"Acropolis, 'the highest point of the city.' Many of the important cities of Greece and Asia Minor were protected by strongholds, so named. The A. occupied a lofty position, commanding the city and its environs; inaccessible on all sides except one, which had, for the most part, artificial defences. It contained some of the most important public buildings, especially temples, besides affording a last refuge in case of a hostile attack." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Acropolis

"Acropolis, 'the highest point of the city.' Many of the important cities of Greece and Asia Minor were…

"Alcazar in Segovia. Alcazar is the name of many castles and palaces in Spain. Ciudad-Rodrigo, Cordova, Segovia, toledo and Seville have alcazars."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Alcazar

"Alcazar in Segovia. Alcazar is the name of many castles and palaces in Spain. Ciudad-Rodrigo, Cordova,…

"One of the names given to those narrow apertures so often seen in the walls of old castles, and through which the cross-bowmen discharged their arrows." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Balistraria

"One of the names given to those narrow apertures so often seen in the walls of old castles, and through…

"A projecting watchtower, or other advanced work, before the gate of a castle or fortified town. The term Barbican was more specially applied to the outwork intended to defend the drawbridge, which in moden fortifications is called the tete du pont." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Barbican

"A projecting watchtower, or other advanced work, before the gate of a castle or fortified town. The…

A projecting watch tower, or other advanced work, before the gate of a castle or fortified town. The term barbican was more especially applied to the outwork intended to defend the drawbridge, which in modern fortifications is called the <em>tete du pont</em>.

Barbican

A projecting watch tower, or other advanced work, before the gate of a castle or fortified town. The…

The storming of a medieval fortress and prison in Paris by revolutionaries, which represented royal authority.

Storming of the Bastille

The storming of a medieval fortress and prison in Paris by revolutionaries, which represented royal…

Court of the Castle of Blois

Blois, Castle of

Court of the Castle of Blois

A hero of a boy blows a horn outside of a castle.

Boy Blowing a Horn

A hero of a boy blows a horn outside of a castle.

Alcazar in Segovia, Spain.

Castle

Alcazar in Segovia, Spain.

"A Castle is a building constructed for the purpose of repelling attack. The castella left by the Romans were constructed on the general model of their stationary encampments, and though they may have suggested the castles of the Middle Ages, they differed from them in being designed for military purposes only, and not as places of permanent residence."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Castle

"A Castle is a building constructed for the purpose of repelling attack. The castella left by the Romans…

A castle on the Rhine in Germany.

Castle

A castle on the Rhine in Germany.

An illustration of a castle.

Castle

An illustration of a castle.

An illustration of a castle.

Castle

An illustration of a castle.

"The Castle of Circe" &mdash; Gayley, 1893

Castle Circe

"The Castle of Circe" — Gayley, 1893

"Park Front of Castle Howard." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Castle Howard

"Park Front of Castle Howard." — Chambers, 1881

An illustration of the feudal castle of Rouen. Rouen is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie region.

Feudal Castle of Rouen

An illustration of the feudal castle of Rouen. Rouen is the historical capital city of Normandy, in…

"Castle Rock, Edinburgh." &mdash; Chambers, 1881

Castle Rock

"Castle Rock, Edinburgh." — Chambers, 1881

The ancestral home of Conrad of Hohenzollern and the third castle constructed on the site. The castle stands today, and was constructed by King Friedrich Wilhelm IV between 1846 and 1867. It is located in the Suabian Alps.

Castle of Hohenzollern

The ancestral home of Conrad of Hohenzollern and the third castle constructed on the site. The castle…

The Pontefract Castle is located in the town of Pontefract in West Yorkshire, England. It was where Richard II, eighth King of England lived and died. The castle was built by Ilbert de Lacy in about 1070.

Pontefract Castle

The Pontefract Castle is located in the town of Pontefract in West Yorkshire, England. It was where…

An example of a medieval castle.

Typical Medieval Castle

An example of a medieval castle.

