"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths of an inch. Fig. 21, A B, represents such a scale, the larger division, A B, representing the one-hundredth of an inch, and the smaller subdivision the one-thousandth of an inch; 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, represent the cells of which the apples are mostly composed. The granular dottings represent apple starch. The branching cellular structure represents the mycelium of a fungus penetrating the cells. At 9, three small starch granuals are represented in a line, and are confined within the division of the one-thousandth of an inch." -Watts, 1874

Microscopic view of a fermented apple

"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths…

"Transverse section of an open fibro-vascular bundle. c, cambium; cb, continuation of cambium between the fibro-vascular bundles; g, large pitted vessels; t, smaller pitted vessels and spiral vessels intermixed with wood-cells; y, inner phloem layers; bm bast fibers; m is the parenchyma of the pith; r, is the cortical parenchyma. Immediately external to the bark lies the bundle sheath of cells filled with starch." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Cambium

"Transverse section of an open fibro-vascular bundle. c, cambium; cb, continuation of cambium between…

A typical cell consists of two portions, one, te firmer, forming an excessively delicate meshwork enclosing its cavities the second more fluid part. Therefore, when highly mangnified, the appearance would be essentialluy like a sponge fully saturated with water. The protoplasm the sponge work, and possibly the fluid part is living and both are transparent.

Typical amimal cell

A typical cell consists of two portions, one, te firmer, forming an excessively delicate meshwork enclosing…

Blood cell function is to transport nutrients and oxygen to the cells; wastes and carbon dioxide to the organs responsible for their removal or breakdown; and also to defend the body against bacteria, viruses, and other organisms.

Blood cell

Blood cell function is to transport nutrients and oxygen to the cells; wastes and carbon dioxide to…

Animal nerve cells are specialized cells called neurons. Figure 1C is a nerve cell with parts of its fiber.

Nerve Cell

Animal nerve cells are specialized cells called neurons. Figure 1C is a nerve cell with parts of its…

Animal cells lining the body lining the body cavity.

Cell Sections

Animal cells lining the body lining the body cavity.

Animal cells lining the windpipe.

Cell Sections

Animal cells lining the windpipe.

Animal cells section through the skin

Cell Sections

Animal cells section through the skin

Flat cells from the surface of the lining membrane of the abdomen (peritoneum). Labels: a, cell-body; b, nucleus; c, nucleoli.

Cells from the Abdominal Lining

Flat cells from the surface of the lining membrane of the abdomen (peritoneum). Labels: a, cell-body;…

Forms of cells from the body, showing their various shapes.

Forms of Cells

Forms of cells from the body, showing their various shapes.

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with striae and hilum." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Starch Cells

"a, Starch cells of the Pea, showing grains of starch in the interior. b, Seperate starch grains, with…

"When several cells are conected so that the positive plate of one is joined to the negative plate of the next...they are said to be grouped or joined in series." -Avery 1895

Series Connection

"When several cells are conected so that the positive plate of one is joined to the negative plate of…

Structure of a Cornstalk, in transverse and longitudinal section.

Cornstalk

Structure of a Cornstalk, in transverse and longitudinal section.

A detached cell, with rhaphides being forced out, as happens when put in water.

Detached Cell

A detached cell, with rhaphides being forced out, as happens when put in water.

Figures to illustrate the earlier stages in the formation of an embryo; a single mass of protoplasm dividing into two, three, and then into more incipient cells, which by continued multiplication build up an embryo.

Formation of the Embryos

Figures to illustrate the earlier stages in the formation of an embryo; a single mass of protoplasm…

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells; 3, 3, 3, 3, bearing spores which germinate; 4, 4, are fungoid aggregations, which throw out filaments; their relation to the black mycelium is not represented thus far; 5 represents what appears to be a cross section of the asci or fruit, when perfectly formed and cut through its greatest diameter crosswise." -Watts, 1874

Stages of fungus growth

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells;…

Small portion of epidermis of the Garden Balsam, showing very sinuous-walled cells, and three stomata.

Garden Balsam

Small portion of epidermis of the Garden Balsam, showing very sinuous-walled cells, and three stomata.

Glomerate crystal in a cell, from Beet-root.

Glomerate crystal

Glomerate crystal in a cell, from Beet-root.

A large and a smaller dotted duct from Grape-Vine.

Grape-Vine

A large and a smaller dotted duct from Grape-Vine.

Upper part of a stem of a Horsetail, Equisetum sylvaticum.

Horsetail

Upper part of a stem of a Horsetail, Equisetum sylvaticum.

Some cells of the albumen or floury part of Indian Corn, filled with starch-grains.

Indian Corn

Some cells of the albumen or floury part of Indian Corn, filled with starch-grains.

A few cells of Locust-bark, a crystal in each.

Locust-bark

A few cells of Locust-bark, a crystal in each.

Magnified view of surface of a bit of young Maple wood from which the bark has been torn away, showing the wood-cells and the bark-ends of medullary rays.

Bit of Young Maple Wood

Magnified view of surface of a bit of young Maple wood from which the bark has been torn away, showing…

"Non-striped spindle-shaped cells which branch and join with one another." — Richardson, 1906

Non-Striated Muscle

"Non-striped spindle-shaped cells which branch and join with one another." — Richardson, 1906

Four cells from dried Onion-peel, each holding a crystal of different shape, one of them twinned.

Onion-Peel

Four cells from dried Onion-peel, each holding a crystal of different shape, one of them twinned.

Two individuals of an Oscillaria.

Oscillaria

Two individuals of an Oscillaria.

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends of the woody bundles or threads.

Palm-stem

A Palm-stem in transverse and longitudinal section, the dots on the cross sections represent cut ends…

Magnified bit of a pine-shaving, taken parallel with the silver grain.

