"Ring armature of four pole dynamo; diagram of winding and connections, showing direction of the indced currents. the currents in the winding under the upper N and S poles are opposed to each other and flow to the external circuit by the positive brush 1, and back to this half of the armature by the negative brushes 3 and 4...The armature is said to be 'cross connected.' " -Hawkins, 1917

Ring Armature

"Ring armature of four pole dynamo; diagram of winding and connections, showing direction of the indced…

"Or, a cross gules, over all a baton argent. BATON. BATUNE. BASTON. It is generally used as an abatement in coats of arms to denote illegitimacy." -Hall, 1862

Baton Abatement

"Or, a cross gules, over all a baton argent. BATON. BATUNE. BASTON. It is generally used as an abatement…

A cross bound by a circle.

Bound Cross

A cross bound by a circle.

The heraldic shield of the Earl of Bradford.

Earl of Bradford

The heraldic shield of the Earl of Bradford.

Boys singing in a choir at an outdoor chapel service. There is a wooden cross and a makeshift pulpit. A man stands to the right of the boys and appears to be a preacher.

Boys Singing in a Choir Outside

Boys singing in a choir at an outdoor chapel service. There is a wooden cross and a makeshift pulpit.…

Engraving by W.C. Wrankmore after Pierre-Paul Prud'hon's Christ on the Cross, 1823.

Christ on the Cross, Pierre-Paul Prud'hon

Engraving by W.C. Wrankmore after Pierre-Paul Prud'hon's Christ on the Cross, 1823.

"And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost." Luke 23-:44-46 KJV

The Crucifixion of Christ

"And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.…

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun in 1627 and completed in 1641 and is an examaple of Jesuit architecture. It was designed based on the Gesú church in Rome. The letters IHS, as shown on the front of the church, is an abbreviation, the first three letters, of Jesus' name in Greek, ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, translated into English characters."In this style curved lines of the most varied description supersede all straight lines both in ground plans and in designs, whilst the most ordinary and characteristic embellishments are volutes, shellfish, and scrolls; groups of fruit and garlands of flowers, hangings, curtains, etc. [shown here]." "During the time that the license of the Roccoco Style prevailed, the elements of the ancient columnar orders were often misapplied, engaged columns and pilasters were frequently so connected with other side-pilasters which were recessed behind them to the number of one, two, or even three, that the cornices and, in fact, all horizontal mouldings were separately profiled over each column or pilaster [shown here]."

Façade of the Church of St. Paul and St. Louis at Paris

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun…

An illustration of a church chapel viewed between building ruins.

Church Steeple

An illustration of a church chapel viewed between building ruins.

"Degraded means placed upon degrees, or steps."—Aveling, 1891

Cross Nowed, Degraded and Conjoined

"Degraded means placed upon degrees, or steps."—Aveling, 1891

"The plain rectangular cross, with a view to its enrichment." — Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1893

Cross

"The plain rectangular cross, with a view to its enrichment." — Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1893

"A cross of thin gold work formed of four leaves." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Cross

"A cross of thin gold work formed of four leaves." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

A crystal cross set in enameled gold created by a German craftsman in the 16th century.

Cross

A crystal cross set in enameled gold created by a German craftsman in the 16th century.

"CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross

"CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall,…

This cross is a piece of embroidery that is taken from a priest's robe. It has a bold design of leaves and flowers. It is worked in gold on a purple background.

Cross

This cross is a piece of embroidery that is taken from a priest's robe. It has a bold design of leaves…

A memorial cross found in Forteviot, Scotland.

Cross

A memorial cross found in Forteviot, Scotland.

"Cross bottonny. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Bottonny

"Cross bottonny. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of…

"Cross crosslet. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Crosslet

"Cross crosslet. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of…

"Cross Crosslet on Grieces. GRIECE. In heraldry, a degree or step, as one of the steps upon which crosses are sometimes placed." -Whitney, 1911

Cross Crosslet on Grieces

"Cross Crosslet on Grieces. GRIECE. In heraldry, a degree or step, as one of the steps upon which crosses…

A Cross double-parted.

Cross Double-Parted

A Cross double-parted.

A Cross engrailed.

Cross Engrailed

A Cross engrailed.

"Cross fitchy. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Fitchy

"Cross fitchy. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

A Cross flamant.

Cross Flamant

A Cross flamant.

A heraldic shield with a charge cross in which the extremities terminate with fleurs-de-lis.

Cross Fleur-De-Lis

A heraldic shield with a charge cross in which the extremities terminate with fleurs-de-lis.

"A Cross Fleury, or Fleurie, is borne in the arms of Lord Brougham and Vaux. It is not very unlike the Cross Patonce, but the extremities are less spreading."—Aveling, 1891

Cross Fleury

"A Cross Fleury, or Fleurie, is borne in the arms of Lord Brougham and Vaux. It is not very unlike the…

"Cross flory. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Flory

"Cross flory. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

"Cross moline. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Moline

"Cross moline. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

"Cross of Calvary. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross of Calvary

"Cross of Calvary. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of…

A heraldic shield with a charge of a cross with four ermine spots.

Cross of Four Ermine Spots

A heraldic shield with a charge of a cross with four ermine spots.

Gules, a saltier, argent. The saltier was formed by making two pieces of riband cross diagonally, having the appearance of the letter X, or, speaking heraldically, the bend and bend sinister crossing each other in the centre of the shield. The saltier, if uncharged, occupies one-fifth of the field; if charged, one-third. -Hall, 1862

Cross Ordinary

Gules, a saltier, argent. The saltier was formed by making two pieces of riband cross diagonally, having…

A heraldic shield with a Cross patée charge.

