottis, force air through such a tube by blowing…

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 1.5 atmospheres. A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c, which is a few inched longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B. To the upper end of A is soldered a glass two-way stop-cock, by turning which the vessel A can either be made to communicate through s and a hole in the hollow cock with the vessel to be exhausted." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"The general scheme of Geisler's pump is shown here. A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected…

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists of a vertical capillary glass tube a of about 1 mm. bore, provided with a lateral branch b near its upper end, which latter, by an india-rubber join governable by a screw-clamp, communicates with a funnel. The lower end is bent into the shape of a hook, and dips into a pneumatic trough. The vessel to be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Air-Pump

"This was invented in 1865 by H. Sprengel. The instrument, in its original (simplest) form, consists…

"Invented to raise water. A hollow tube wound spirally around a solid cylinder. As the cylinder is turned, water is fed up through the hollow tube and discharged at the top of the tube." —Quackenbos 1859

Archimedes' Screw

"Invented to raise water. A hollow tube wound spirally around a solid cylinder. As the cylinder is turned,…

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice to be opened or closed by the valve b, as the piston a is moved up or down in its barrel. The valve being fastened by a hinge on the upper side, on pushing the piston down, it will open by the pressure of the air against it, and the air will make its escape. But when the piston is at the bottom of the barrel, on attempting to raise it again, towards the top, the valve is closed by the force of the external air acting upon it. If, therefore, the piston be drawn up in this state, it must be against the pressure of the atmosphere, the whole weight of which, to an extent equal to the diameter of the piston, must be lifted, while there will remain a vacuum or void space below it in the tube. if the piston be only three inches in diameter, it will require the full strength of a man to draw it to the top of the barrel, and when raised, if suddenly let go, it will be forced back again by the weight of the air, and will stright the bottom with great violence." —Comstock, 1850

Atmospheric Pressure

"The pressure of the atmosphere may be easily shown by the tube and piston. suppose there is an orifice…

"A Torricellian tube, firmly fixed to an upright support and properly graduated, constitutes a mercurial barometer. The zero of the scale is at the surface of the mercury in the cistern." — Avery, 1895

Barometer

"A Torricellian tube, firmly fixed to an upright support and properly graduated, constitutes a mercurial…

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube is bent at the bottom, and the cistern is merely an expansion of the lower end. Very generally, the cistern is hidden from view, and protected from injury by a wooden cover in front." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barometer

"A cistern barometer, being that generally seen in weather-glasses or ordinary barometers. The tube…

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight. If the lower end of the tube be dipped into water, and the piston drawn up by pulling at the handle c, the water will follow the piston so closely, as to be in contact with its surface, and apparently to be drawn up by the piston, as though the whole was one solid body. If the tube be thirty-five feet long, the water will continue to follow the piston, until it comes to the height of about thirty-three feet, where it will stop, and if the piston be drawn up still farther, the water will not follow it, but will remain stationary, the space from this height between the piston and the water, being left a void space or vacuum." —Comstock, 1850

Barometer

"Suppose a to be a long tube, with the piston b so nicely fitted to its inside, as to work air tight.…

A corked bottle with a tube, spouting a stream of water.

Spouting bottle

A corked bottle with a tube, spouting a stream of water.

"This hygrometer consists of two thermometers a and b similar to each other in all respects except that one of them has a piece of muslin tied closely over the surface of its bulb c, and kept constantly wet by a few threads of cotton which connect it with the water in the vessel d. the water then which rises from the vessel by capillary attraction spreads over the muslin, and evaporates from its surface with more or less rapidity according to the dryness or moistness of the air; and the greater the dryness of the air the greater is the difference between the observed readings of the dry and the wet thermometers." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Bulb Hygrometer

"This hygrometer consists of two thermometers a and b similar to each other in all respects except that…

"In Bunsen's instrument a test tube is sealed into and enclosed by an outer tube, the lower part of which, together with a tube leading from it to a narrow gauge, is filled with mercury."—Finley, 1917

Bunsen's Calorimeter

"In Bunsen's instrument a test tube is sealed into and enclosed by an outer tube, the lower part of…

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream of water from the pipe b. This tube is six or eight inches in diameter, and may be from ten to twenty feet long. The arms n and o, are also tubes communicating freely with the upright one, from the opposte sides of which they proceed." -Comstock 1850

