Also known as Rhamnus cathartica. It is a deciduous shrub with grey-brown bark and spiny branches. The leaves are ovate and acutely serrated. The height of this plant reaches between 5 feet and 10 feet.
GalleriesFlowers and Shrubs: B
Nicholson, George The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, Div. VI (London, England: L. Upcott Gill, 1884)