"These animals, often called <em>White Ants</em>, live in vast communities, principally in the hotter regions of the earth, where they do incredible damage by devouring almost every thing that comes in their way." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

White Ants

"These animals, often called White Ants, live in vast communities, principally in the hotter…

An assortment of the variety of antannae found on insects.

Various Antennae

An assortment of the variety of antannae found on insects.

"The <em>Leodice antennata</em> has the organs of locomotion attached to each segment; they are usually in the form of movable spines, and are used as oars." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Leodice antennata

"The Leodice antennata has the organs of locomotion attached to each segment; they are usually…

"In some species the larvae, which are small, sluggish, oval-shaped creatures, and furnished with a formidable pair of jaws, excavate conical pits in the sandy places which they inhabit, at the bottom of which they conceal themselves entirely, with the exception of the head and jaws." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Antlion and Larva

"In some species the larvae, which are small, sluggish, oval-shaped creatures, and furnished with a…

"This tribe, which includes the various kinds of Ants, is composed entirely of insects which live in communities, consisting of three distinct types of individuals, males, females, and neuters." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Ants and Their Structures

"This tribe, which includes the various kinds of Ants, is composed entirely of insects which live in…

Scene showing various animals of the Division <em>Articulata</em>.

Articulata

Scene showing various animals of the Division Articulata.

"The Common Barnacle, <em>Lepas anatifera</em>, perhaps the best-known example of the order, generally selects floating objects for this purpose, and frequently covers the bottoms of ships to such an extent as to even impede their progress through the water. It adheres by a flexible stalk, which possesses great contractile power. The shell is usually composed of two triangular pieces on each side, and is closed by another elongated piece on the back." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Barnacles

"The Common Barnacle, Lepas anatifera, perhaps the best-known example of the order, generally…

"A, B, C, tunnelings of the carpenter bee; E, the carpenter bee; D, a partition; F, teeth, magnified" &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Carpenter Bee

"A, B, C, tunnelings of the carpenter bee; E, the carpenter bee; D, a partition; F, teeth, magnified"…

"The working bee, for collecting wax, enters a flower, the stamens of which are loaded with pollen. This dust attaches itself to the brush-like hairs covering the body of the bee, when, by rubbing itself with the brushes with which the tarsi are furnished, the insect collects it into little parcels, which it places on small palettes, hollowed out on the surface of its hund limbs." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Drone Bee

"The working bee, for collecting wax, enters a flower, the stamens of which are loaded with pollen.…

"The eyes, which are among the most wonderful objects in nature, are almost always of the kind called <em>compound</em>, that is to say, they consist of a multitude of little hexagonal facets, brought close together on each side of the head, each furnished with a cornea, a lens, a coating of pigment, and a nervous filament, and being in fact a true eye." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Eyes of a Bee

"The eyes, which are among the most wonderful objects in nature, are almost always of the kind called…

"The structure of the mouth in insects exhibits very remarkable modifications, and these are of the utmost importance in the classification of these creatures. In some insects the mouth is formed exclusively for biting; in others, as exclusively for suction; while in others again it is fitted for the performance of both these actions; and the form of its constituent parts of course undergoes corresponding changes; but the same organs really exist in all, modified in apearance, indeed, so as sometimes to be scarecely recognizable." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Mouth and Tongue of a Bee

"The structure of the mouth in insects exhibits very remarkable modifications, and these are of the…

"The queen bee is larger and longer than the other bees; she moves in a slow and majestic manner, and is always accompanied by a guard of twelve workers, an office taken in turn, and never intermitted." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Queen Bee

"The queen bee is larger and longer than the other bees; she moves in a slow and majestic manner, and…

""The working bee, for collecting wax, enters a flower, the stamens of which are loaded with pollen. This dust attaches itself to the brush-like hairs covering the body of the bee, when, by rubbing itself with the brushes with which the tarsi are furnished, the insect collects it into little parcels, which it places on small palettes, hollowed out on the surface of its hund limbs." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Working Bees

""The working bee, for collecting wax, enters a flower, the stamens of which are loaded with pollen.…

"The secretion of wax, it would appear, goes on best when the bees are in a state of repose, and the wax-workers accordingly suspend themselves in the interioir of the hive in an extended cluster like a curtain, which is composed of a series of intertwined festoons or garlands crossing each other in all directions - the uppermost bee maintaining its position by laying hold of the roof by its fore-legs, and the suceeding one by laying hold of the hind-legs of the first, and so on." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Bees Secreting Wax

"The secretion of wax, it would appear, goes on best when the bees are in a state of repose, and the…