The Ch&acirc;teau de Beaumesnil was begun in 1633 by Jacques de Nonant for his wife Marie Dauvet Desmaret. Construction lasted until 1640.Today, Beaumesnil is a commune, the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic, in the Eure department in Haute-Normandie in northern France."Although Du Cerceau was obligated to leave France in the year 1604, the impulse which he had given in the direction of the above-mentioned manner led to its being generally adopted. The new buildings were more correct, but less picturesque than those built during the earlier period of the French Renaissance, and a certain insipidity seems to characterize the various structures erected during the reigns of Henry IV., and especially Louis XIII. As is shown [here], a combination of free-stone and brick was restored to in such a way that the former was employed for the mouldings, and for the quoins and dressings of the doors and windows, whilst brick was used for the spaces between. In the case of the windows the free-stone introduced assumed the forms of quoins. If ornamentation had been previously excessive, it now retired into the background, and was only employed in moderation; and the method of its treatment began to be distinguished from that of the former period. The forms of the details above all began to lose in purity: rustications were inappropriately introduced in the walls and columns, and the roofs were made high and steep, which gave the rest of the building a heavy and squat appearance, whilst the numerous turret-shaped chimneys, which were necessitated by these high roofs, formed a peculiar feature in the construction. The Roccoco, or Baroque Style, was beginning at the same time to exert its influence. Commencing from the second half of the seventeenth century, this new architectural deviation became prevalent in all civilized countries, owing to the splendor and influence of the French power and manners, and the influence of Italian art was consequently paralyzed. [This image] gives a characteristic example of French architecture of this period of the Later Renaissance, showing the peculiarities which have been described above."

Château de Beaumesnil

The Château de Beaumesnil was begun in 1633 by Jacques de Nonant for his wife Marie Dauvet Desmaret.…

The royal Ch&acirc;teau de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable ch&acirc;teaux in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Italian structures."The artistic influence of Italy came into operation in France sooner than in other European countries, for as early as the fifteenth century the Renaissance style was introduced there by Italian architects, as, for instance, by Fra Giocondo, who was summoned thither by Louis XII. But at the epoch the Flamboyant style was still in its vigour, and the buildings then erected could not extricate themselves from its influence. The consequence was that a blending of the two styles temporarily prevailed, as, for instance in the Ch&acirc;teau de Blois, which Louis XII. caused to be built, and which has lately been restored by Duban. It was in these country residences of the nobility, especially on the banks of the Loire, that this architectural activity was displayed during the earlier period of the Renaissance; amongst their number the Ch&acirc;teau de Chambord [shown here] is most worthy of notice. The pilasters and their mouldings of the Renaissance style were, it is true, somewhat rudely carried out, and in the earlier period were combined with certain elements of the Flamboyant style. Highly ornamental gables and dormer-windows. especially, were executed in the latter style. Buildings were contemporaneously constructed entirely in the Flamboyant style, as, for instance, the Cathedral, the Palais de Justice, and the H&acirc;tel Bourgtheroulde, all at Rouen, and the H&acirc;tel de Ville at Compi&egrave;gne."

Château de Chambord

The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable…

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle is famous for its French Renaissance architecture that blends French Medieval with classical Italian styles. It was constructed by King Francois I, and is the largest castle in Loire Valley.

Chateau of Chambord

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle…

A well preserved building, in which Gothic forms are everwhere perceptible, under the veil of the Renaissance decoration.

Chenonceaux Chateau

A well preserved building, in which Gothic forms are everwhere perceptible, under the veil of the Renaissance…

The Chateau of Chenonceaux is a castle in the small village of Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley, France. It was built around the 11th century and the current manor was designed by French Renaissance Architect Philibert Delorme. The castle was inhabited by many French Kings.

Chateau of Chenonceaux

The Chateau of Chenonceaux is a castle in the small village of Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley, France.…

Two children reading on a bench.

Children Reading

Two children reading on a bench.