Centrifugal Mill

"The upright cyclinder a, is a tube which has a funnel shaped mouth for the admission of the stream…

"The chain-pump consists of a tube or cylinder, the lower part of which is immersed in a well or reservoir, and the upper part enters the bottom of a cistern into which the water is to be raised. A chain is carried round a wheel at the top, and is furnished at equal distances with movable bottoms, which fit water-tight in the tube. As the wheel revolves, they successively enter the tube, and carry the water up before them, which is discharged into the cistern at the top of the tube." — Wells, 1857

Chain-Pump

"The chain-pump consists of a tube or cylinder, the lower part of which is immersed in a well or reservoir,…

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed at the top and fixed hermetically into the neck of a wide iron cylinder. The tube contains dry air, and its lower end dips below the surface of mercury contained in the cylinder. Attached to the side of the cylinder is a tube A, with a stop-cock, to afford communication with the vessel the pressure in which is to be measured. When the manometer is attached to the vessel containing compressed gas the mercury rises in the glass tube till the pressure of the air confined in the tube plus the height of the mercury column above the level of the mercury in the cylinder is equal to the pressure on the surface of mercury in the cylinder." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Compressed Air Manometer

"The compressed air manometer consists of a strong graduated glass tube of uniform narrow bore, closed…

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid piston, or plug a, so as to work up and down, air tight, by the handle b, the air in the barrel may be compressed into a space a hundred times less than its usual bulk. Indeed, if the vessel be of sufficient strength, and the force employed sufficiently great, its bulk may be lessened a thousand times, or in any proportion, according to the force employed; and if kept in this state for years, it will regain its former bulk the instant the pressure is removed." —Comstock, 1850

Compression Experiment

"If the strong tube, or barrel, be smooth, and equal on the inside, and there be fitted to it the solid…

A corolla with a very short tube and a spreading limb.

Rotate Corolla

A corolla with a very short tube and a spreading limb.

A cylinder is a body of uniform diameter throughout its entire length, whose ends are equal parallel circles.

Cylinder

A cylinder is a body of uniform diameter throughout its entire length, whose ends are equal parallel…

Illustration of a right circular cylinder with a smaller cylinder removed from the center and placed next to it.

Cylinder Cut From a Cylinder

Illustration of a right circular cylinder with a smaller cylinder removed from the center and placed…

Illustration of a hollow cylinder.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of a hollow cylinder.

Illustration of a thin hollow cylinder. It resembles a washer and is often referred to as a disc.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of a thin hollow cylinder. It resembles a washer and is often referred to as a disc.

Illustration of a hollow cylinder viewed at an angle.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of a hollow cylinder viewed at an angle.

Illustration of a hollow cylinder viewed at an angle from above.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of a hollow cylinder viewed at an angle from above.

Illustration of the isometric of a hollow cylinder.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of the isometric of a hollow cylinder.

Illustration of a shaded section of a hollow cylinder viewed from the side.

Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of a shaded section of a hollow cylinder viewed from the side.

Illustration of an oblique view of a hollow cylinder.

Oblique View Of Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of an oblique view of a hollow cylinder.

Illustration of an oblique view of a hollow cylinder. The portion removed from the center of the cylinder is in the shape of a rectangular prism.

Oblique View Of Hollow Cylinder

Illustration of an oblique view of a hollow cylinder. The portion removed from the center of the cylinder…

Illustration of a right circular cylinder.

Right Circular Cylinder

Illustration of a right circular cylinder.

Illustration of a right circular cylinder with the height larger than the diameter.

Right Circular Cylinder

Illustration of a right circular cylinder with the height larger than the diameter.

Illustration of 2 right circular cylinders in which one cylinder is twice the height of the other.

2 Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 2 right circular cylinders in which one cylinder is twice the height of the other.

Illustration of 2 right circular cylinders in which one cylinder is twice the height and twice the diameter of the other.

2 Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 2 right circular cylinders in which one cylinder is twice the height and twice the diameter…

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders.  The height of all the cylinders is greater than the diameter of the base.

3 Congruent Tangent Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders. The height of all the cylinders is greater…

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders.

3 Congruent Tangent Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders.

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders.  The height of all the cylinders is greater than the diameter of the base.

