The auditory apparatus with the surrounding bone removed. Labels: M, external auditory canal; SC, semicircular canals; C, cochlea.

The Auditory Apparatus

The auditory apparatus with the surrounding bone removed. Labels: M, external auditory canal; SC, semicircular…

A diagram of a section of the auditory apparatus. Labels: E, external canal; M, in the middle ear; V, vestibule; SC, semi-circular canals; N, auditory nerve; S, cochlea; ET, Eustachian tube.

Diagram of the Auditory Apparatus

A diagram of a section of the auditory apparatus. Labels: E, external canal; M, in the middle ear; V,…

"By anatomists, the auditory nerve is associated with the facial, and is the seventh in order of origin from the brain, counting from before backwards. The seventh pair consists of the portio dura or facial, the portio mollis or auditory, and a small intermediate portion." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Auditory Nerve

"By anatomists, the auditory nerve is associated with the facial, and is the seventh in order of origin…

"By anatomists, the auditory nerve is associated with the facial, and is the seventh in order of origin from the brain, counting from before backwards. The seventh pair consists of the portio dura or facial, the portio mollis or auditory, and a small intermediate portion." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Auditory Nerve

"By anatomists, the auditory nerve is associated with the facial, and is the seventh in order of origin…

"a, the osseous septum grooved for the passage of the cochlear nerve b, which terminates by a free end inside the chamber c, along the floor of which it lies for a short distance; d, d are the two layers of the membranous septum. Lying in contact with the end of the nerve is the enlarged extremity of a rod e, which is connected in a flail-like manner by the hinge f to another rod, which is fixed at g." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Auditory Nerve

"a, the osseous septum grooved for the passage of the cochlear nerve b, which terminates by a free end…

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal bone. It is lined by skin on which there are fine hairs, and a set of glands secreting earwax, which serves to moisten the parts, catch particles fo dust, and keep away small insects." — Blaisedell, 1904

External auditory canal

"A Cast of the External Auditory Canal. The auditory canal is a passage in the solid potion of the temporal…

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its upper wall; Sc.V, the part of the bony cavity above the canal of the cochlea; Sc.T, the part below it; O.C, the organ of Corti on the basilar membrane; A.N., branch of auditory nerve in the central column of the spiral; a, connective tissue cushion to which the basilar membrane is attached; b, the bony walls; m.t, a membrane lying over the organ of Corti; l.s, the spiral ledge projecting from the axis.

Cochlea

Diagram of a section of a coil of the cochlea of the ear. Labels: C.C, canal of the cochlea; mR, its…

"The cranial nerves are thus arranged in pairs: 1, olfactory nerves, special nerves of smell; 2, optic nerves, passing to each eyeball, devoted to sight; 3, 4, and 6 control the muscles fo the eyes; 5, trifacial in three branches, which proceed mainly to the face, partly sensory and partly motor; 7, facial nerves, controlling the facial muscles; 8, auditory, or nerves of hearing; 9, glossopharyngeal nerves, partly sensory and partly motor: each nerve contains two roots, one a nerve of taste, the other a motor nerve, which controls the muscles engaged in swallowing; 10, pneumogastric nerves; 11, spinal accessory nerves, supplying some of the muscles of the neck and back; 12, hypoglossal nerves, controlling the movements of the tongue in speech and swallowing." — Blaisedell, 1904

Distribution of the cranial nerves

"The cranial nerves are thus arranged in pairs: 1, olfactory nerves, special nerves of smell; 2, optic…

The human ear. Labels: A, vestibule or antechamber; B, auditory canal; C, the hammer, anvil, and the stirrup; D, semicircular canals; E, cochlea; G, Eustachian tube.

Ear

The human ear. Labels: A, vestibule or antechamber; B, auditory canal; C, the hammer, anvil, and the…

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, the external auditory canal; T, tympanic, or drum-membrane (ear drum); P, tympanum, or middle ear; o, oval window; r, round window. Extending from T to o is seen the chain of the tympanic bones; R, Eustachian tube; V, B, S, bony labyrinth; V, vestibule; B, semicircular canal; S, cochlea; b, l, v, membranous labyrinth in semi-circular canal and in vestibule. A, auditory nerve dividing into branches for vestibule, semicircular canal, cochlea.

