"Palmar aspect of left fore foot of a black bear (Ursus americanus). scl, scapholunar; c, cuneiform; p, pisiform; tr, trapezium; t, trapezoid; m, magnum; u, unciform. The phalanges show a full series of sesamoid bones (unmarked)." -Whitney, 1911

Bear Foot

"Palmar aspect of left fore foot of a black bear (Ursus americanus). scl, scapholunar; c, cuneiform;…

A firm, hard, whitish substance, composing the skeleton.

Bone

A firm, hard, whitish substance, composing the skeleton.

"The skeleton of the Chacma Baboon." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Chacma Baboon

"The skeleton of the Chacma Baboon." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Coffer and bones, the remains of Columbus.

Coffer

Coffer and bones, the remains of Columbus.

"Schizorhinal skull of curlew (top view), showing the long cleft, a, between upper and lower forks of each nasal bone." -Whitney, 1911

Curlew Skull

"Schizorhinal skull of curlew (top view), showing the long cleft, a, between upper and lower forks of…

The skeleton of a dugong, one of four living species in the order Sirenia.

Skeleton of the Dugong

The skeleton of a dugong, one of four living species in the order Sirenia.

"Shows how the bones of the arm (q), forearm (q'x), and foot (o), are twisted to form an osseous screw."—Pettigrew, 1875

Anterior Extremity of Elephant

"Shows how the bones of the arm (q), forearm (q'x), and foot (o), are twisted to form an osseous screw."—Pettigrew,…

"The external bones of the temple are supposed to be removed in order to render visible the muscular arrangements. The muscle, 1, raises the eye-lid, and is constantly in action while we are awake. During sleep, the muscle being in repose and relaxed, the eye-lid falls and protects the eye from the action of light. The muscle, 4, turns the eye upwards; 5, downwards; 6, outwards; and a corresponding one on the inside, not seen in the figure, turns it inwards. No. 2 and 10 turn the eye round its axis. No. 11 is the great optic nerve, which conveys the sensation to the brain. If this nerve were cut, notwithstanding the eye might be in other respects perfect, the sense of sight would be destroyed." —Wells, 1857

Eye Muscles

"The external bones of the temple are supposed to be removed in order to render visible the muscular…

Section of the femur. 1: External view; 2: Cellular portion at end; 3: Hollow in middle; 4: Thick shell of middle.

Femur

Section of the femur. 1: External view; 2: Cellular portion at end; 3: Hollow in middle; 4: Thick shell…

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the glue (either animal bone or hide) is soaked in a milk of lime (or in some cases, Hydrochloric or Sulfurous acid) to purify and loosen particles.

First Stage in Glue Manufacturing

This illustration shows the first stage in the manufacturing of glue. The material used for making the…

"The Foot is that part of the lower extremity below the leg on which we stand and walk. It is composed of three series of groups of bones– the tarsal, or hindermost; the metatarsal, which occupy the middle portion; and the phalanges, which form the toes.The tarsal bones are seven in number. The metatarsal bones are five in number. The phalanges are 14 in number, three to each toe, except the great one, which has only two."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Side View of Bones in Foot

"The Foot is that part of the lower extremity below the leg on which we stand and walk. It is composed…

"The Foot is that part of the lower extremity below the leg on which we stand and walk. It is composed of three series of groups of bones– the tarsal, or hindermost; the metatarsal, which occupy the middle portion; and the phalanges, which form the toes.The tarsal bones are seven in number. The metatarsal bones are five in number. The phalanges are 14 in number, three to each toe, except the great one, which has only two."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Side View of Bones in Foot

"The Foot is that part of the lower extremity below the leg on which we stand and walk. It is composed…

