An illustration of John Adams who proposed Washington for Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. John Adams was also the second President of the United States and was one of the most influential Found Fathers of the United States.

John Adams

An illustration of John Adams who proposed Washington for Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.…

Head-quarters of Agnew and Erskine. This house is on the south bank of Still River, at the north end of the main street. It was built by Benjamind Knapp, in 1770, and was owned by him at the time of the invasion. His birth-place is also standing, on the north side of the river. They were among the few houses not burned. At the bridge seen on the right the British planted a cannon, and kept a strong guard there until their departure. This house is now (1848) owned by Noah Knapp.

Agnew and Erskine

Head-quarters of Agnew and Erskine. This house is on the south bank of Still River, at the north end…

"The Alden Tavern."—Lossing, 1851

Alden Tavern

"The Alden Tavern."—Lossing, 1851

Ancient chair.

Ancient Chair

Ancient chair.

"View of the place where Andre was captured."—Lossing, 1851

Andre captured

"View of the place where Andre was captured."—Lossing, 1851

"Place of execution. The place of Andre's execution is now designated by a stone, lying on the right of a lane which runs from the highway from Tappan village to old Tappan, on the westerly side of a large peach orchard owned by Dr. Bartow, about a quarter of a mile from Washington's head-quarters. The stone is a small bowlder, on the upper surface of which is inscribed 'Andre executed Oct. 2d, 1780.' It is about three feet in length. This stone was placed there and inscribed in 1847, by a patriotic merchant of New York. A more elegant and durable monument should be erected upon the spot."—Lossing, 1851

Andre's Execution

"Place of execution. The place of Andre's execution is now designated by a stone, lying on the right…

"Andre's monument in Westminster Abbey."—Lossing, 1851

Andre's Monument

"Andre's monument in Westminster Abbey."—Lossing, 1851

Capture of the British Major Andre, which revealed Benedict Arnold as a traitor.

Capture of Andre

Capture of the British Major Andre, which revealed Benedict Arnold as a traitor.

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

Major John André

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

Major John André

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

Major John André

(1751-1780) Hung for treason during the American Revolutionary War

A monument to mark the spot of the site where the British spy Andre was hanged and buried in 1780.

Monument to Andre

A monument to mark the spot of the site where the British spy Andre was hanged and buried in 1780.

"The State House in Annapolis. This fine building is situated upon an elevation in the center of the city, and is admired by every visitor, not only for its style of architecture, but for the beauty of its location. The building is of brick. The superstructure consists of a spacious dome, surmounted by two smaller ones, with a cupola of wood. From the dome, a magnificent prospect opens to the eye. Around the spectator is spread out the city and harbor like a map, while far away to the southeast stretches the Chesapeake, with Kent Island and the eastern shore looming up in the distance. The edifice fronts Francis Street, and the hill on which it stands is surrounded by a substantial granite wall, surmounted by an iron railing, having three gateways. It was erected in 1772, upon the site of the old Court-house, built in 1706. The corner stone was laid by Governor Robert Eden. The dome was not built until after the Revolution. The architect was Joseph Clarke. Tradition relates that when Governor Eden struck the corner stone with a mallet, at the time of laying it, a severe clap of thunder burst over the city, though there was not a cloud in the sky. Thomas Dance, who executed the stucco work of the dome, fell from the scaffold, and was killed, just as he finished the center piece."—Lossing, 1851

Annapolis State House

"The State House in Annapolis. This fine building is situated upon an elevation in the center of the…

"The Apollo Room. The room used for public meetings is in the rear building of the old Raleigh tavern at Williamsburg, and up to the day of my visit it had remained unaltered. Carpenters were then at work remodeling its style, for the purpose of making it a ball-room; and now, I suppose, that apartment, hallowed by so many associations connected with our war for independence, has scarcely an original feature left. Had my visit been deferred a day longer, the style of the room could never have been portrayed. Neat wainscoting of Virginia pine ornamented the sides below and partly between the windows, and over the fire-place, which was spacious. This view is from the entrance door from the front portion of the building. On the left were two large windows; on the right were two windows and a door; and on each side of the fire-place was a door opening into small passage ways, from the exterior. Through the door on the left is seen a flight of stairs leading to the dormitory. The walls were whitewashed, and the wood-work painted a lead color. In this room the leading patriots of Virginia, including Washington, held many secret caucuses, and planned many schemes for the overthrow of royal rule in the colonies. The sound of the hammer and saw engaged in the work of change seemed to me like actual desecration; for the Raleigh tavern, and the Apollo room are to Virginia, relatively, what Faneuil Hall is to Massachusetts."—Lossing, 1851

Apollo Room

"The Apollo Room. The room used for public meetings is in the rear building of the old Raleigh tavern…

(1755-1816) Explorer and soldier who was a militia officer in the American revolution.