Cross Patée

A heraldic shield with a Cross patée charge.

"Cross patonce. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Patonce

"Cross patonce. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

"Cross patriarchal. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Patriarchal

"Cross patriarchal. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any…

"Cross pattee. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Pattee

"Cross pattee. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

Perspective drawing of a cross.

Cross Perspective

Perspective drawing of a cross.

"Cross potent. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Potent

"Cross potent. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

"Cross Quarterly is a Cross cut by a partition line, and the tinctures reversed or counter-changed."—Aveling, 1891

Cross Quarterly

"Cross Quarterly is a Cross cut by a partition line, and the tinctures reversed or counter-changed."—Aveling,…

"Cross raguly. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the others." -Hall, 1862

Cross Raguly

"Cross raguly. CROSS. An honourable ordinary, more used as a charge in a coat of arms than any of the…

"The Cross Recercelée is very similar to the Cross Moline, but the extremities are curled backwards."—Aveling, 1891

Cross Recercelée

"The Cross Recercelée is very similar to the Cross Moline, but the extremities are curled backwards."—Aveling,…

A Cross tri-parted.

Cross Tri-Parted

A Cross tri-parted.

A cross-urdee is one in which the extremities are drawn to a sharp paint instead of being cut straight.

Cross urdee

A cross-urdee is one in which the extremities are drawn to a sharp paint instead of being cut straight.

"A Cross voided is not unlike the Cross double parted, but the bars do not run through or across the shield. It is, in fact, the Cross of St. George with the central area removed, so that only a thin outline remains."—Aveling, 1891

Cross Voided

"A Cross voided is not unlike the Cross double parted, but the bars do not run through or across the…

"Colonel Cross, born in Lancaster, N. H., April 22nd, 1832, died near Gettysburg, Pa., July 22nd, 1863. In 1860 he held a lieutenant colonel's commission in the Mexican Army, but when the news of the attack on Fort Sumter reached him he at once resigned and offered his services to the Governor of New Hamshire; organized the Fifth New Hampshire Regiment and was commissioned as its colonel; distinguished himself in many important engagements. He was mortally wounded at Gettysburg while leading the First Division of the Second Army Corps." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Colonel E. E. Cross

"Colonel Cross, born in Lancaster, N. H., April 22nd, 1832, died near Gettysburg, Pa., July 22nd, 1863.…

"It will be observed that the charge upon the shield in this instance is not the Cross, but the lozenges."—Aveling, 1891

Four Fusils in Cross

"It will be observed that the charge upon the shield in this instance is not the Cross, but the lozenges."—Aveling,…

"The Fimbriated Cross is a cross having a border of another tincture, generally for the purpose of allowing it, if it be of metal, to be placed upon a field of another metal; the fimbration, or intervening border, being of a color to prevent the violation of the rule that 'metal cannot be placed upon metal, or color upon color.'"—Aveling, 1891

Frimbriated Cross

"The Fimbriated Cross is a cross having a border of another tincture, generally for the purpose of allowing…

The gable of Church Cross is found in St. Urban's, Unterlimburg, Germany. It is used as a finial on Gables (top of roof).

Gable of Church Cross

The gable of Church Cross is found in St. Urban's, Unterlimburg, Germany. It is used as a finial on…

The granite cross is found on a tomb. It is used as the finial (top) on the tomb.

Granite Cross

The granite cross is found on a tomb. It is used as the finial (top) on the tomb.

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

Medieval Steeple Cross

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

Medieval Steeple Cross

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

Medieval Steeple Cross

The medieval steeple cross is found in the historic region Franconia of northern Germany.

The modern cross is the most important symbol of Christian art.

Modern Cross

The modern cross is the most important symbol of Christian art.

This modern French cross is made out of stone. It is the most important symbol of Christian art.

Modern French Cross

This modern French cross is made out of stone. It is the most important symbol of Christian art.

This modern French cross is made with the monogram of Christ. It is found in a commune in France called Genouilleux.

Modern French Cross

This modern French cross is made with the monogram of Christ. It is found in a commune in France called…

This modern French cross is found in Paris, France. It is typically used as a finial on gables (top of roofs).

Modern French Cross

This modern French cross is found in Paris, France. It is typically used as a finial on gables (top…

The modern steeple cross includes hammered foliage.

Modern Steeple Cross

The modern steeple cross includes hammered foliage.

This monumental cross was made in Ireland. It depicts scenes from the Gospel as described in the Old Testament. These scenes are "Moses and the Brazen Serpent", "The Translation of Elijah", "Noah entering the Arc", "Abel's Sacrifice". The busts on the lower end of the cross are prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.

Monumental Cross

This monumental cross was made in Ireland. It depicts scenes from the Gospel as described in the Old…

This monumental cross is designed with sculptures from the New Testament history. They include "The Crucifixion", "The Resurrection", "The Return of the Prodigal", "The Good Shepherd". The lower half of the cross are busts of St. Peter, St. John, St. James and St. Paul.

Monumental Cross

This monumental cross is designed with sculptures from the New Testament history. They include "The…

"A Cross crossed at the head."—Aveling, 1891

Patriarchal Cross

"A Cross crossed at the head."—Aveling, 1891

The steeple cross includes hammered foliage.

Steeple Cross

The steeple cross includes hammered foliage.

This steeple cross is found in a commune in Paris, France.

Steeple Cross

This steeple cross is found in a commune in Paris, France.