149 illustrations of trees including: bald cypress, balsam fir, banana, banyan, baobab, basswood, beaked willow, beech, birch, butternut, black ash, black cottonwood, black oak, black walnut, bladdernut, bottle tree, breadfruit, buckeye, bull pine, bur oak, butternut, and buttonwood

"Twigs and branches of the birch." -Bergen, 1896

Birch Branch

"Twigs and branches of the birch." -Bergen, 1896

"Betula lenta. 1. male flowers; 2. female flowers; 3. perpendicular section of a ripe fruit; 4. transverse section of it." -Lindley, 1853

Sweet Birch

"Betula lenta. 1. male flowers; 2. female flowers; 3. perpendicular section of a ripe fruit; 4. transverse…

"Male and female catkins of Betula alba." -Lindley, 1853

White Birch

"Male and female catkins of Betula alba." -Lindley, 1853

Also known as Pinus muricata, mostly found in California.

Bishop Pine Cone

Also known as Pinus muricata, mostly found in California.

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, seven to eleven); alternate; edge of leaflet sharp-toothed. Outline - of leaflet, long oval or long egg-shape. Apex, taper-pointed. Base, pointed or blunted. Leaf/Stem - rather slender, somewhat downy, and often flattened and winged. Leaf/buds - small, slightly rounded or (at the ends of the branchlets) pointed, and yellow. Leaflet/Stems - lacking, except the short stem of the end leaflet. Leaflets - four to six inches long, the upper one usually short; smooth on both sides, or with a slight, scattered down below. Bark - rather smooth. Fruit - rounded or slightly egg-shaped, dark green. Husk - very thin and fleshy, never becoming entirely hard, with prominent winged edges at the seams, only two of which reach more than half-way to the base. It divides half-way down when ripe. Nut - barely one inch long, heart-shaped at the top, broader than long, white and smooth. Shell - so thin that it can be broken with the fingers. Kernel - intensely bitter. Found - usually in wet grounds, though often also on rich uplands, from Southern Maine westward and southward. It reaches its finest growth in Pennsylvania and Ohio. General information - A rather smaller and less valuable tree than the rest of the hickories.

Genus Hicoria, Raf., Carya, Nutt. (Hickory)

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, seven to eleven); alternate; edge of leaflet sharp-toothed.…

This is the fruit of Bitternut, Hicoria minima, (Keeler, 1915).

Bitternut Fruit

This is the fruit of Bitternut, Hicoria minima, (Keeler, 1915).

This is the staminate flower of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Black Ash Flower

This is the staminate flower of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

This is the pistillate flower of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Black Ash Flower

This is the pistillate flower of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

This is the fruit, or samara, of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Black Ash Fruit

This is the fruit, or samara, of Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, seven to eleven, usually nine); opposite; edge of leaflet toothed. Outline - of leaflet, narrow, long oval or long egg-shaped Apex - taper-pointed. Base - rounded. Leaf/Stem - lacking. Leaf/Bud - deep blue or blackish. Leaflet - three to five inches long, smooth and green on both sides, excepting where it is slightly hairy along the lower part of the middle rib. When crushed it has an Elder-like odor. Bark - of trunk, dark granite-gray, somewhat furrowed and broken up and down with roughness, which continue in the old tree. The young branches are smooth and grayish and marked with black and white dots and warts. Winged seeds - nearly one and one half inches long, with the wing three eighths of an inch wide and extending around the seed. Ripe in July. Found - along low river-banks and in swamps, which it sometimes fills; in Delaware, the mountains of Virginia, Northwestern Arkansas, through the Northern States to Canada. It is the most Northern of the American Ashes. General Information - Usually a small or medium-sized tree. The wood is largely used for barrel-hoops, baskets, in cabinet-work, and interior finish. Fraxinus from a Greek word meaning "separation," because of the ease with which the wood of the Ash can be split. I find in the notes of an old copy of White's "Natural History of Selborne" this comment: "The Ash, I think, has been termed by Gilpin the Venus of British trees." Gerardes' "Herbal" comments: "The leaves of the Ash are of so great a vertue against serpents, as that the serpents dare not be so bolde as to touch the morning and evening shadowes of the tree, but shunneth them afarre off, as Pliny reporteth in his 16 book, 13 chap. He also affirmeth that the serpent being penned in with boughes laide rounde about, will sooner run into the fire, if any be there, than come neere to the boughes of the Ash."In Scandinavian mythology the great and sacred tree, Yggdrasil, the greatest and most sacred of all trees, which binds together heaven and earth and hell, is an Ash. Its roots spread over the whole earth. Its branches reach above the heavens. Underneath lies a serpent; above is an eagle; a squirrel runs up and down the trunk, trying to breed strife between them.

