Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon; d, spleen; e, kidneys; f, pancreas; g, inferior vena cava; h, aorta with thoracic duct behind it.

Horizontal Section Through Abdomen

Horizontal section through upper part of abdomen. Labels: a, liver; b, stomach; c, transverse colon;…

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level of foramen of Winslow. B, lower down. In A note, one of the vasa brevia arteris passing to the stomach between the layers of the gastrosplenic omentum, and also the foramen of Winslow leading into the lesser sac which lies behind the stomach.

Transverse Section of Abdomen

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level…

Showing the average position of the abdominal viscera with their surface markings. Labels: A, sterno-ensiform point; A', sterno-ensiform line; B, mid-epigastric point; B', mid-epigastric or transpyloric line; C, umbilical point; C', umbilical line; D, mid-hypogastric point; D', mid-hypogastric line; E, outer border of the right and left rectus abdominis; F, Monro's point- on the right spino-umbilical line at the outer border of the rectus abdomninis.

Abdominal Region

Showing the average position of the abdominal viscera with their surface markings. Labels: A, sterno-ensiform…

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end of the stomach; D, the duodenum; J, I, the convolutions of the small intestine; CC, the caecum with the vermiform appendix; AC, ascending, TC, transverse, and DC, descending colon; R, the rectum.

Alimentary Canal

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal (digestive system). Labels: C, the cardiac, and…

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal. Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end of the stomach, A; D, the duodenum; J, I, the convolutions of the small intestine; CC, the caecum with the vermiform appendix; AC, ascending, TC, transverse, and DC, descending colon; SF, sigmoid flexure; R, the rectum.

Alimentary Canal

Diagram of the abdominal part of the alimentary canal. Labels: C, the cardiac, and P, the pyloric end…

Outlines of the form and position of the alimentary canal in successive stages of its development. A, alimentary canal, in an embryo of four weeks; B, at six weeks; C, at eight weeks; D, at ten weeks; l, the primitive lungs connected with the pharynx; s, the stomach; d, duodenum; i, the small intestine; i', the large intestine; c, the caecum and vermiform appendage; r, the rectum; cl, in A, the cloaca; a, in B, the anus distinct from s i, the sinus uro-genitalis; v, the yolk sac; vi, the vitellointestinal duct; u, the urinary bladder and urachus leading to the allantois; g, genital ducts.

Development of the Alimentary Canal

Outlines of the form and position of the alimentary canal in successive stages of its development. A,…

Front view of two successive stages in the development of the alimentary canal.

Development of the Alimentary Canal

Front view of two successive stages in the development of the alimentary canal.

The alimentary canal (digestive tract).

The Alimentary Canal

The alimentary canal (digestive tract).

"<em>A</em>, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine; <em>B</em>, the caecum." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Vermiform appendix

"A, a portion of the colon laid open to show the valve between the large and small intestine;…

The Annulosa and Mollusca are furnished with a distinct alimentary canal that does not open into the body cavity. In most cases, the digestive canal communicates with the outer world by two-openings- a mouth and an excretory aperture. The annulosa system is demonstrated in the digestive apparatus of a beetle.

The Digestive Apparatus of a Beetle

The Annulosa and Mollusca are furnished with a distinct alimentary canal that does not open into the…

This illustration shows a representation of the circulation of the blood, in its essential features. The arrows indicate the course of the blood. a, arteries; aur., auricle or receiving portion of the heart; d, digestive tract; c. d., capillaries of the digestive tract; c.r., capillaries of the respiratory organs; c.s., capillaries of the system; va., valves; ve, veins; vt, ventricle.

Blood Circulation

This illustration shows a representation of the circulation of the blood, in its essential features.…

Intestinal tract of <em>Canis vulpes</em>. S, cut end of duodenum; C, caecum; R, cut end of rectum.

Intestinal Tract from Canis Vulpes

Intestinal tract of Canis vulpes. S, cut end of duodenum; C, caecum; R, cut end of rectum.

cc. Colic caeca, d. Duodenum. g. Glandular patch, l.l. Meckel's tract, l.i. Hind-gut, p.v. Cut root of portal vein, r.v. Rectal vein, s. Proventriculus, y. Meckel's diverticulum.