"The hexagonal cells for the honey are build upon precisely that mathematical angle which affords the greatest amount of strength with the least waste of material." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Cells of Honey Bees

"The hexagonal cells for the honey are build upon precisely that mathematical angle which affords the…

"The <em>Leptura Mordax</em>, or <em> Rhagium Mordax</em> of Europe, three-fourths of an inch long, bites severely when captured with the hand." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Blackspotted Pliers Support Beetle

"The Leptura Mordax, or Rhagium Mordax of Europe, three-fourths of an inch long,…

"The bombadier beetle has a large oval abdomen, which secretes a caustic fluid. They live in societies, and when they are attacked or alarmed, they discharge this fluid, which not only makes a loud report, but diffuses a disagreeable and penetrating odor: if the liquid strikes the human skin, it produces a blister." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Bombadier Beetle

"The bombadier beetle has a large oval abdomen, which secretes a caustic fluid. They live in societies,…

"The Burying Beetles are prompted by their insect to bury any small animals or pieces of carrion as a provision for their young. In many cases several of them set to work together, getting under the animal to be buried, and digging the earth out with their feet." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Burying Beetles

"The Burying Beetles are prompted by their insect to bury any small animals or pieces of carrion as…

Nicrophorus germanicus, a larger species of necrophaga.

Burying Beetle

Nicrophorus germanicus, a larger species of necrophaga.

"The insects of this tribe, called <em>Capricorn Beetles</em> and distributed throughout most parts of the world, are generally distinguished by the great length of their entennae, these being usually considerably longer than the body." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Capricorn Beetle

"The insects of this tribe, called Capricorn Beetles and distributed throughout most parts…

"One of the most beautiful of the European species of trachelia is the <em>Pyrochroa rubens</em>, which is found about hedge-banks." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Cardinal Beetle

"One of the most beautiful of the European species of trachelia is the Pyrochroa rubens, which…

"These insects are generally found in dark and dirty places about houses, in cellars, and similar situations." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Churchyard Beetle

"These insects are generally found in dark and dirty places about houses, in cellars, and similar situations."…

"The <em>Elater striatus</em> of Caenne, is an inch long, of a black color, and striped upon the back." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Click Beetle

"The Elater striatus of Caenne, is an inch long, of a black color, and striped upon the back."…

"Other species, which also bore into timber in their larva state, are well known by the name of <em>Death-watch - Anobium -</em> from their habit of knocking with their jaws against the wood-work upon which they are standing, this being the call of the insect to its mate." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Deathwatch Beetles

"Other species, which also bore into timber in their larva state, are well known by the name of Death-watch

"Smallish insects, generally of a black color, with the elytra rather shorter than the body, which is usually of a square form." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Four-Spotted Beetle

"Smallish insects, generally of a black color, with the elytra rather shorter than the body, which is…

"One of the largest European beetles, the Brown Hydrophile, <em>Hydrous piceus</em>, which is common in ponds in some localities, belongs to [the philhydrida]." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Giant Silver Beetle

"One of the largest European beetles, the Brown Hydrophile, Hydrous piceus, which is common…

"The <em>Dyticus marginalis</em>, a European species very common in ponds, attains a length of more than an inch." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Great Diving Beetle Adult and Larvae

"The Dyticus marginalis, a European species very common in ponds, attains a length of more…

"The <em>Dyticus marginalis</em>, a European species very common in ponds, attains a length of more than an inch." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Great Diving Beetle Female

"The Dyticus marginalis, a European species very common in ponds, attains a length of more…

"The hercules beetle is a native of Brazil, sometimes attaining a length of five inches." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Hercules Beetle

"The hercules beetle is a native of Brazil, sometimes attaining a length of five inches." — Goodrich,…

"Received its specific name on account of the fondness exhibited by its curious larva for bacon." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Lard Beetles

"Received its specific name on account of the fondness exhibited by its curious larva for bacon." —…

"The Popular-tree Golden bug, <em>chrysomela populi</em>, of a blueish-green, has a strong odor, and on being touched discharges a yellow liquid: found in Central Europe." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Leaf Beetle

"The Popular-tree Golden bug, chrysomela populi, of a blueish-green, has a strong odor, and…

"Is of an ashy-blue color and is a very elegant species." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Rosalie Beetle

"Is of an ashy-blue color and is a very elegant species." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

"Many of the dung beetles, among which the Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians, <em>Scarabus Aegyptiorum</em>, holds a prominent place, are remarkable for inclosing their eggs in a small pellet of dung, which they then roll along with their hind-legs, until they drop it into a hole which they have dug for its reception." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Sacred Beetle