Genus Fraxinus, L. (Ash)

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, seven to eleven, usually nine); opposite; edge of leaflet…

A black birch leaf.

Black Birch Leaf

A black birch leaf.

Also known as Populus trichocarpa. The branch of a Black Cottonwood tree, native to western North America.

Branch of Black Cottonwood

Also known as Populus trichocarpa. The branch of a Black Cottonwood tree, native to western North America.

Leaves - simple, opposite; finely and sharply toothed. Outline - broadly oval, or broadly reverse egg-shape. Apex - rounded, sometimes pointed. Base - rounded, sometimes slightly pointed. Quite variable. Leaf/Stem - short and smooth, the edges slightly winged, the wings straight. Leaf - about one and a half to two inches long; smooth; shining above. Flowers - white, in rather large and flat, stemless bunches, at the ends of branches. May. Berries - oval, blackish, sweet and edible. Found - in Connecticut and Southern New York to Michigan and southward. General Information - A small tree fifteen to twenty feet high, or oftenest at the North a low, much-branching shrub. Usually with some of its branches stunted and bare. The tonic bark is sometimes used medicinally.

Genus Viburnum, L. (Haw and Viburnum)

Leaves - simple, opposite; finely and sharply toothed. Outline - broadly oval, or broadly reverse egg-shape.…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge slightly lobed at the upper part (edge of the lobes entire). Outline - abruptly widening above. Apex - of lobes, rounded or sometimes slightly pointed, and bristle-tipped, at least until old. Base - heart-shape or rounded. Leaf - three to four inches long (on vigorous shoots much longer); dark green, smooth, and shining above; below rusty and roughish, thick and tough; ribs distinct above. Lobes - three (sometimes five), very short, and above the middle of the leaf. Bark - of tree, rough and blackish. Acorn - nearly or quite stemless. Cup - top-shaped, coarsely scaly. Nut - one half to two thirds of an inch long; rounded egg-shape; darkish brown when ripe; nearly one half covered by the cup. October. Found - on Long Island, southward and westward. Very common through the Southern States. General Information - A small tree, eight to twenty-five feet high; of slight value except for fuel. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge slightly lobed at the upper part (edge of the lobes entire). Outline…

Leaves - simple; opposite; edge lobed, with the lobes very sparingly and coarsely sharp-toothed or the lower pair entire. Outline - rounded, with three to five lobes, usually five, with the hollows between the lobes and between the coarse teeth rounded. Apex - of the lobes, pointed. Base - heart-shaped or nearly squared. Leaf - dark green above; slightly lighter beneath; smooth or somewhat downy on the ribs; when heart-shaped, sometimes with overlapping lobes. Seed-wings - set wide apart, but only slightly diverging.  Bark - blackish. Flowers - yellow-green and very abundant. April, May.  Fruit - greenish-yellow, smooth, drooping, on thread-like and hairy stems one to two inches long, with wings about one inch long, broad and slightly spreading. September. Found - chiefly along streams and in river bottoms, from Western Vermont to Missouri and Northern Alabama. General Information - A tree fifty to eight feet high or more; of very great value in many directions, - as a shade tree, for fuel, for interior finish and the making of furniture, for its ashes, which give large quantities of potash; especially for its sap, which yields the "maple sugar" of commerce. The yield of sugar by an average tree in one season from five to ten pounds.

Genus Acer, L. (Maple)

Leaves - simple; opposite; edge lobed, with the lobes very sparingly and coarsely sharp-toothed or the…

The leaf of a Black oak tree.

Black Oak Leaf

The leaf of a Black oak tree.

