Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (9 September 1585 – 4 December 1642), was a French clergyman, noble, and statesman. Consecrated as a bishop in 1608, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642; he was succeeded by Jules Cardinal Mazarin.
P. V. N. Myers A General History for Colleges and High Schools (Boston, MA: Ginn & Company, 1896)