Pine-shaving

Magnified bit of a pine-shaving, taken parallel with the silver grain.

Prismatic crystals from the bark of Hickory.

Prismatic crystals

Prismatic crystals from the bark of Hickory.

Rhaphides in a cell, from Arisaema, with small cells surrounding.

Rhaphides

Rhaphides in a cell, from Arisaema, with small cells surrounding.

Some cells from stalk of Rhubarb-plant, three containing chlorophyll; two (one torn across) with rhaphides.

Rhubarb-plant

Some cells from stalk of Rhubarb-plant, three containing chlorophyll; two (one torn across) with rhaphides.

"Epidermis of leaf of Saxifraga Sarmentosa, showing clusters of stomata s, surrounded by large epidermal cells e. The cells among which the stomata occus are very small." — Encyclopedia Britanica, 1893

Saxifraga Sarmentosa

"Epidermis of leaf of Saxifraga Sarmentosa, showing clusters of stomata s, surrounded by large epidermal…

Piece of stem of Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica), with two leaves. the lower open, the upper in the closed state.

Sensitive Plant

Piece of stem of Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pudica), with two leaves. the lower open, the upper in the…

A small piece (pinnule) of a Shield-Fern: a row of fruit-dots on each side of the midrib, each covered by its kidney shaped indusium.

Shield-Fern

A small piece (pinnule) of a Shield-Fern: a row of fruit-dots on each side of the midrib, each covered…

Piece of a stem of Soft Maple, of a year old, cut crosswise and lengthwise.

Piece of Stem from a Soft Maple

Piece of a stem of Soft Maple, of a year old, cut crosswise and lengthwise.

Spiral ducts which uncoil into a single thread.

Spiral Ducts

Spiral ducts which uncoil into a single thread.

Spiral ducts which tears up as a band.

Spiral Ducts

Spiral ducts which tears up as a band.

An annular duct.

Spiral Ducts

An annular duct.

Loose spiral duct passing into annular.

Spiral Ducts

Loose spiral duct passing into annular.

Scalariform ducts of a Fern; part of a bundle, prismatic by pressure.

Spiral Ducts

Scalariform ducts of a Fern; part of a bundle, prismatic by pressure.

Part of the head or spike of spore-cases, with some of the latter taken off.

Spore-Cases

Part of the head or spike of spore-cases, with some of the latter taken off.

An illustration of potato starch cells.

Potato Starch

An illustration of potato starch cells.

An illustration of wheat starch cells.

Wheat Starch

An illustration of wheat starch cells.

Some magnified starch-grains, in two cells of a potato.

Starch-Grains

Some magnified starch-grains, in two cells of a potato.

Short piece of stem of Flax, magnified, showing the bark, wood, and pith in a cross section.

Stem of Flax

Short piece of stem of Flax, magnified, showing the bark, wood, and pith in a cross section.

Portion of stem and leaves of Telegraph-plant (Desmodium gyrans), almost of natural size.

Telegraph-plant

Portion of stem and leaves of Telegraph-plant (Desmodium gyrans), almost of natural size.

"Tetratheca hirsuta. 1. the stamens; 2. the pistil, with one of the cells laid open." -Lindley, 1853

Tetratheca

"Tetratheca hirsuta. 1. the stamens; 2. the pistil, with one of the cells laid open." -Lindley, 1853

A Tree-Fern, Dicksonia arborescens, with a young one near its base. In front a common herbaceous Fern (Polypodium vulgare) with its creeping stem or rootstock.

Tree-Fern

A Tree-Fern, Dicksonia arborescens, with a young one near its base. In front a common herbaceous Fern…

A section of the trunk of a Tree-Fern.

Tree-Fern Trunk

A section of the trunk of a Tree-Fern.

Plant of Dionaea muscipula, or Venus's Fly-trap.

Venus' Fly-trap

Plant of Dionaea muscipula, or Venus's Fly-trap.

"The first change in the parent-cell is that by which it becomes broken up into a mass of cells, each of which is just like itself. This process is called segmentation of the vitellus; each one of the numerous resulting cells is called a cleavage-cell. The nucleus of the parent-cell divides into two; each attracts its half of the yelk; the halves furrow apart and there are now two cleavage cells in place of the one parent-cell a furrow at right angles to the first, and redivision of the nuclei; results in four cleavage-cells. Radiating furrows intermediate to the first two bisect the four cells, and would render eight cells, were not these simultaneously doubled by a circular furrow which cleaves each, with the result of sixteen cleavage-cells. So the subdivision goes on until the parent-cell becomes a mass of cells. This particular kind of cleavage, by radiating and concentric furrowing, is called discoidal, and the resulting heap of little cells assumes the figure of a thin, flat, circular disc. Segmentation of the vitellus, in whatever manner it may go on, results in a mulberry-like mass of cleavage-cells; and the original cytula has become what is called a morula. This process is shown closely here." Elliot Coues, 1884

The Segmentation of the Vitellus

"The first change in the parent-cell is that by which it becomes broken up into a mass of cells, each…

Magnified section of a leaf of White Lily, to exhibit the cellular structure, both of upper and lower stratum, the air-passages of the lower, and the epidermis or skin, in section, also a little of that of the lower face, with some of its stomates.

White Lily

Magnified section of a leaf of White Lily, to exhibit the cellular structure, both of upper and lower…

Small portion of epidermis of the lower face of a White-Lily leaf, with stomata.

White Lily leaf

Small portion of epidermis of the lower face of a White-Lily leaf, with stomata.

Diagram of structure of Palm or Yucca.

Yucca

Diagram of structure of Palm or Yucca.