"Fig. 62 Skull of common fowl, enlarged. from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. The names of bones and some other parts are printed, requiring no explanation; but observe the following points: The distinction of none of the bones composing the brain-case (the upper back expanded part) can be found in a mature skull. The brain is contained between the occipital, sphenoidals, squamosals, parietals and part of frontal; the ethmoidals belong to the same group of cranial bones proper. All other bones, excepting the three otic ear-bones, are bones of the face and jaws. The lower jaw, of five bones, is drawn detached; it articulates by the black surface marked articular with the prominence just above- the quadratic bone. Observe that from this quadrate a series of bones quadrato-jugal, jugal, maxillary-makes a slender rod running to the premaxillary; this is the zygoma, or jugal bar. Observe from the quadrate also another series, composed of pterygoid and palatine bones, to the premaxillary; this is the pterygo-palatine bar; it slides along a median fixed axis of the skull, the rostrum, which bears the loose vomer at its end. The under mandible, quadrate, pterygoid, and vomer are the only movable bones of this skull. But when the quadrate rocks back and forth, as it does by its upper joint, its lower end pulls and pushes upon the upper mandible, by means of the jugal and pterygo-palatine bars, setting the whole scaffolding of the upper jaw in motion. This motion hinges upon the elasticity of the bones of the forehead, at the thin place just where the reference-lines from the words "lacrymal" and "mesethmoid" cross each other. The dark oval space behind the quadrate is the external orifice of the ear; the parts in it to which the three reference-lines go are diagrammatic, not actual representations; thus, the quadrate articulates with a large pro-otic as well as with the squamosal. The great excavation at the middle of the figure, containing the cirlet of the unshaded bones, is the left orbital cavity, orbit, or socket of the eye. The mesethmoid includes most of the background of this cavity, shaded diagonally. The upper one of the two processes of bone extending into it from behind is post-frontal or sphenotic process; the under one (just over the quadrate) is the squamosal process. A bone not shown, the presphenoid, lies just in front of the oval black space over the end of basisphenoid. This black oval is the optic foramen, through which the nerve of sight passes from the brain-cavity to the eye. The black dot a little behind the optic foramen is the orifice of exit of a part of the trifacial nerve. The black mark under the letters "on" of the word "frontal" is the olfactory foramen, where the nerve of smell emerges from the brain-box to go to the nose. The nasal cavity is the black space behind nasal and covered by that bone, and in the oval blank before it. The parts of the beak covered by horn are only premaxillary, nasal, and dentary. The condyle articulates with the first cervical vertebra; just above it, not shown, is the foramen magnum, or great hole through which the spinal medulla, or main nervous cord, passes from the spinal column. The basioccipital is hidden, excepting its condyle; so is much of the basisphenoid. The prolongation forward of the basisphenoid, marked "rostrum," and bearing the vomer at its end, is the parasphenoid, as far as its thickened under border is concerned. Between the fore end of the pterygoid and the basisphenoidal rostrum, is the site of the basipterygoid process, by which the bones concerned articulate by smooth facets; further forward, the palatines ride freely upon the parasphenoidal rostrum. In any passerine bird , the vomer would be thick in front, and forked behind, riding like the palatine upon the rostrum. The palatine seems to run into the maxillary in this view; but it continues on to premaxillary. The maxillo-palatine is an important bone which cannot be seen in the figure because it extends horizontally into the paper from the maxillary about where the reference life "maxillary" goes to that bone. The general line from the condyle to the end of the vomer is the cranial axis, basis cranii, or base of the cranium. This skull is widest across the post-frontal; next most so across the bulge of the jugal bar." Elliot Coues, 1884

Skull of a Common Fowl

"Fig. 62 Skull of common fowl, enlarged. from nature by Dr. R.W. Shufeldt, U.S.A. The names of bones…

"Skeleton of Horse (Equus caballus). fr, frontal bone; C, cervical vertebrae; D, dorsal vertebrae; L, lumbar vertebrae; cd, caudal vertebrae; sc, scapula; pe, pelvis; ma, mandible; hu, humerus; ra, radius; cp, carpus; mc, metacarpus; fe, femur; tib, tibia; ca, calcaneum; tar, tarsus; mt, metatarsus; p, phalanges." -Whitney, 1911

Horse Skeleton

"Skeleton of Horse (Equus caballus). fr, frontal bone; C, cervical vertebrae; D, dorsal vertebrae; L,…

"Anterior View, Distal End, of Right Humerus of a Man. H, humerus; epc, epicondyle, or external supracondyloid protuberance; ept, epitrochlea, or internal supracondyloid protuberance; cp, capitellum, or convex articular suface for head of radius; tr, trochlea, or transversely concave articular surface for the ulna; epc and cp are together the ectocondyle, and ept and tr are together the entocondyle." -Whitney, 1911

Humerus

"Anterior View, Distal End, of Right Humerus of a Man. H, humerus; epc, epicondyle, or external supracondyloid…

The forelimb of chimpanzee. (c) collar bone; (s) shoulder blade; (h) humerus; (r) radius; (u) ulna; (d) bones of wrist; (m) bones of hand; (p) bones of fingers.

Chimp Limb

The forelimb of chimpanzee. (c) collar bone; (s) shoulder blade; (h) humerus; (r) radius; (u) ulna;…

The hindlimb of chimpanzee. (i) innominate bone; (f) thigh bone; (t) tibia; (s) fibula; (r) bones of ankle; (m) metatarsus; (p) phalanges.