Ear and Auditory Canal

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, the external auditory canal;…

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. These bones are called from their shape the <em>malleus</em> (hammer), the <em>incus</em> (anvil), and the <em>stapes</em> (stirrup)." — Ritchie, 1918

Bones of the Ear

"Across the middle ear a chain of three small bones stretches from the tympanic membrane to the inner…

"<em>A</em>, oval window; <em>B, C, D,</em> semicircular canals; * represents the bulging part of each canal; <em>E, F, G,</em> cochlea; <em>H</em>, round window." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Internal ear

"A, oval window; B, C, D, semicircular canals; * represents the bulging part of each…

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory meatus, closed internally by the conical tympanic membrane; L, the malleus, or hammer-bone; H, the incus, or anvil-bone; S, the stapes, or stirrup-bone.

Middle Ear

The middle ear and its bones, considerably magnified. Labels: G, the inner end of the external auditory…

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T, tympanic or drum membrane; P, middle ear; o, oval foramen; r, round foramen. Extending from T to o is seen the chain of tympanic bones. R, Eustachian tube. V,B,S, bony labyrinth: V, vestibule; B, semicircular canal; S, cochlea. b,l,l', membranous semicircular canal and vestibule. A, auditory nerve dividing into branches for vestibule, semicircular canal, and cochlea.

Section Through the Right Ear

Semi-diagrammatic section through the right ear. Labels: M, concha; G, external auditory meatus; T,…

"<em>A</em>, pinna; <em>B</em>, cavity of the concha, showing the openings of a great number of sebaceous glands; <em>C</em>, external auditory meatus; <em>D</em>, typanic membrane; <em>F</em>, incus; <em>H</em>, malleus; <em>K</em>, handle of malleus applied to the internal surface of the membrana typani; <em>L</em>, tensor typani muscle; between <em>M</em> and <em>K</em> is the tymphanic cavity; <em>N</em> Eustachian tube; <em>O,P,</em> semicircular canals; <em>R</em>, internal auditory canal; <em>S</em>, large nerve given off from the facial nerve; <em>T</em>, facial and auditory nerves." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

General view of organ of hearing

"A, pinna; B, cavity of the concha, showing the openings of a great number of sebaceous…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a mollusk showing the (a) auditory nerve, (b) the outer wall of connective tissue, (c) cells with auditory hairs, and (d) otolith.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a cray fish showing the auditory sac at the base.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a grasshopper located in the abdomen.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves. These sound waves come to animals through the air, through water, or throught both air and water. Here we see the auditory organ of a cricket showing the auditory organ in the foreleg.

Sense of Hearing

Hearing is the perception of certain vibrations of bodies. These vibrations give rise to sound waves.…

"The outer ear consists of a plate of gristle, shaped somewhat like a shell, known as the pinna, or auricle, and of a tube about an inch long, called the auditory canal." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Pinna

"The outer ear consists of a plate of gristle, shaped somewhat like a shell, known as the pinna, or…

Sound making amoung animals serves to aid in frightening away enemies or in warnng companions of their approach, for recognition among mates and members of a band or species. It also aids in the attracting and wooing of mates, and the interchange of information. The annoying, high-pitched, whining sound mosquitoes make is caused by their wings rapidly beating hundred of times per second. This diagram shows the auditory hairs on the antennae of a mosquito.

Sound Making

Sound making amoung animals serves to aid in frightening away enemies or in warnng companions of their…

An example of how to produce a tone. This illustration shows one end of a string fixed to a hook and suspending a weight from the other end. When you pluck the string it causes it to make a musical note, also known as a tone.

Tone

An example of how to produce a tone. This illustration shows one end of a string fixed to a hook and…

"A glass bell is fixed to stand, and beside it is a stand carrying a small ivory ball. This is so arranged that the ball shall just rest against the rim of the glass, Now let the violin bow be rubbed with a lump of rosin, and then drawn steadily over the edge of the glass. A clear musical note will be produced, but the vibrations of the glass will scarcely be perceptible to the eye." -New, 1891

Tone

"A glass bell is fixed to stand, and beside it is a stand carrying a small ivory ball. This is so arranged…

"If a light strip of steel is firmly gripped at one end in a vice and the other end plucked aside, it will, when let go, vibrate backwards and forwards as shown; and if the vibrations are sufficiently rapid, a musical note will be produced." -New, 1891

Tone

"If a light strip of steel is firmly gripped at one end in a vice and the other end plucked aside, it…