Fruit-Tree Trained Upright as an Espalier

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Espalier is the term applied to a mode of training fruit trees in the open ground. For a single tree a row of stakes about five feet high driven into the ground, about nine inches apart is the start. Then a narrow strip of wood is laid on the tops of the stakes and a nail is driven into each to hold it firmly.


Nicholson, George The Illustrated Dictionary of Gardening, Div. VI (London, England: L. Upcott Gill, 1884)


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