Chimp Limb

The hindlimb of chimpanzee. (i) innominate bone; (f) thigh bone; (t) tibia; (s) fibula; (r) bones of…

A bony structure located at the bottom of the spine. The human sacrum forms the back part of the pelvis, is roughly triangular in shape, consists of five united vertebrae, and from its solidity it is well adapted to serve as the keystone of the pelvic arch.

Pelvic Bone, Male

A bony structure located at the bottom of the spine. The human sacrum forms the back part of the pelvis,…

A human skeleton

Skeleton

A human skeleton

The bony and cartilaginous skeleton.

Human Skeleton, Showing Bony and Cartilage Tissue

The bony and cartilaginous skeleton.

The human skeleton.

Human Skeleton

The human skeleton.

A diagram of the human skeleton.

The Human Skeleton

A diagram of the human skeleton.

The skeleton of a beaver.(c) cervical region of vertebral column; (d) dorsal region; (b) lumbar region; (s) sacrum; (t) caudal region.

Beaver Skeleton

The skeleton of a beaver.(c) cervical region of vertebral column; (d) dorsal region; (b) lumbar region;…

An illustration of a bird skeleton.

Bird Skeleton

An illustration of a bird skeleton.

The bony and cartilaginous skeleton.

The Bony and Cartilaginous Skeleton

The bony and cartilaginous skeleton.

"The skeleton, more especially in the higher forms, is in the main similar to that of man, so that only a brief notice is necessary. In the skull considerable variation in regard to the proportionate length of the face to that of the brain—case (cranial portion) exists in the two sexes, owing to the general development of large tusks in the males." — Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 1910

Chacma Baboon Skeleton

"The skeleton, more especially in the higher forms, is in the main similar to that of man, so that only…

Front view of the human skeleton.

Skeleton, Front View

Front view of the human skeleton.

"The greatest absolute length of the fore—limb occurs in the gorilla and the orangutan. The humerus never has a perforation on the inner side of its lower extremity. Except in the man—like apes, the ulna articulates with the wrist (carpus). The hand is capable of pronation and supination on the fore—arm; and except in man, the chimpanzee and the gorilla there is a centrale in the carpus." —Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Front View of Gorilla Skeleton

"The greatest absolute length of the fore—limb occurs in the gorilla and the orangutan. The humerus…

Human skeleton standing upright.

Human Skeleton

Human skeleton standing upright.

The human skeleton.

Human Skeleton

The human skeleton.

"In the other forms the number (vertebrae) varies between twenty and thirty three, the latter being spider monkeys. The proportion in the spider monkeys of the genus Ateles, almost three to one; in the other longest—tailed genera it is rarely so large as two to one." —Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Side View of Skeleton of South American Spider Monkey

"In the other forms the number (vertebrae) varies between twenty and thirty three, the latter being…

A side-view of the skull.

Skull

A side-view of the skull.

A front-view of the skull.

Skull

A front-view of the skull.

"Schizognathous skull of common fowl. pmx, premaxilla; mxp, maxillopalatine; mx, maxilla; pl, palatine; pt, pterygoid; vo, vomer." -Whitney, 1911

Bird Skull

"Schizognathous skull of common fowl. pmx, premaxilla; mxp, maxillopalatine; mx, maxilla; pl, palatine;…

A side view of the howler monkey skull. The monkey have four sharp canines, long teeth on skull, on top and bottom of the jaw.

Side View of Howler Monkey

A side view of the howler monkey skull. The monkey have four sharp canines, long teeth on skull, on…

An illustration of an adult male orangutan viewed from the side. The orbit part of the skull is more rounded than humans. The cranium, top part of the skull, and the mouth area are elongated compared to humans.

Adult Male Orangutan Skull Viewed from Side

An illustration of an adult male orangutan viewed from the side. The orbit part of the skull is more…

"Treatment of fracture of both bones of the forearm." — Richardson, 1906

Splint

"Treatment of fracture of both bones of the forearm." — Richardson, 1906

The series of small bones attached to the jaws of animals, or human beings, which serve the purpose of taking and chewing food.

Teeth

The series of small bones attached to the jaws of animals, or human beings, which serve the purpose…

The vertebra of the whale. (c) body; (n n ) arches enclosing the spinal cord.

Whale vertebra

The vertebra of the whale. (c) body; (n n ) arches enclosing the spinal cord.

This illustration shows a wash box used for removing lime from materials used in glue manufacturing.

Wash Box for Removing Lime

This illustration shows a wash box used for removing lime from materials used in glue manufacturing.

An illustration of a woodpecker's skull.

Woodpecker Skull

An illustration of a woodpecker's skull.