Intestinal Tract of Chauna Chavaria

cc. Colic caeca, d. Duodenum. g. Glandular patch, l.l. Meckel's tract, l.i. Hind-gut, p.v. Cut root…

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D', D', duodenum; L, spleen P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gallbladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile-duct; 1, aorta, 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; splenic artery; , superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

Digestive Organs

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

The digestive system.

Digestive System

The digestive system.

A diagram of the organs of digestion. Labels:1, The upper jaw. 2, The lower jaw. 3, The tongue. 4, The roof of the mouth. 5, The esophagus. 6, The trachea. 7, The parotid gland. 8, The sublingual gland. 9, The stomach. 10, The liver. 11, The gall cyst. 12, The duct that conveys the bile to the duodenum (13). 14, The pancreas. 15, The small intestine. 16, The opening of the small intestine into the large intestine. 17, 18, 19, 20, The large intestine. 21, The spleen. 22, The upper part of the spinal column.

Digestive System

A diagram of the organs of digestion. Labels:1, The upper jaw. 2, The lower jaw. 3, The tongue. 4, The…

Organs of the digestive system.

Organs of the Digestive System

Organs of the digestive system.

This is a diagram of the digestive tract. Notice how the food is submitted to the action of alkaline, acid, and then alkaline fluids.

Digestive Tract

This is a diagram of the digestive tract. Notice how the food is submitted to the action of alkaline,…

Diagram of part of digestive tract of a chick (4th day). The black line represents hypoblast , the outer shading mesoblast; lg, lung diverticulum with expanded end forming primary lung vesicles; St, stomach; l, two hepatic diverticulum, with their terminations united by solid rows of hypoblast cells; p, diverticulum of the pancreas with the vesicular diverticula coming from it.

Digestive Tract of a Chick

Diagram of part of digestive tract of a chick (4th day). The black line represents hypoblast , the outer…

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine; k, Intestinal caeca; l, Large intestine; cl, Cloaca." &mdash; Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Fowl Digestive System

"Digestive system of the common Fowl. o, Gullet; c, Crop; p, Proventriculus; g, Gizzard; sm, Small intestine;…

"The inner coat of the stomach has its surface honeycombed with millions of little pits. We have all seen this in tripe. In the floor of each of these tiny pits a number of tubes open. These are the openings of the <em>gastric glands</em>." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Gastric gland

"The inner coat of the stomach has its surface honeycombed with millions of little pits. We have all…

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; P.C.L., post-caecal loop; S.P., spiral loop; SF, third loop of hind-gut.

Intestinal Tract of Giraffe

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; P.C.L., post-caecal loop; S.P., spiral loop;…

Forms of glands. Labels: A, a simple secreting surface; a, its epithelium; b, basement membrane; c, capillaries; B, a simple tubular gland; C, a secreting surface increased by protrusions; E, a simple racemose gland; D and G, compound tubular glands; F, a compound racemose gland. In all but A, B, and C the capillaries are omitted for the sake of clearness. H, half of a highly developed racemose gland; c, its main duct.

Forms of Glands

Forms of glands. Labels: A, a simple secreting surface; a, its epithelium; b, basement membrane; c,…

In Radiata the digestive cavity is a pouch with a single opening, into which the food is passed and from which the residuum is ejected, as in the Hydra.

The Digestive Apparatus of a Hydra or Freshwater Polyp

In Radiata the digestive cavity is a pouch with a single opening, into which the food is passed and…

"<em>A</em>, a fold of peritoneum; <em>B</em>, lacteals and lymphatic glands; <em>C</em>, veins of intestines; <em>R.C.,</em>, receptacle of the chyle (receptaculum chyli); <em>P.V.</em>, portal vein; <em>H.V.</em>, hepatic veins; <em>S.V.C.</em>, superior vena cava; <em>R.A.</em>, right auricle of the heart; <em>I.V.C.</em>, inferior vena cava." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Intestinal absorption

"A, a fold of peritoneum; B, lacteals and lymphatic glands; C, veins of intestines;…

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; C2, accessory caecum; C.L., colic loop of hind-gut.

Intestinal Tract of Macropus Bennetti

S, cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; C2, accessory caecum; C.L., colic loop of hind-gut.