John Armstrong

(1755-1816) Explorer and soldier who was a militia officer in the American revolution.

"Birth-place of Benedict Arnold."—Lossing, 1851

Arnold birth-place

"Birth-place of Benedict Arnold."—Lossing, 1851

"View of the landing-place of Arnold. This sketch is from the west side of the cove in which the troops under Arnold landed. In the distance, on the extreme right, is the point where the division under Eyre debarked, and near the center is seen the monument on Groton Hill, near Fort Griswold. The shores of the cove are sandy, but the projections which form them are bold promontories of granite rock."—Lossing, 1851

Arnold landing-place

"View of the landing-place of Arnold. This sketch is from the west side of the cove in which the troops…

Place where Arnold was wounded. This view is in a narrow alley near the north end of <em>Sault au Matelot</em> Street, in the rear of St. Paul's Street. At the time in question St. Paul's Street did not exist, and the water, at high tide, came nearly up to the precipice. The first barrier and battery extended from the jutting rock seen in the picture, to the water. The present alley was then the beach. The circular wall on top of the rock is a part of the grand battery, one of the most formidable and commanding defenses in the world.

Arnold wounded

Place where Arnold was wounded. This view is in a narrow alley near the north end of Sault au Matelot

Scene of Arnold's naval battle. This sketch was made from the pilot's room of the steam-boat just after leaving Port Jackson. On the left is a point of the main land, and on the right is seen a portion of Valcour's Island. The high ground in the extreme distance, on the left, is Cumberland Head, and that dimly seen in the center of the picture is the Vermont store.

Arnold's Battle

Scene of Arnold's naval battle. This sketch was made from the pilot's room of the steam-boat just after…

"Arnold's escape, after becoming a traitor."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Arnold's escape

"Arnold's escape, after becoming a traitor."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

A depiction of Benedict Arnold's escape after it has been discovered by American troops that he is a traitor.

Arnold's Escape

A depiction of Benedict Arnold's escape after it has been discovered by American troops that he is a…

"Arnold's head-quarters."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Arnold's head-quarters

"Arnold's head-quarters."—Lossing, 1851

Arnold's residence. Arnold lived in Water Street, near the ship-yard. The house is still standing (1848), on the left side of the street going toward the water. It is a handsome frame building, embowered in shrubbery. In the garret of the ho7use the sign was found recently which hung over the door of Arnold's store, in Water Street. It was black, with white letters, and painted precisely alike on both sides.

Arnold's residence

Arnold's residence. Arnold lived in Water Street, near the ship-yard. The house is still standing (1848),…

"Benedict Arnold, hero of Saratoga, turned traitor."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Benedict Arnold

"Benedict Arnold, hero of Saratoga, turned traitor."—E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

(--) European volunteer to the Continental Army to fight in the Revolutionary War

Frederic William Augustus, Baron de Steuben

(--) European volunteer to the Continental Army to fight in the Revolutionary War

(1744-1808) Provided relief to American soldiers in the revolution. Daughter of Benjamin Franklin.

Sarah Bache

(1744-1808) Provided relief to American soldiers in the revolution. Daughter of Benjamin Franklin.

The bakery. Near the southeastern angle of the range of barracks is the bakery; it is an under-ground arched room, and was beneath the <em>glacis</em>, perfectly bomb-proof, and protected from all danger form without.

Bakery

The bakery. Near the southeastern angle of the range of barracks is the bakery; it is an under-ground…

"Colonel Barrett's House. This sketch is from the road leading to the village of Concord by the way of the North Bridge. The home was erected about eighty yeras ago, by Colonel Barrett, and is now owned by his kinsman, Prescott Barrett."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Barrett's House

"Colonel Barrett's House. This sketch is from the road leading to the village of Concord by the way…

