Seneca Snakeroot - Roots and Base of the Stem
"Polygala senega of eastern North America. It sends up several stems from hard knotty root-stocks, bearing single close racemes of white flowers. It is the source of the officinal senegaroot, and from being much gathered is said to have become scarce in the east." —Whitney, 1889
This illustration shows the knotty roots and the lower portion of the stem.
William Dwight Whitney, PhD, LLD The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language (New York, NY: The Century Co., 1895) 5725