3 Congruent Tangent Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 3 right congruent tangent circular cylinders. The height of all the cylinders is greater…

Illustration of 4 congruent tangent right circular cylinders. The height of all the cylinders is greater than the diameter of the base.

4 Congruent Tangent Right Circular Cylinders

Illustration of 4 congruent tangent right circular cylinders. The height of all the cylinders is greater…

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer. Pass the delivery-tube through a 'water jacket,' J, kept cool substantially as shown. Heat the liequid in the flask unitl it just boils, and taste the distilled water that collects in R." -Avery 1895

Distilation

"Partly fill with strong brine a Florence glask the cork of which carries a delivery-tube and a thermometer.…

"The Duplex is made in two equal parts, each being capable of being worked alone. Each section consists of a semicircle of upright tubes forming the boiler proper, fitted with the diaphragm a, horizontal pipes forming the furnace f, a flow pipe b and a return pipe c, and an outlet d for removing sedimentary deposits from the interior." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Duplex Tubular Boiler

"The Duplex is made in two equal parts, each being capable of being worked alone. Each section consists…

"Various methods have been devised for measuring electrostatic quantity, one of the simplest of which is with the Kinnersley electrical air-thermometer. When a spark passes between the balls within the larger tube, the confined air is expanded, and the liquid column in the smaller communicating tube rises, and thus approximately indicates the quantity of the charge." — Avery, 1895

Kinnersley electrical air-thermometer

"Various methods have been devised for measuring electrostatic quantity, one of the simplest of which…

"A V-tube apparatus used for electrolysis." -Avery 1895

Electrolysis

"A V-tube apparatus used for electrolysis." -Avery 1895

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop a feather and a cent simultaneously, and they will reach the bottom at precisely the same instant. Let in the air and drop them, and the feather will be several seconds longer than the cent in reaching the bottom." —Quackenbos 1859

Two Objects Falling in a Vacuum

"Remove the air from a high glass tube by means of an instrument called the air-pump... Then... drop…

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

Heated flask

A flask being heated over an open flame, with a tube and jar attached.

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c, but the water raised through the suction-pipe a, and the valve g, is forced by each depression of the piston up through the pipe e e, which is furnished with a valve to prevent the return of the fluid." — Wells, 1857

Forcing-Pump

"In the forcing-pump atmospheric pressure plays but a small part. There is no valve in the piston c,…

A hand holding up a tube from a larger, mercury-filled tube.

Hand and barometer

A hand holding up a tube from a larger, mercury-filled tube.

A hand holding a tube, with one end in a bowl.

Hand with tube

A hand holding a tube, with one end in a bowl.

"The hand-gun was used by both infantry and cavalry; it consisted of a simple iron or brass tube with touch-hole at the top, fixed on a straight stock of wood; when used on foot, the soldier held it firmly by passing the stock under the arm; when used on horseback he stock was shortened to butt against the breast, the barrel resting on a fork secured to the saddle bow." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hand-Gun

"The hand-gun was used by both infantry and cavalry; it consisted of a simple iron or brass tube with…

A steel rod being held horizontally by a pair of hands.

Hands with rod

A steel rod being held horizontally by a pair of hands.

A pair of hands holding a glass tube filled with a dark liquid.

Hands with tube

A pair of hands holding a glass tube filled with a dark liquid.

A pair of hands holding a tube and tuning fork over a resonator.

Hands with tuning fork and tube

A pair of hands holding a tube and tuning fork over a resonator.

"The type of instrument which resulted from Russian labors. The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing points by a strong truly-turned collars, rotates in the cast-iron cradle g attached to the declination axis. a is the eye-piece fixed in that axis, b the micrometer for reading both scales." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Heliometer

"The type of instrument which resulted from Russian labors. The brass tube, strengthened at the bearing…

"It consists of a brass dish A and two glass globes B and C. The dish communicates with the lower part of the globe C by means of a long tube D, and another tube E connects the two globes. A third tube passes through the dish A to the lower part of the globe B. This last tube being taken out, the globe B is partially filled with water, the tube is then replaced, and water is poured into the dish. The water flows through tube D into the lower globe, and expels the air, which is forced into the upper globe. The air thus compressed acts on the water and makes it jet out as represented in the figure." — Hallock, 1905

Hero's Fountain

"It consists of a brass dish A and two glass globes B and C. The dish communicates with the lower part…

