The Respiratory and Vocal Organs of a Rook

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“Resipratory and vocal organs of the Rook, Corvus frugilegusm an Oscine Passerine bird; 1 a, tongue; b, basi-branchial, commonly called uro-hyal; c, c, horns of hyoid bone; d, d, genio-hyoid muscles; e, e, stylo-hyoid muscles; f, f, cleido-hyoid muscles; g, h, i, aesophagus; j, proventriculus; or secretory stomach; k, gizzard, or gigerium, the muscular stomach; l, m, n, n, intestine, duodenum to rectum; o, p, trachea, or windpipe; q, inferior larynx, or syrinx; r, r, right and left bronchus; ss, ss, contractor muscles or trachea; t, t, lungs with u, u, apertures communicating with thoracic air-cells; v, v, v, three pairs of muscular slips answering to a rudimentary diaphragm; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, as many ribs. Elliot Coues, 1884


Bird Anatomy


Elliot Coues Key to North American Birds (Boston, MA: Estes and Lauriat, 1884)


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