"Many of the dung beetles, among which the Sacred Beetle of the Egyptians, Scarabus Aegyptiorum,…

"Is nearly twice as long as the hercules beetle, its color being of a brilliant brown." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Scarab Beetle

"Is nearly twice as long as the hercules beetle, its color being of a brilliant brown." — Goodrich,…

"In the European Stag Beetle, <em>Lucanus cervus</em>, as well as the <em>L. dama</em> of our country, called the <em>Horn Beetle</em>, the leaves are short and distinct, rendering the club pectinated." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Stag Beetle

"In the European Stag Beetle, Lucanus cervus, as well as the L. dama of our country,…

A pair of sugar beetles resting on leaves.

Sugar Beetle

A pair of sugar beetles resting on leaves.

"The common European species, <em>Cincindela campestris</em>, may be found flying and running around with great agility in the hottest sunshine. The larvae are of a singular form; they live in holes in the ground, maintaining themselves by a pair of hooks places on the enlarged eighth segment of their body, at such a height that their heads exactly occupy the mouth of the hole." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Tiger Beetle and Larvae

"The common European species, Cincindela campestris, may be found flying and running around…

"The common European species, <em>Cincindela campestris</em>, may be found flying and running around with great agility in the hottest sunshine. The larvae are of a singular form; they live in holes in the ground, maintaining themselves by a pair of hooks places on the enlarged eighth segment of their body, at such a height that their heads exactly occupy the mouth of the hole." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Tiger Beetle Larve

"The common European species, Cincindela campestris, may be found flying and running around…

"The typographic beetle recieves it's name... from the circumstance that the burrows formed by it in feeding upon the soft wood, immediately within the bark, oten present a rude resemblence to printed characters." &mdash Goodrich, 1859

Typograhic Beetle

"The typographic beetle recieves it's name... from the circumstance that the burrows formed by it in…

"The Giant Buprestis, <em>B. gigantea</em> of guiana, is two inches long, and its body is of a green coppery color. It is so brilliant that inhabitants make bracelets and other ornaments of it." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Giant Buprestis

"The Giant Buprestis, B. gigantea of guiana, is two inches long, and its body is of a green…

"The Apollo butterfly, <em>P. Apollo</em>, is found in the damp meadows of the high Alps; the wings are whitish, wth five black spots on each of the superior ones; on the inferior are two sparkling eye-like figures, bordered with black. It flies in June and July. Thus even wild mountain regions, as well as those of the florid tropics, are embellished by this beautiful family." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Apollo Butterfly

"The Apollo butterfly, P. Apollo, is found in the damp meadows of the high Alps; the wings…

"The Galatea Butterfly, <em>P. Galatea</em>, A Euoprean species, called <em>The Half-Mourning Butterfly</em>, has the wings slightly denticulated; they are of a brownish-yellow, with the base and extremities black, and spotted with white." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Half-Mourning Butterfly

"The Galatea Butterfly, P. Galatea, A Euoprean species, called The Half-Mourning Butterfly,…

"A mourning-cloak butterfly near a branch." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Mourning-Cloak Butterfly

"A mourning-cloak butterfly near a branch." — Goodrich, 1859

"The Peacock-butterfly, <em>V. Io</em>, has the edges of the wings denticulated; above they are of a reddish-fawn, with a large eye-spot on each; those on the superior wings are red, encircled, with mingled black and yellow; those o nthe inferior ones are blue, with a black circle. It is a splendid European species, inhabiting woods, meadows, and gardens in October." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Peacock Butterfly

"The Peacock-butterfly, V. Io, has the edges of the wings denticulated; above they are of a…

"The Priam butterfly, <em>Papilio priamus</em>, is a native of the Eastern Archipelago; its wings are from seven to eight inches in extent, and are colored with rich green and deep black." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Priam Butterfly

"The Priam butterfly, Papilio priamus, is a native of the Eastern Archipelago; its wings are…

"Butterfly, Grub or Caterpillar, and Pupa or Chrysalis" &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Stages of Development of a Butterfly

"Butterfly, Grub or Caterpillar, and Pupa or Chrysalis" — Goodrich, 1859

"The Sybil Butterfly, <em>P. Sybilla</em>, sometimes called the <em>Mourning Butterfly</em>, is a common European species, flying in the dog-days, the upper part of the wings of a brownish-black, with a white band across the middle; beneath they are of an ashy-blue, with black spots." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Sybil Butterfly

"The Sybil Butterfly, P. Sybilla, sometimes called the Mourning Butterfly, is a common…