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (edge of the lobes mostly entire, but oftenest with a few teeth toward the end). Outline - reverse egg-shape or oval. Base - usually rounded. Ends of the lobes and of the few teeth, sharp and bristle-pointed, especially when young. Leaf - five to eight inches long; three to five inches wide; very variable. The two types, a and b, are often found on the same tree; b is a variation toward the leaf of the Scarlet Oak. The upper surface is roughish, becoming smoother when mature; the undersurface, rusty-downy until mid-summer, when the down mostly disappears, except from the angles of the ribs. Bark - of trunk, blackish and deeply and roughly furrowed, with an inner bark that is very thick and yellow and bitter. Acorns - variable; usually small; on short stems. Cups - thick; somewhat top-shaped; scales distinct and rather large. . Nut - one half to two thirds of an inch long; rounded; nearly one third covered by the cup. Kernel, bright yellow or orange and bitter. October. Found - from Southern Maine southward and westward. Very common, especially in the Atlantic forests. General Information - A tree fifty to a hundred feet high, with wood that is inferior to that of the White Oak. The yellow inner bark (quercitron of the shops) is a valuable dye, and is rich in tannin. Late in the autumn the leaves turn to a rich yellowish-brown or russet.   It is very probable that the "Black Oak" and the "Scarlet Oak" ought to be considered as one, and described, not as species and variety, but as slightly different forms of the single species Q. coccinea. Though the most distinctive leaves of the "Black Oak" are easily recognized, often others are so nearly like those of the "Scarlet Oak" that it is not easy to distinguish between then; and the same is true of the fruit and the bark. Michaux f. says: "The only constant difference between the acorns of the Scarlet Oak and the Black Oak is in the kernel, which is white in the Scarlet Oak and yellow in the Black Oak."  The Gray Oak (Q. c., ambigua, Gray) is a variety sometimes found along the northeastern boundary of the States (as far as Lake Champlain) and northward. It combines the foliage of the Red Oak with the acorn of the Scarlet Oak. Quercus, possible from a Celtic word meaning to inquire, because it was among the oaks that the Druids oftenest practised their rites.

Genus Quercus, L. (Oak)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge lobed (edge of the lobes mostly entire, but oftenest with a few teeth…

Also known as Picea mariana. A species of spruce native to North America.

Black Spruce Pine Cone

Also known as Picea mariana. A species of spruce native to North America.

Leaves - simple; indeterminate in position because of their closeness; arranged singly and thickly all around the branchlets. Leaf - needle-shape, five twelfths to two thirds of an inch long, four-sided, mostly straight, stiff, and sharp; dark green. Cones - three fourths to one and one half inches long, drooping at the ends of the branchlets; broad oval; dark purple when young, becoming reddish-brown as they ripen. Scales - long reverse egg-shape, thin, with a wavy or toothed edge toward their apex. Found - along the Alleghany Mountains from the high peaks of North Carolina to Pennsylvania, through the Northern States, andGeneral Information - An evergreen tree thirty to sixty feet high, with straight, tapering trunk. The wood is light and straight-grained and is used for lumber, for the masts and spars of ships, in building, etc. From its twigs is prepared the "essence of spruce."

Genus Picea, Link. (Spruce)

Leaves - simple; indeterminate in position because of their closeness; arranged singly and thickly all…

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge sharply and unequally toothed (sometimes with quite deep and sharp cuts, almost forming small lobes. Outline - oval or reverse egg-shape Apex - slightly pointed Base - tapering in a hollow curve and along the sides of the leaf-stem to a point Leaf/Stem - bordered by the leaf, to its base Leaf - about three to five inches long, one and a half to three inches wide; upper surface smoothish, and furrowed above the ribs; under surface downy at least when young; rather thick; permanently downy on the ribs. Thorns - one to two inches long Bark - of trunk, smooth and gray. New twigs, light greenish-brown Flowers - often one inch across; white eight to twelve in a cluster; at the ends of the branches; fragrant. May, June. Fruit - about one half inch in diameter, round or pear-shaped; orange-red or crimson; edible. October. Found - through the Atlantic forests to Western Florida, and from Eastern Texas far westward. Common. General Information - A thickly branching tree (or often a shrub) eight to twenty feet high; the most widely distributed of the American Thorns. It varies greatly in size, and in the style of its fruit and leaves. From a Greek word meaning strength.

Genus Crataegus, L. (Thorn)

Leaves - simple; alternate; edge sharply and unequally toothed (sometimes with quite deep and sharp…

A black walnut leaf.

Black Walnut Leaf

A black walnut leaf.