"Key of the Bastile. This key of the old Paris prison known as the Bastile, was sent by La Fayette to Washington after the destruction of that edifice by the infuriated populace on the 14th of July, 1789. This was the beginning of the French Revolution. The Bastille was originally a royal place, built by Charles the Fifth of France in 1369. It was afterward used as a state prison, like the Tower of London, and became the scene of dreadful sufferings and frightful crimes. When the mob gained possession of it in 1789, they took the governor and other officers to the Place de Greve, where they first cut off their hands and then their heads. With the key, La Fayette sent a plaster model of the old building. The model, somewhat defaced from long exposure in the Alexandria museum, is among the collections of the National Institute, while the key retains its ancient position at Mount Vernon. It is of wrought iron, seven inches long. La Fayette, in his letter to Washington which accompanied the key and picture, dated 'Paris, March 17th, 1789,' said, 'Give me leave, my dear general, to present you with a picture of the Bastile, just as it appeared a few days after I had ordered its demolition, with the main key of this fortress of despotism. It is a tribute which I owe as a son to my adopted father; as an aid-de-camp to my general; as a missionary liberty to its patriarch.'"&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Bastile Key

"Key of the Bastile. This key of the old Paris prison known as the Bastile, was sent by La Fayette to…

Battleground near Fort Anne. This sketch was taken from the rail-road, looking north. The forest upon the left is the 'thick wood' of the Revolution, but on the right cultivated fields have taken the place of the forest to a considerable extent. On the right is seen the Champlain Canal, here occupying the bed of Wood Creek. The fence on the left indicates the place of the public road between Fort Anne and Whitehall. When this sketch was made (1848) the rail-road was unfinished.

Battleground near Fort Anne

Battleground near Fort Anne. This sketch was taken from the rail-road, looking north. The forest upon…

"View at Bauffet's Point."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Bauffet's Point

"View at Bauffet's Point."—Lossing, 1851

"There were thirty-seven men-of-war, and more than four hundred transport ships, besides the boats. The war-ships stood in toward Gravesend Bay, opened their port-holes, ran out their guns, opened fire, and threw shot and shell on shore."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

The British Fleet in the Lower Bay

"There were thirty-seven men-of-war, and more than four hundred transport ships, besides the boats.…

Beloeil Mountain, this sketch is taken from the southeast angle of old Fort chambly, showing the rapids in the forground. The mountain is twenty miles distant, near the Sorel. On the highest point of the range the Bishop of Nancy, a French prelate, erected a huge cross in 1843, the pedestal of which was sufficiently large to form a chapel capable of containing fifty persons. In November, 1847, during a severe thundergust, the lightning and wind completely emolished the cross, but spared the pedestal, and that, being white, may be seen at a great distance.

Beloeil Mountain

Beloeil Mountain, this sketch is taken from the southeast angle of old Fort chambly, showing the rapids…

Benedict Arnold escaping capture by George Washington's forces on the Hudson River.

Escape of Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold escaping capture by George Washington's forces on the Hudson River.

The Bennington battle-ground. This view is from the hill on the southwest bank of the Walloomscoick, a little west of the road from the bridge to Starkville, looking northeast. The road over this hill existed at the time of the battle. The river, which here makes a sudden bend, is seen at two points- near the cattle, and at the bridge, in the distance, on the right. The house on the left, near the bridge, is Mr. Barnet's, and the road that crosses the center of the picture from right to left is the road from Bennington to Van Schaick's or North Hoosick. It passes along the river flat, at the foot of the hills where the battle occurred. The highest point on the distant hills, covered with woods, is the place where the Hessians were intrenched. From that point, along the hills to the left, for about two miles, the conflict was carried on; and upon the slopes, now cultivated, musket-balls and other relics of the battle have been plowed up.

Bennington battle-ground

The Bennington battle-ground. This view is from the hill on the southwest bank of the Walloomscoick,…

A battle of the American Revolution, led by General John Stark. The defeat of the British army reduced Burgoyne's army in size, led his Indian support to leave him, and deprived him of necessary supplies.

Battle of Bennington

A battle of the American Revolution, led by General John Stark. The defeat of the British army reduced…

"View at Beverly Dock. This view is taken from the Hudson River rail-road, looking north. The dock, covered with cord wood, is seen near the point on the left. It is at the termination of a marsh, near the point of a bold, rocky promontory, through which is a deep rock cutting for the road. The distant hills on the extreme left are on the west side of the Hudson; and through the gorge formed for the road may be seen the military edifices of West Point."—Lossing, 1851

Beverly Dock

"View at Beverly Dock. This view is taken from the Hudson River rail-road, looking north. The dock,…

"Birmingham Meeting-house. This is a view of the southerly front of the meeting-house. The building is very substantially built of stone. Much of it is serpentine, which abounds in that region, and of which several houses are constructed. I was informed that the stains made by the blood of the wounded carried in there at the time of the battle are yet visible on the floor. The Highsite party hold present possession of the house; the Orthodox have built a place of worship near."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Birmingham Meeting-House

"Birmingham Meeting-house. This is a view of the southerly front of the meeting-house. The building…

Bloody Pond. Tradition avers that for many years its waters bore a bloody hue, and it has ever since been called <em>Bloody Pond</em>.