Diagrammatic representation of the nerves of the alimentary canal. Oe to Rct, the various parts of the alimentary canal from esophagus to rectum: L.V, left vagus, ending in front of stomach; rl, recurrent laryngeal nerve, supplying upper part of esophagus; R.V, right vagus, joining left vagus in esophageal plexus; oe.pl., supplying the posterior part of the stomach , and continues at R'V' to join the solar plexus, here represented by a single ganglion, and connected with the inferior mesenteric ganglion m.gl.: a, branches from the solar plexus to stomach and small intestine , and from the mesenteric ganglia and rami communicantes; r.c., belonging to dorsal nerves from the 6th to the 9th (or 10th); Spl.min., small splanchnic nerve similarly from the 10th and 11th dorsal nerves. These both join the solar plexus, and thence make their way to the alimentary canal; c.r., nerves from the ganglia, &c., belonging to 11th and 12th dorsal and 1st and 2nd lumbar nerves, proceeding to the inferior mesenteric ganglia (or plexus), m.gl., and thence by the hypogastic nerve, n.hyp., and the hypogastric nerve, n.hyp., and the hypogastric plexus, pl.hyp., to the circular muscles of the rectum; 1.r., nerves from the 2nd and 3rd sacral nerves, S.2, S.3 (nervi erigentes) proceeding by the hypogastric plexus to the longitudinal muscles of the rectum.

Nerves of the Alimentary Canal

Diagrammatic representation of the nerves of the alimentary canal. Oe to Rct, the various parts of the…

"<em>A, B,</em> glands seen in vertical section with their orifices at <em>C</em> opening upon the membrane between the villi; <em>D</em>, villus." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Glands and villi of the small intestine

"A, B, glands seen in vertical section with their orifices at C opening upon the membrane…

The small intestine, a convoluted, tubular, digestive organ, about 20 ft in length, extending from the pylorus to the ileo-caecal valve, where it terminates in the large intestine. It is connect to the spinal column by the mesenteric portion of the peritoneum, and divided into 3 parts, the duodenum (d), the jejunum, and the ileum (i).

The Small Intestine

The small intestine, a convoluted, tubular, digestive organ, about 20 ft in length, extending from the…

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented the central lacteal of the villus, with the plexus of lymph vessels at the base. The mucous, submucuous, muscular, and serous coats are indicated at the base of the right-hand figure.  The epithelium of each villus is well shown." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Transverse section of the small intestine

"In the figure on the left are seen the artery and vein of a villus. In the right figure are represented…

In this Turbellarian the digestive tract (d.t.) is a blind sac. st., boundary of stomodaeum and mesenteron; c, cilia; g, ganglion (brain); g', ganglion of a new individual which is being formed by fission; o, mouth; o', mouth of new individual in process of formation; w, excretory system.

Stenostoma

In this Turbellarian the digestive tract (d.t.) is a blind sac. st., boundary of stomodaeum and mesenteron;…

"<em>A</em>, cardiac end; <em>B</em>, pyloric end." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Stomach

"A, cardiac end; B, pyloric end." — Blaisedell, 1904

"The stomach is a half-gallon sac, with an outer wall of muscle lined within by mucous membrane, made largely of gastric glands of which there are more than a million. These glands, each consisting of a tube with several branches, give out daily three quarts of gastric juice to dissolve the lean meat and other like foods." &mdash;Davison, 1910

Stomach

"The stomach is a half-gallon sac, with an outer wall of muscle lined within by mucous membrane, made…

The human stomach. Labels: a, the esophagus or gullet; b, the cardiac portion; c, the left extremity; d, the small extremity; e, the pylorus tied; g,g, the omentum or caul, which is attached to the outside of the stomach, and falls over the intestines like a curtain.

Stomach

The human stomach. Labels: a, the esophagus or gullet; b, the cardiac portion; c, the left extremity;…

The digestive system. This figure represents the whole tract of the intestinal canal, not exactly in its natural position, but spread out so as to show the relative proportions; f, the esophagus; g, cardia; h, pylorus; i, i, the duodenum, about twelve fingers; breadth in length; k, hepatic duct; l, gall bladder; m, cystic duct; n, ductus communis, formed by the union of both; o, the opening of this duct into the duodenum; p, pancreatic duct; q, its opening into the duodenum; r, jejunum; s, ilium; these constitute the small intestines, and are about 26 feet in length, or five times the length of the body; t, termination of ilium in the coecum; , u, superior fold of valve of colon; v, inferior do. ; w, coecum; x, vermiform process; y, y, colon; z, rectum. The coecum, colon, and rectum, form the large intestines, and are about 6 feet in length; the coecum being about 4 inches long, and the same in diameter. The arrows show the direction which the food takes in digestion.

