The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left lobe at this age should be noted.

Abdomen of Fetus

The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left…

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline)."For convenience of description the abdomen may be artificially divided into nine regions by drawing two circular lines around the body parallel with the cartilages of the ninth ribs, and the highest point of the crests of the ilia; and two vertical lines from the cartilage of the eighth rib on each side to the center of Poupart's ligament. The vicar contained in these different regions are as follows: -- Right Hypochondriac - the right lobe of the liver and gall-bladder, hepatic flexure of the colon, and part of the right kidney. Right Lumbar - ascending colon, part of the right kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Right Inguinal (Iliac) - the caecum, appendix caeci. Epigastric Region - the middle and pyloric end o the stomach, left lobe of the liver, the pancreas, the duodenum, part of the kidneys and the suprarenal capsules. Umbilical Region - the transverse colon, part of the great omentum and mesentery, transverse part of the duodenum, and some convolutions of the jejunum and ileum, and part of both kidneys. Hypogastric Region - convolutions of the small intestines, the bladder in children, and in adults if distended, and the uterus during pregnancy. Left Hypochondriac - the splenic end of the stomach, the spleen and extremity of the pancreas, the splenic flexure of the colon, and part of the left kidney. Left Lumbar - descending color, part of the omentum, part of the left kidney, and some convolutions of the small intestines. Left Inguinal (Iliac) - sigmoid flexure of the colon." — Kimber, 1907.

Regions of the Abdomen and their Contents

Regions of the abdomen and their contents (edge of costal cartilages in dotted outline). "For convenience…

Condition of parts in extroversion of the bladder.

Bladder

Condition of parts in extroversion of the bladder.

The urinary bladder, distended, with surrounding structure, viewed from behind.

Bladder

The urinary bladder, distended, with surrounding structure, viewed from behind.

View looking into the pelvis from above and somewhat behind. The bladder has been artificially distended.

Bladder

View looking into the pelvis from above and somewhat behind. The bladder has been artificially distended.

Dissection of the base of the bladder and prostate gland, showing the vesiculae seminales and vasa deferentia. Labels: a, lower surface of the bladder at the place of the reflexion of the peritoneum; b, the part above covered by the peritoneum; i, left vas deferens, ending in e, the ejaculatory duct; the vas deferens had been divided near i, and all except the vesical portion has been taken away; s, left vesicula seminalis joining the same duct; s, the right vas deferens and right vesicula seminalis, which has been unraveled; p, under side of the prostate gland; m, part of the urethra; u, the ureters (cut short), the right one turned aside.

Bladder and Prostate Gland

Dissection of the base of the bladder and prostate gland, showing the vesiculae seminales and vasa deferentia.…

The bladder of a newborn male child, viewed fro, the outer side.

Bladder of Newborn Male Child

The bladder of a newborn male child, viewed fro, the outer side.

The empty bladder.

Empty Bladder

The empty bladder.

The figure on the left shows fibers of the external longitudinal layer. The middle figure shows fibers of the middle circular layer. The figure on the right shows the fibers of the internal longitudinal layer.

Fibers of the Bladder

The figure on the left shows fibers of the external longitudinal layer. The middle figure shows fibers…

View of the interior of the bladder in the region of the urethral orfice.

Interior of the Bladder

View of the interior of the bladder in the region of the urethral orfice.

The bladder, a reservoir for urine, is a musculo-membranous sac, situated n the anterior portion of the pelvis, behind the pubes, and in front of the rectum in the male, in front of the cervix uteri and vagina in the female.

The Bladder

The bladder, a reservoir for urine, is a musculo-membranous sac, situated n the anterior portion of…

The under aspect of the empty male bladder from a subject in which the viscera has been hardened in situ. The prostate has been severed from the bladder, and the white area in the drawing indicates the position where the two structures were continuous.

Under Aspect of Male Bladder

The under aspect of the empty male bladder from a subject in which the viscera has been hardened in…

View looking into the male pelvis from above and somewhat behind. From a specimen in which the bladder was firmly contracted and contained but a small amount of fluid. The paravesical fossa is seen on each side of the bladder. The deep peritoneal pouch in front of the rectum is bounded by marked crescentic folds, which meet together some distance behind the posterior border of the bladder.

View of Male Pelvis Showing Bladder

View looking into the male pelvis from above and somewhat behind. From a specimen in which the bladder…

The iliac and pelvic colons, from a formalin-hardened male body, aged 30. The pelvic colon was usually long; its course is shown, as well as that of the beginning of the rectum, by dotted lines. It first ran across the upper surface of the bladder to the right pelvic wall, then recrossed the pelvis in a line posterior to is first crossing; finally it returned towards the middle line, and passed into the rectum. As a rule, after crossing to the right side of the pelvis, the pelvic colon turns backwards and inwards to reach the middle line, where it passes into the rectum.