Bloody Pond

Bloody Pond. Tradition avers that for many years its waters bore a bloody hue, and it has ever since…

Bloody Run, a stream which comes leaping in sparkling cascades from the hills, and affords fine trout fishing. It derives its name from the fact that, while the English had possession of the fort in 1759, a party of soldiers from the garrison went out to fish at the place represented in the picture. The hills, now cultivated, were then covered with dense forests, and afforded the Indians excellent ambush. A troop of savages, lying near, sprang silently from their covert upon the fishers, and bore off nine reeking scalps before those who escaped could reach the fort and give the alarm.

Bloody Run

Bloody Run, a stream which comes leaping in sparkling cascades from the hills, and affords fine trout…

"Boone's Fort. This sketch is from a drawing by Colonel Henderson, and published in Collin's <em>Historical Collections of Kentucky</em>, page 417. It was composed of a number of long-houses disposed in the form of an oblong square. Those at each corner, intended particularly for block-houses, were larger and stronger than the others. The length of the fort was about two hundred and fifty feet, and the width about one hundred and fifty feet."—Lossing, 1851

Boone's Fort

"Boone's Fort. This sketch is from a drawing by Colonel Henderson, and published in Collin's Historical

"View of Boston from Dorchester Heights in 1774. This picture is from an English print of the time. Then the principal portion of the town was upon the eastern slope and flats. There were a few houses upon the higher ground in the vicinity of Beacon Hill, around the Common, among which was that of John Hancock. In this picture, Beacon Hill is designated by the pole, which, with its barrel, is noticed in a preceding chapter. The peninsula originally contained about seven hundred acres. The hills have been razed and the earth carried into the water, by which means the peninsula is so enlarged that it now comprises about fourteen hundred acres."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Boston

"View of Boston from Dorchester Heights in 1774. This picture is from an English print of the time.…

"The Boston Massacre, from an engraving by Paul Revere. The Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Boston Massacre

"The Boston Massacre, from an engraving by Paul Revere. The Boston Massacre occurred on March 5, 1770."—E.…

"View of the lines on Boston neck."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Boston Neck

"View of the lines on Boston neck."—Lossing, 1851

The Boston Tea Party was an act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British Government in which they destroyed many crates of tea belonging to the British East India Company on ships in Boston Harbor.

Casting Tea Overboard in Boston Harbor

The Boston Tea Party was an act of direct action protest by the American colonists against the British…

Brant's Rock. This rock, which is about four feet high, lies in a field on the left of the road leading from Cherry Valley to the Mohawk, about a mile and a half north of the residence of Judge Campbell. It is a fossiliferous mass, composed chiefly of shells. Behind this rock the body of Lieutenant Wormwood, lifeless and the head scalped, was found by the villagers, who had heard the firing on the previous evening. Judge campbell, who accompanied us to the spot, pointed out the stump of a large tree by the road side, as the place where Lieutenant Wormwood fell.

Brant's Rock

Brant's Rock. This rock, which is about four feet high, lies in a field on the left of the road leading…

"The Breakfast Room. This is a view of the room in the Robinson House in which Arnold was at breakfast when he received Colonel Jameson's letter announcing the arrest of Andre. It is preserved in its original style, which is quite antique. The ceiling is low; the heavy beams are bare; the fire-place surrounded with neat panel-work, without a mantel-shelf. The door on the right opens into a small room which Arnold used as an office; the windows on the left open upon the garden and lawn on the south."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Breakfast Room

"The Breakfast Room. This is a view of the room in the Robinson House in which Arnold was at breakfast…

(--1815) American Patriot who helped troops in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War.

Rebecca Brewton

(--1815) American Patriot who helped troops in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War.