"Christ Bearing the Cross. By Albrecht D&uuml;rer. From the wood engraving in 'The Great Passion.'" -Heath, 1901

Christ Bearing the Cross

"Christ Bearing the Cross. By Albrecht Dürer. From the wood engraving in 'The Great Passion.'"…

In 1189, Colchester was granted its first Royal Charter by King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart.) In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, a Royalist army led by Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Lisle entered the town. A pursuing Parliamentary army led by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Henry Ireton surrounded the town for eleven and a half weeks, a period known as the Siege of Colchester. The Royalists surrendered in the late summer and their leaders Lucas and Lisle were executed in the grounds of Colchester Castle. A small obelisk marks the spot where they fell.

Fairfax Taking Possession of Cochester

In 1189, Colchester was granted its first Royal Charter by King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart.) In…

The Renaissance console is shaped in front-view like a pendant triangle. This console is found in a castle in Blois, France.

Renaissance Console

The Renaissance console is shaped in front-view like a pendant triangle. This console is found in a…

This Renaissance console is a German design found in the Heidelberg castle. It imitates the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian styles.

Renaissance Console

This Renaissance console is a German design found in the Heidelberg castle. It imitates the Doric, Ionic…

"The Conversion of St. Eustace. By Albrecht D&uuml;rer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

The Conversion of St. Eustace

"The Conversion of St. Eustace. By Albrecht Dürer. From the engraving on copper." -Heath, 1901

The ruins of Coucy are what remains of a castle built in about the year 1230 by Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy. The castle is located in the commune of Coucy-le-Chateau-Auffrique. The castle use to have four towers, however, they were demolished during World War I by German troops.

Ruins of Coucy

The ruins of Coucy are what remains of a castle built in about the year 1230 by Enguerrand III, Lord…

A castle courtyard.

Castle Courtyard

A castle courtyard.

This trophy door panel was used as a decoration at a castle in Heidelberg, Germany during the German Renaissance.

Trophy Door Panel

This trophy door panel was used as a decoration at a castle in Heidelberg, Germany during the German…

This trophy door panel was used as a decoration at a castle in Heidelberg, Germany during the German Renaissance.

Trophy Door Panel

This trophy door panel was used as a decoration at a castle in Heidelberg, Germany during the German…

An illustration of a draw bridge.

Draw Bridge

An illustration of a draw bridge.

The drawbridge of a castle.

Drawbridge

The drawbridge of a castle.

The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city of Durham, England, was founded in AD 1093 and remains a centre for Christian worship today. Durham Castle is a Norman castle in the city of Durham, England, which has been wholly occupied since 1840 by University College, Durham. The castle stands on top of a hill above the River Wear on Durham's peninsula, opposite Durham Cathedral.

Durham Cathedral and Castle

The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly referred…

A cartoon image showing some soldiers on horses running to attack a castle.

The Fight

A cartoon image showing some soldiers on horses running to attack a castle.

A castle in the town of Foix, France, which is the center of the Cathars.

Castle of Foix

A castle in the town of Foix, France, which is the center of the Cathars.

The tomb of 20th United States President James A. Garfield in Cleveland, Ohio.

Garfield's Tomb

The tomb of 20th United States President James A. Garfield in Cleveland, Ohio.

A pictorial banner illustrated with a guard leaning on a ledge looking over the city.

Guard Sitting Looking Over Ledge Pictorial Banner

A pictorial banner illustrated with a guard leaning on a ledge looking over the city.

Hampton Court Palace is a former royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west London, England. Along with St. James's Palace, it is one of only two surviving palaces out of the many built by Henry VIII.Thomas Wolsey, then Archbishop of York and Chief Minister to the King, took over the lease in 1514 and rebuilt the 14th century manor house over the next seven years (1515&ndash;1521) to form the nucleus of the present palace. Wolsey spent lavishly to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court, which he was later forced to give to Henry as he began to fall from favour.

Hampton Court, 17th Century

Hampton Court Palace is a former royal palace in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, south west…

Harlech Castle, located in Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a concentric castle, constructed atop a cliff close to the Irish Sea. Architecturally, it is particularly notable for its massive gatehouse. Built by King Edward I during his conquest of Wales, the castle was subject to several assaults and sieges during its period of active use as a fortification. The seven-year siege of the castle, during the War of the Roses, has been memorialised in the famous song, "Men of Harlech".