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, thirteen to twenty-one); alternate; edge of leaflets sharp-toothed. Outline of leaflet - long egg-shape. Apex - taper-pointed. Base - rounded or slightly heart-shaped, and one-sided. Leaf/Stem - slightly downy. Leaflet/Stem - very short. Leaf - twelve inches long, or more. Leaflets - about two to four inches long; the lower pairs shortest; slightly downy beneath. Bark - blackish and thick. Fruit - about two inches in diameter; rounded; the husk greenish-yellow when ripe, roughly dotted, spongy, decaying without splitting into sections; the nut dark, and deeply and roughly furrowed. October. Found - from Western Massachusetts westward and southward. Its finest growth is west of the Alleghany Mountains. Eastward it is now everywhere scarce.. General Information - A tree thirty to sixty feet high, or often much higher. Its rich, dark-brown heart-wood is of great value, and has been more widely used in cabinet-work, for interior finish, and for gun-stocks than the wood of any other North American tree. Juglans, from two Latin words meaning nut of Jupiter.

Genus Juglans, L. (Walnut)

Leaves - compound (odd-feathered; leaflets, thirteen to twenty-one); alternate; edge of leaflets sharp-toothed.…

This shows the staminate flower of the Black Willow, Salix nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Black Willow Flower

This shows the staminate flower of the Black Willow, Salix nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

This shows the pistillate flower of the Black Willow, Salix nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Black Willow Flower

This shows the pistillate flower of the Black Willow, Salix nigra, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Salix nigra. The branch of a Black Willow tree, native to eastern North America.

Branch of Black Willow

Also known as Salix nigra. The branch of a Black Willow tree, native to eastern North America.

Leaves - simple; alternate; finely and sharply toothed. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - long, taper-pointed. Base - pointed or slightly rounded. Leaf/Stem - short and woolly. Leaf - one and a half to four inches long; commonest length about two inches; downy when young, becoming smooth excepting on the upper side of the mid-rib, which is usually woolly. Bark - of trunk, dark and rough; branches very brittle at the base and yellowish; twigs tough and purplish or yellow. Found - in Southern New Brunswick and Ontario, and from Northern Vermont southward. Common on low ground, especially in New York and Pennsylvania. General Information - A small tree, fifteen to twenty feet high; quite variable in the style of its foliage; the latest to flower, in May.

Genus Salix, L. (Willow)

Leaves - simple; alternate; finely and sharply toothed. Outline - long and narrow. Apex - long, taper-pointed.…

The leaf of a Black-jack oak tree.

Black-Jack Oak Leaf

The leaf of a Black-jack oak tree.

Also known as Quercus marilandica. The branch of a Blackjack Oak, native to the southern and central United States.

Branch of Blackjack Oak

Also known as Quercus marilandica. The branch of a Blackjack Oak, native to the southern and central…

"Bladder-nut. a.-- Flower. b.-- Fruit. Bladder-nut, a name of shrubs or small trees, natives of Europe, Asia, and North America, the fruits of which consist of an inflated bladdery capsule containing the seeds." -Vaughan, 1906

Bladdernut

"Bladder-nut. a.-- Flower. b.-- Fruit. Bladder-nut, a name of shrubs or small trees, natives of Europe,…

The apricot tree blooms during February, earlier than most fruit trees. Because apricot trees bloom early it is difficult to save the flowers from the destruction caused by spring winds and frosts.

Blossom of Apricot

The apricot tree blooms during February, earlier than most fruit trees. Because apricot trees bloom…

This is the flower of Blue Ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata, (Keeler, 1915).

Blue Ash Flower

This is the flower of Blue Ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata, (Keeler, 1915).

This is the fruit, or samara, of Blue Ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata, (Keeler, 1915).

Blue Ash Fruit

This is the fruit, or samara, of Blue Ash, Fraxinus quadrangulata, (Keeler, 1915).

Also known as Quercus douglasii. The branch of a Blue Oak tree, native to California.

Branch of Blue Oak

Also known as Quercus douglasii. The branch of a Blue Oak tree, native to California.

"Vaccinium amoenum. 1. a flower; 2. a perpendicular section of it without the corolla; 3. a cross section of an ovary; 4. an anther; 5. half a seed." -Lindley, 1853

Large-Cluster Blueberry

"Vaccinium amoenum. 1. a flower; 2. a perpendicular section of it without the corolla; 3. a cross section…

This illustration shows a tree that has been body-budded. It has two buds that had been killed by bud-moth larva.

Body-budding

This illustration shows a tree that has been body-budded. It has two buds that had been killed by bud-moth…

Also known as Toxylon pomiferum. The branch of a Bois D'Arc tree, native to Texas.

Branch of Bois D'Arc

Also known as Toxylon pomiferum. The branch of a Bois D'Arc tree, native to Texas.