"British flag. This is a representation of one of the flags surrendered at Yorktown, and presented to Washington. I made this sketch of the flag itself, then in the Museum at Alexandria, in Virginia. It belonged to the seventh regiment. The size of the flag is six feet long, and five feet four inches wide. The ground is blue; the central stripe of the cross red; the marginal ones white. In the center is a crown, and beneath it a garter with its inscription, 'Honi soit qui mal y pense,' inclosing a full-blown rose. These are neatly embroidered with silk. The fabric of the flag is heavy twilled silk."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

British Flag

"British flag. This is a representation of one of the flags surrendered at Yorktown, and presented to…

View of the place where the British laid down their arms. The sketch here presented, of the place where the British army surrendered, was made from one of the canal bridges at Schuylerville, looking east-northeast.

British surrender

View of the place where the British laid down their arms. The sketch here presented, of the place where…

"Surrender of British Standards at Yorktown."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

British Surrender

"Surrender of British Standards at Yorktown."—Lossing, 1851

"1. Companies of the Regulars marching into Concord. 2. Companies of the Regulars drawn up in order. 3. A Detachment destroying the Provincial Stores. 4, 5. Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn viewing the Provincials, who were mustering on an East Hill in Concord. 6. The Court and Town-house. 7. The Meeting-house."&mdash;Coffin, 1879.

British Troops on Concord Common

"1. Companies of the Regulars marching into Concord. 2. Companies of the Regulars drawn up in order.…

"View at the foot of Broadway. General Charles Lee's troops marched to New York."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Broadway

"View at the foot of Broadway. General Charles Lee's troops marched to New York."—Lossing, 1851

"Place where the British crossed the Bronx. This view is from the southeastern side of the Bronx, a little more than half a mile below the rail-way station at White Plains, looking north. The rail-way bridge is seen on the extreme right. Between that and the barn on the left the British ascended. In the field, seen a little to the left of the telegraph posts, toward the center, and the one on the summit beyond, the hottest of the engagement occurred. The latter is on the land of Mr. Cornelius Horton. In a hollow, near a large hickory-tree, on the southwest side of Chatterton's Hill, are the graves of many of the slain."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Bronx

"Place where the British crossed the Bronx. This view is from the southeastern side of the Bronx, a…

"Brower's Mill. This is a view of the old mill of the Revolution, as it appeared when I made the sketch in 1850, before it was destroyed. The view is from the west side of Gowanus Creek, looking southeast. In the extreme distance is seen the 'Yellow Mill' between which and the one in the foreground so many of the patriots perished."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Brower's Mill

"Brower's Mill. This is a view of the old mill of the Revolution, as it appeared when I made the sketch…

The Buckley House. This building stood upon the eastern side of the Green, fronting the church. It was demolished three or four years ago, having stood more than a century and a half. Tryon lodged in the upper room on the right of the main building.

Buckley House

The Buckley House. This building stood upon the eastern side of the Green, fronting the church. It was…

A battle of the American Revolution named after the adjacent hill, which was the objective of both colonial and British troops.

Bunker Hill

A battle of the American Revolution named after the adjacent hill, which was the objective of both colonial…

"This picture was drawn by a British engineer a few days after the battle. The view is from the north side of the hill, looking south from the spot occupied by the New Hampshire troops, under Colonel Stark and Colonel Reed. Portions of the rail-fence are to be seen. The Connecticut troops, under Colonel Knowlton, occupied the ground between the three in the centre of the view and the fort. The ground between the tree and the fort, and toward the left of the picture, was thickly strewed with the killed and wounded British soldiers. The Americans retreated past the trees at the right of the picture."&mdash;Coffin, 1879

Bunker Hill After the Battle

"This picture was drawn by a British engineer a few days after the battle. The view is from the north…

"Bunker Hill Battle, on June 16th, 1775 during the American Revolution."&mdash;E. Benjamin Andrews, 1895

Bunker Hill Battle

"Bunker Hill Battle, on June 16th, 1775 during the American Revolution."—E. Benjamin Andrews,…

"Bunker Hill Monument. This monument stands in the center of the grounds included within the breast-works of the old redoubt on Breed's Hill. Its sides are precisely parallel with those of the redoubt. It is built of Quincy granite, and is two hundred and twenty-one feet in height. The foundation is composed of six courses of stones, and extends twelve feet below the surface of the ground and base of the shaft. The four sides of the foundation extend about fifty feet horizontally. There are in the whole pile ninety courses of stone, six of them below the surface of the ground, and eighty-four above. The foundation is laid in lime mortar; the other parts of the structure in lime mortar mixed with cinders, iron filings, and Springfield hydranlic cement."&mdash;Lossing, 1851

Bunker Hill Monument

"Bunker Hill Monument. This monument stands in the center of the grounds included within the breast-works…