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of a small quantity of water, pressing in a perpendicular direction. This instrument consists of two boards, connected together with strong leather, in the manner of the common bellows. It is then furnished with a tube a, which communicated between the two boards. A person standing on the upper board may raise himself up by pouring water into the tube. If the tube holds an ounce of water, and has an area equal to a thousandth part of the area of the top of the bellows, one ounce of water in the tube will balance a thousand ounces placed on the bellows." —Comstock, 1850

Hydraulic Bellows

"An instrument called the hydrostatic bellows, also shows, in a striking manner, the great force of…

"Lapidary's Dial. A, section; B, side elevation; a, a, jaws; b, ball; c, tube; d, dial; e, cement rod; f, index; g, quadrant." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lapidary's dial

"Lapidary's Dial. A, section; B, side elevation; a, a, jaws; b, ball; c, tube; d, dial; e, cement rod;…

"Leslie's hygrometer, which is an adaptation of his differential thermometer, is formed by uniting two tubes having a ball blown on the end of each, into which some colored sulphuric ether has been previously introduced. When both bulbs are at the same temperature, the fluid stands at the zero of the scale, but when one of them is covered with wetted paper the instrument shows the depression of temperature of the wetted bulb." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Leslies Hygrometer

"Leslie's hygrometer, which is an adaptation of his differential thermometer, is formed by uniting two…

"Showing the structure of a lobule of the lung. The lobule has been injected with mercury, afterwards dried and cut open. A large bronchial tube with its various branches is well shown." — Blaisedell, 1904

Lobule of a Lung

"Showing the structure of a lobule of the lung. The lobule has been injected with mercury, afterwards…

"Let a candle c, be placed on the inside of a box or tube, so that its light may pass through the plano-convex lens n, and strongly illuminate the object o. This object is generally a small transparent painting on a slip of glass, which slides through an opening in the tube. In order to show the figures in the erect position, these paintings are inverted, since their shadows are again inverted by the refraction of the convex lens m." —Comstock, 1850

Magic Lantern

"Let a candle c, be placed on the inside of a box or tube, so that its light may pass through the plano-convex…

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters above the level of the mercury in the beaker.

Mecury Barometer

Illustration of a tube inverted over mercury, with the mercury rising inside the test tube 114 millimeters…

"The horizontal section in the direction of the axis of the telescope. The eye-piece ab consists of two planoconvex lenses a, b, of nearly the same focal length, and with the two convex sides facing each other. They are placed at a distance apart less than the focal length of a, so that the wires of the micrometer, which must be distinctly seen are beyond b. The eye-piece slides into the tube cd, which screws into the brass ring ef, through two openings in which the oblong frame, containing the micrometer slides, passes." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Micrometer

"The horizontal section in the direction of the axis of the telescope. The eye-piece ab consists of…

"The vertical section in the direction of the axis of the telescope. The eye-piece ab consists of two planoconvex lenses a, b, of nearly the same focal length, and with the two convex sides facing each other. They are placed at a distance apart less than the focal length of a, so that the wires of the micrometer, which must be distinctly seen are beyond b. The eye-piece slides into the tube cd, which screws into the brass ring ef, through two openings in which the oblong frame, containing the micrometer slides, passes." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Micrometer

"The vertical section in the direction of the axis of the telescope. The eye-piece ab consists of two…

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent tube c of block tin or German silver fitted by a cork stopper into the neck of the globe and passing to the bottom of the jar, where it ends in a finely perforated disc. The apparatus also requires a spirit lamp d or other means of communicating a certain amount of heat to the globe. The coffee is infused with boiling water in the jar, and a small quantity of boiling water is also placed in the globe. The tube is then fitted in, and the spirit lamp is lighted under the globe. The steam generated expels the air from the globe, and it bubbles up through the jar. When the bubbles of air cease to appear almost the whole of the air will have been ejected, and on withdrawing the lamp the steam in the globe condenses, creating a vacuum, to fill up which the infused coffee rushes up through the metal tube, being at the same time filtered by the accumulated coffee grounds around the perforated disc." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Napier's Coffee Apparatus

"This coffee apparatus consists of a glass globe a, an infusing jar b, of glass or porcelain and a bent…

A device for smoking, consisting of a tube of wood, clay, or other material with a small bowl at one end.

Tobacco Pipe

A device for smoking, consisting of a tube of wood, clay, or other material with a small bowl at one…