Iliac and Pelvic Colons

The iliac and pelvic colons, from a formalin-hardened male body, aged 30. The pelvic colon was usually…

"Dissected fish. a, air bladder; b, urinary bladder; b, urinary bladder; br, brain; c, spinal cord; d and da, dorsal fins; dv, anal fin; e, body of the vertebra; g, gills receiving the blood from the ventral aorta leading out of the heart h; i, intestine; k, kidney; l, liver; m, spines of the vertebra; n, auricle of the heart; ov, ovary; ovd, oviduct; st, stomach; sp, spleen; u, ureter." —Davison, 1906

Dissected Fish

"Dissected fish. a, air bladder; b, urinary bladder; b, urinary bladder; br, brain; c, spinal cord;…

"Frog with the left side cut away and some of the organs pulled downward. a, aorta leading from the ventricle; b, bladder; c, spinal cord surrounded by the vertebral column of bone; d, small intestine; e, opening of the lungs into the pharynx; h, ventricle of the heart; k, kidney; l, lung; liv, liver; n, brain; ov, ovary; ovd, oviduct; p, pancreas; r, rectum; sp, spleen; st, stomach; t, tongue; si, small intestine; u, left auricle; ur, ureter; v, vena cava; vc, body of vertebra." —Davison, 1906

Dissected Frog

"Frog with the left side cut away and some of the organs pulled downward. a, aorta leading from the…

Epithelium of the bladder. Labels: a, one of the cells of the first row; b, a cell of the second row; c, cells in situ, of first, second, and deepest layers.

Epithelium of the Bladder

Epithelium of the bladder. Labels: a, one of the cells of the first row; b, a cell of the second row;…

Deep layers of the epithelium of the bladder, showing large club-shaped cells above, and smaller, more spindle-shaped cells below each with an oval nucleus.

Deep Layer of Bladder Epithelium

Deep layers of the epithelium of the bladder, showing large club-shaped cells above, and smaller, more…

Superficial layer of the epithelium of the bladder. Composed of polyhedral cells of various sizes, each one, two, or three nuciei.

Superficial Layer of Bladder Epithelium

Superficial layer of the epithelium of the bladder. Composed of polyhedral cells of various sizes, each…

Sagittal section in the median line of the female pelvis.

female Pelvis

Sagittal section in the median line of the female pelvis.

Section of Kidney. 1: Body of Kidney; 2: Internal vessels; 3: Ureter, leading to the bladder.

Kidney

Section of Kidney. 1: Body of Kidney; 2: Internal vessels; 3: Ureter, leading to the bladder.

Kidneys and their vessels. 1: Left kidney; 2: Ascending vein; 3: Aorta; 4: Left ureter; 5: Bladder.

Kidneys

Kidneys and their vessels. 1: Left kidney; 2: Ascending vein; 3: Aorta; 4: Left ureter; 5: Bladder.

Sagittal section in the median line of the male pelvis.

Male Pelvis

Sagittal section in the median line of the male pelvis.

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels: D, diaphragm; L, liver; S, stomach; C, transverse colon; D, transverse duodenum; P, pancreas; I, small intestines; R, rectum; B, bladder.

The Peritoneum

Diagram of the peritoneum, a serous membrane covering all the contents of the abdominal cavity. Labels:…

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior vena cava; Vr, right renal vein; U, right ureter; Vu, bladder; Ua, commencement of urethra." —Martin, 1917

Renal Organs

"The renal organs, viewed from behind. R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right renal artery; Vc, inferior…

The renal organs viewed from behind. labels: R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right erenal artery; Vc, inferior vena cava; Vr, right renal vein; U, right ureter; Vu, bladder; Ua, urethra.

The Renal Organs Viewed from Behind

The renal organs viewed from behind. labels: R, right kidney; A, aorta; Ar, right erenal artery; Vc,…

33. Saw-edge wrack, 34. Bladder wrack, 35. Sugar-tangle.

Seaweeds

33. Saw-edge wrack, 34. Bladder wrack, 35. Sugar-tangle.

In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

Transverse Section of Ureter

In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

"Quadrifid hairs from interior of bladder of Ultricularia vulgaris (x 300)" — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Utricularia

"Quadrifid hairs from interior of bladder of Ultricularia vulgaris (x 300)" — The Encyclopedia…

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and allow it to dry. Then exhaust the air. The bladder will be forced inward, bursting with a loud noise. Replace the bladder with a thin sheet of india-rubber. Exhaust the air. The rubber sheet will be pressed inward, and nearly cover the inner surface of the receiver." -Avery 1895

Vacuum

"Over the upper end of a cylindrical receiver, tie tightly a wet bladder or sheet of writing paper and…