Harlech Castle

Harlech Castle, located in Harlech, Gwynedd, Wales, is a concentric castle, constructed atop a cliff…

"Mirror case illustrating storming of the Castle of Love, French, about 14th century, South Kensington museum." &mdash; The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Ivory Carving

"Mirror case illustrating storming of the Castle of Love, French, about 14th century, South Kensington…

The young king presents a cup to the queen.

King and Queen

The young king presents a cup to the queen.

An illustration of a group of knights in battle within sight of a castle.

Knights in Battle

An illustration of a group of knights in battle within sight of a castle.

Krak des Chevaliers was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades. It was expanded between 1150 and 1250 and eventually housed a garrison of 2,000. The inner curtain wall is up to 100 feet thick at the base on the south side, with seven guard towers 30 feet in diameter.

Krak des Chevaliers

Krak des Chevaliers was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades. It was expanded…

This image depicts the towers of a castle, La Torre del Clavero, in Salamaca, Spain.

La Torre del Clavero

This image depicts the towers of a castle, La Torre del Clavero, in Salamaca, Spain.

A crest with a lion and a castle.

Lion Crest

A crest with a lion and a castle.

A machicolation is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones could be dropped on attackers at the base of a defensive wall. The design was developed in the Middle Ages when the Norman crusaders returned. A machicolated battlement projects outwards from the supporting wall in order to facilitate this.

Machicolation

A machicolation is a floor opening between the supporting corbels of a battlement, through which stones…

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal ch&acirc;teau in Versailles, the &icirc;le-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Ch&acirc;teau de Versailles."It was principally the above-mentioned system of Roccoco decoration and architectural detail which characterized the architecture of the time of Louis XV.; it is, consequently, sometimes designated as the style of Louis XV." This image depicts the entire wall."Internal arrangement and decoration are the main characteristics of the style of this period, and in this direction the best results were doubtless produced. Large and lofty rooms, as well as scope for display, were indispensable; consequently this style of embellishment was most happily carried out in each state apartments, especially in the princely castles and palaces, or, as the French call them, the "H&ocirc;tels" of the aristocracy."

Saloon in the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France…

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Château de Versailles."It was principally the above-mentioned system of Roccoco decoration and architectural detail which characterized the architecture of the time of Louis XV.; it is, consequently, sometimes designated as the style of Louis XV. [This image] gives a portion of an interior drawn in perspective.""Internal arrangement and decoration are the main characteristics of the style of this period, and in this direction the best results were doubtless produced. Large and lofty rooms, as well as scope for display, were indispensable; consequently this style of embellishment was most happily carried out in each state apartments, especially in the princely castles and palaces, or, as the French call them, the "Hôtels" of the aristocracy."

Saloon in the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France…

The stone parapet is a German Renaissance design of scrolls found on the Dagobert tower, a castle in Baden-Baden, Germany.

Stone Parapet

The stone parapet is a German Renaissance design of scrolls found on the Dagobert tower, a castle in…

An illustration of the story, Picciola by X. B. Saintine. Count Charney was imprisoned by the Emperor of France for allegedly planning to assassinate him. In this image, he is begging the guard to send a letter the the emperor to save a little flower that is growing in the stone. A girl delivers this letter and the emperor realizes that this man could not have him killed and releases him.

Picciola

An illustration of the story, Picciola by X. B. Saintine. Count Charney was imprisoned by the Emperor…

Princess, castle, and raven

Pictorial banner

Princess, castle, and raven

Man and castle

Pictorial banner

Man and castle

This wrought-iron pilaster capital is a 17th century design found in the castle of Athis-Mons, Paris, France.

Wrought-Iron Pilaster Capital

This wrought-iron pilaster capital is a 17th century design found in the castle of Athis-Mons, Paris,…

Views of the Castle of Plessis-Les-Tours.

Plessis

Views of the Castle of Plessis-Les-Tours.

"PORTCULLIS. A grating suspended by chains, used to defend the entrance to a castle." -Hall, 1862

Portcullis

"PORTCULLIS. A grating suspended by chains, used to defend the entrance to a castle." -Hall, 1862