"Boldoa fragrans. 1. a section of the ripe fruit; 2. the embryo shown separately." -Lindley, 1853

Boldo

"Boldoa fragrans. 1. a section of the ripe fruit; 2. the embryo shown separately." -Lindley, 1853

Also known as Salix bonplandiana. The branch of a Bonpland Willow, native to southern and southwest Mexico.

Branch of Bonpland Willow

Also known as Salix bonplandiana. The branch of a Bonpland Willow, native to southern and southwest…

The Queensland Bottle Tree originally classified in the family Sterculiaceae, native to Queensland, Australia.

Bottle Tree

The Queensland Bottle Tree originally classified in the family Sterculiaceae, native to Queensland,…

These are the seeds of the Box Elder, Acer negundo, (Keeler, 1915).

Box Elder Seeds

These are the seeds of the Box Elder, Acer negundo, (Keeler, 1915).

The leaf of Common Box (Buxus sempervirens) showing emarginations.

Common Box

The leaf of Common Box (Buxus sempervirens) showing emarginations.

This shows the unfolding leaves of the Beech branch, (Keeler, 1915).

Beech Branch

This shows the unfolding leaves of the Beech branch, (Keeler, 1915).

A branch from a black mulberry with fruits and leaves. The plant have both male and female flowers are used for reproduction by pollination.

Black Mulberry Branch with Fruits and Leaves

A branch from a black mulberry with fruits and leaves. The plant have both male and female flowers are…

This shows the winter branch of Cottonwood, Populus deltoides, (Keeler, 1915).

Cottonwood Branch

This shows the winter branch of Cottonwood, Populus deltoides, (Keeler, 1915).

A fruiting branch of the genus Cyphomandra.

Fruit Branch

A fruiting branch of the genus Cyphomandra.

This shows the branch of Hop Hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, showing the staminate aments as they appear in winter,(Keeler, 1915).

Hop Hornbeam Branch

This shows the branch of Hop Hornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, showing the staminate aments as they appear…

This is the branch of Red Birch, Betula nigra, showing the staminate aments as they appear in winter, (Keeler, 1915).

Red Birch

This is the branch of Red Birch, Betula nigra, showing the staminate aments as they appear in winter,…

A Californian timber tree. Grows 200 to 300 feet high and have a thick cinnamon colored bark. The inside wood is a rich brownish red.

Redwood Branch

A Californian timber tree. Grows 200 to 300 feet high and have a thick cinnamon colored bark. The inside…

This shows the four staminate and one pistillate ament of Sweet Birch, Betula lenta, (Keeler, 1915).

Sweet Birch Branch

This shows the four staminate and one pistillate ament of Sweet Birch, Betula lenta, (Keeler, 1915).

Bread-Fruit is the pulpy fruit of a tree which grows only in the tropics. The tree yields fruit during most of the year, and is said to be a native of the South Sea Islands, though it is now quite common in the Friendly and Society groups, and in many of the neighboring islands.

Bread Fruit

Bread-Fruit is the pulpy fruit of a tree which grows only in the tropics. The tree yields fruit during…

"Artocarpaceae, a natural order of Dicotyledonous plants, of which the Bread-fruit is the type; very nearly allied to that of Moraceae, and, like it, by many botanists regarded as a sub-order of Urticaceae. The botanical distinction between Artocarpaceae and Moraceae lies chiefly in the straight embryo and large cotyledons of the former." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Bread-fruit

"Artocarpaceae, a natural order of Dicotyledonous plants, of which the Bread-fruit is the type; very…

A bread-fruit tree with cuneate-ovate pinnatifid leaves, male flowers in a club-shaped deciduous catkin, and female flowers in rounded clusters.

Bread-Fruit Tree

A bread-fruit tree with cuneate-ovate pinnatifid leaves, male flowers in a club-shaped deciduous catkin,…

Transverse section of the male spike with numerous flowers

Bread-Fruit Tree

Transverse section of the male spike with numerous flowers

Male flowers

Bread-Fruit Tree

Male flowers

Single male flower separated, with a perianth in 2 segments and a single stamen

Bread-Fruit Tree

Single male flower separated, with a perianth in 2 segments and a single stamen

Female flowers

Bread-Fruit Tree

Female flowers

Single female flower separated, with ovary, style and bifid stigma

Bread-Fruit Tree

Single female flower separated, with ovary, style and bifid stigma

Ovary laid open to show the ovule

Bread-Fruit Tree

Ovary laid open to show the ovule

A variety of the ovary with 2 loculaments

Bread-Fruit Tree

A variety of the ovary with 2 loculaments