Stomach

The digestive system. This figure represents the whole tract of the intestinal canal, not exactly in…

The stomach showing the muscles which churn the food. Labels: E, where food enters; V, entrance into the intestine, D.

Stomach

The stomach showing the muscles which churn the food. Labels: E, where food enters; V, entrance into…

Vertical and longitudinal section of stomach, gall-bladder, and duodenum. Labels: 1, esophagus; 2, cardiac orifice of stomach; 5, lesser curvature; , greater curvature; 8, rugae in interior of stomach; 9, pyloric orifice; 10, 11, 13, interior of duodenum, showing valvulae conniventes; 12, duct conveying bile, and P, duct conveying pancreatic juice, into the duodenum; 14, gall-bladder; 15, commencement of jejunum.

Vertical and Longitudinal Section of Stomach, Gall-Bladder, and Duodenum

Vertical and longitudinal section of stomach, gall-bladder, and duodenum. Labels: 1, esophagus; 2, cardiac…

"The Inner Surface of the Stomach, from which the the Epithelium has been removed, showing the Openings of Gastric Glands." &mdash; Blaisedell, 1904

Inner surface of the stomach

"The Inner Surface of the Stomach, from which the the Epithelium has been removed, showing the Openings…

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery; the stomach and liver have been turned up so as to expose the pancreas. Labels: V, stomach; D, D',D'', duodenum; L, spleen; P, pancreas; R, right kidney; T, jejunum; Vf, gall bladder; h, hepatic duct; c, cystic duct; ch, common bile duct; 1, aorta; 2, an artery (left coronary) of the stomach; 3, hepatic artery; 4, splenic artery; 5, superior mesenteric artery; 6, superior mesenteric vein; 7, splenic vein; Vp, portal vein.

The Stomach, Pancreas, Liver, and Duodenum

The stomach, pancreas, liver, and duodenum, with part of the rest of the small intestine and the mesentery;…

The stomach, the principal organ of digestion. It is a dilated part of the alimentary canal, situated between the termination of the esophagus and the beginning of the small intestine.

The Stomach

The stomach, the principal organ of digestion. It is a dilated part of the alimentary canal, situated…

The inside of the stomach with the beginning of the intestines. At 3 is the left end and at 4 is the right end. At 1 is the opening of the gullet into the stomach. At 5 is a valve (the pylorus) which is sometimes shut, so as to prevent anything from passing from the stomach into the intestines. 8 indicates the inside lining of the stomach which produces gastric juices. 6 shows the duct from the liver.

The Stomach

The inside of the stomach with the beginning of the intestines. At 3 is the left end and at 4 is the…

Digestive system of a mammal. (g) gullet; (s) stomach; (sm) small intestine; (lm) large intestine; (r) termination of the large intestine.

Digestive system

Digestive system of a mammal. (g) gullet; (s) stomach; (sm) small intestine; (lm) large intestine; (r)…

S. cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; Cl, colon.

Intestinal Tract of a Tapir

S. cut end of duodenum; R, cut end of rectum; C, caecum; Cl, colon.

"The lacteals conduct the chyle from the intestines into numerous glands nearby, called the mesenteries, from which a fewer number of lacteals lead the chyle into one large tube in front of the spinal column, called the thoracic duct." &mdash;Brown, 1884

Thoracic duct and lacteals

"The lacteals conduct the chyle from the intestines into numerous glands nearby, called the mesenteries,…

"Ideal section, greatly enlarged, showing minute capillary circulations." &mdash;Brown, 1884

Villus

"Ideal section, greatly enlarged, showing minute capillary circulations." —Brown, 1884

Showing the position of the viscera in the condition of visceroptosis (Glenard's disease). Labels: A, sterno-ensiform line: it crosses above the fifth costal cartilage; B, mid-epigastric line; C, umbilical line; D, mid-hypogastric line; a, pericardium; b, stomach (greatly elongated and dilated); c, liver; c', the lingual or Riedel's process; d, duodenum; e, caecum; f, transverse colon; g, rectum; h, elongated gastro-hepatic omentum.

Position of the Viscera in the Condition of Visceroptosis

Showing the position of the viscera in the condition of visceroptosis (Glenard's disease). Labels: A,…