"The Troilus Butterfly, <em>Papilio Troilus</em>, is a superb insect, the wings denticulated, black, spotted with yellow, and terminated by a swallow-tail. It lives on spice-wood and sassafras-trees; is rare in the Northern States; common in the Southern, and in the West Indies." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Troilus Butterfly

"The Troilus Butterfly, Papilio Troilus, is a superb insect, the wings denticulated, black,…

"The trilobite's general form is shown in the annexed figure of the <em>Calymene Blumenbachii</em>; they possessed well-formed, compound, faceted eyes, which are frequently well-preserved in the fossil state. The body is usually divided into three regions, of which the first and last are commonly in the form of the semicircular plates, while the middle portion exhibits distinct segmentation, and by its flexibilty enabled the animal to double itself up in the manner of the common wood-louse." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Calymene

"The trilobite's general form is shown in the annexed figure of the Calymene Blumenbachii;…

"The Blue Carabus, <em>C. cyaneus</em>, is an inch and a quarter long, the body oval, flat, and above of a brilliant blue." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Blue Carabus

"The Blue Carabus, C. cyaneus, is an inch and a quarter long, the body oval, flat, and above…

"In illustration of the savageness of this race, the author of the "Jardin des Plantes" tells us of a Golden carabus, <em>C. auratus</em>, that was seen to pursue and attack a cock-chafer, and, having drawn out its bowels, proceed leisurelt to devour them. This species inhabits gardens, and is popularly called the <em>Gardener</em>." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Golden Carabus and Cock-Chafer

"In illustration of the savageness of this race, the author of the "Jardin des Plantes" tells us of…

"The Inquisitor Carabus, <em>C. inquisitor</em>, has the same form and manner as the [Sycophant Carabus]: the body is an inch long, and of a blackish-green color." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Inquisitor Carabus

"The Inquisitor Carabus, C. inquisitor, has the same form and manner as the [Sycophant Carabus]:…

"The <em>Cassida gibbosa</em> of Brazil, three quarters of an inch long, is one of the larger species of helmet-beetles."&mdash Goodrich, 1859

Cassida gibbosa

"The Cassida gibbosa of Brazil, three quarters of an inch long, is one of the larger species…

"If the guide stops a moment all the followers halt; if he continues the route, they all hasten after him; if he makes a circuit, they all make the circuit also. Should they find a branch of fresh green leaves, they immediately prepare to feast upon it; the ranks spread themselves upon it, each one touching his neighbor, so that not a part of the branch escapes their depridations." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Processionary Caterpillars

"If the guide stops a moment all the followers halt; if he continues the route, they all hasten after…

"If the guide stops a moment all the followers halt; if he continues the route, they all hasten after him; if he makes a circuit, they all make the circuit also. Should they find a branch of fresh green leaves, they immediately prepare to feast upon it; the ranks spread themselves upon it, each one touching his neighbor, so that not a part of the branch escapes their depridations." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Processionary Caterpillars

"If the guide stops a moment all the followers halt; if he continues the route, they all hasten after…

"The Cheese-mite, <em>Acarus domesticus</em>, and others are parasitic upon or beneath the skin of man and other animals." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Cheese-mite

"The Cheese-mite, Acarus domesticus, and others are parasitic upon or beneath the skin of man…

"In America the cicadas have the general name of <em>Harvest-flies</em>; they are also often improperly called <em>Locusts</em>. There are several species, one of which, the Red-eyed cicada, <em>C. septendicim</em>, is remarkable on account of the popular notion that it appears only once in seventeen years, in the same locality, being supposed to pass the interval in its preparatory stages." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Cicada

"In America the cicadas have the general name of Harvest-flies; they are also often improperly…

"In the common European Cock-Chafer, <em>Melolontha vulgaris</em>, they are of considerable length, especially the male, and fold up like the leaves of a fan. These insects fly well, but heavily, with a loud whirring noise; but they generally grawl slowly." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Cockchafer

"In the common European Cock-Chafer, Melolontha vulgaris, they are of considerable length,…

"Blattina includes the <em>Cockroaches</em>, the most noted species of which, the Black beetle or Common Cockroach, <em>Blatta Orientalis</em>, often swarms to such an extent in houses as to be complete nuisance." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Common Cockroach

"Blattina includes the Cockroaches, the most noted species of which, the Black beetle or Common…

"The larvae are very similar to the perfect insects, both in appearance and habits. Many of them feed in carrion; others in rotton wood and other decaying vegetable matter. The number of joins in the tarsi varies greatly, but five is the prevalent number." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Cocktails

"The larvae are very similar to the perfect insects, both in appearance and habits. Many of them feed…