"The accumulator may consist of a large tank in which are numerous plates over which water can flow, or may contain simply water rapidly circulated by artificial means. As the exhaust steam from the engine enters this accumulator, it spreads out over the exposed water surface, and some of it is condensed if there is an excess of pressure due to more steam being supplied by the exhaust than is being utilized by the turbine." —Derr, 1911

Interior View of Rateau Accumulator

"The accumulator may consist of a large tank in which are numerous plates over which water can flow,…

"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The vessel so exhausted, is called a receive, and the space thus left in the vessel, after withdrawing the air, is called a vacuum. The principles on which the air pump is constructed are readily understood, and are the same in all instruments of this kind, though the form of the instrument itself is often considerably modified. Let R be a glass vessel, or receiver, closed at the top, and open at the bottom, standing on a perfectly smooth surface, which is called the plate of the air pump. Through thie plate is an aperture, which communicates with the inside of the receiver, and the barrel of the pump. The piston rod works air tight through the barrel. At the extremity of the barrel, there is a valve which opens upwards, and is closed as the piston rises." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The air pump is an engine by which the air can be pumped out of a vessel, or withdrawn from it. The…

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is turned backwards and forwards, by the lever and handle b. The exhaustion pipe c, leads to the plate on which the receiver stants. The valves v, n, u, and m, all open upwards." —Comstock, 1850

Air Pump

"The piston rods are furnished with racks, or teeth, and are worked by the toothed wheel a, which is…

"A motor employing the elastic force of air expanded by heat, or air compressed by means of another and separate motor, which is generally a steam engine."-Whitney, 1902

Air-engine

"A motor employing the elastic force of air expanded by heat, or air compressed by means of another…

"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying the earliest application of what is known as the "regenerative" principle, the principle namely that heat may be deposited by a substance at one stage of its action and taken up again at another stage but with little loss, and with a great resulting change in the substance's temperature at each of the two stages in the operation." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Stirling's Air Engine

"A form of air-engine which was invented in 1816 by the Rev. R. Stirling is of special interest as embodying…

This illustration shows an Anzani Radial Motor with stationary cylinders and its many parts: Exhaust Valve, Valve Tappet, Air-Cooled Cylinders, Magneto, Carburetor, Gasoline Supply Pipe, Induction Tube, Intake Valve.

Anzani Radial Motor, with Stationary Cylinders

This illustration shows an Anzani Radial Motor with stationary cylinders and its many parts: Exhaust…

"Suppose a hollow cube to be filled with some fluid (water or steam) at a given pressure, and to have an opening in one side that can readily be closed. The arrangement is such that when the outlet is opened, the internal pressure will remain the same. If the outlet is opened, the fluid will rush out, and if the jet is supposed to strike against a board free to move, the jet will exert a force upon the board tending to swing it in the direction of the jet." —Derr, 1911

Apparatus for Measuring Jet Stream of Steam

"Suppose a hollow cube to be filled with some fluid (water or steam) at a given pressure, and to have…

A biplane labeled with its principal parts.

Biplane Parts

A biplane labeled with its principal parts.

A Yorkshire steam wagon transverse boiler. Water is continuously enters the large cylindrical container. The water heating is provided by burning coal in the furnance.

Yorkshire Steam Wagon Transverse Boiler

A Yorkshire steam wagon transverse boiler. Water is continuously enters the large cylindrical container.…

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes of raising water, of sawing timber and pounding materials. His machine consisted of a wheel furnished with flat vanes around its circumference, like the boards of a paddle-wheel. Upon these vanes, steam was propelled from a close vessel, called an eolipile. A rotary motion was produced, and communicated to appropriate machinery. The results, however, of these and other discoveries made about this period, have never been rendered applicable to the purposes for which the modern steam engine is adapted." —Comstock, 1850

Brancas Engine

"In 1629 Giovanni Branca, an Italian, contrived a machine which was employed for the various purposes…

An illustration of a locomotive broiler.

Locomotive Broiler

An illustration of a locomotive broiler.

"Crankcase showing bearings. The heart of the automobile is the engine. It is built around the crankcase, which is its foundation or base." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 01: Crankcase

"Crankcase showing bearings. The heart of the automobile is the engine. It is built around the crankcase,…

"Crankcase with crank-shaft and fly-wheel added. The crankshaft serves the same purpose in an automobile as the pedals do on a bicycle. The fly-wheel on the end helps it to keep turning at an even speed." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 02: Crank-Shaft and Fly-Wheel

"Crankcase with crank-shaft and fly-wheel added. The crankshaft serves the same purpose in an automobile…

"Cylinders showing piston in place and connected to crankshaft. Gasoline vapor is exploded in the cylinders. This pushes the piston down, and as the piston is connected to the crankshaft it starts the crankshaft turning. The piston and the rod that connect it to the crankshaft are just like the feet and limbs of any one riding a bicycle." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 03: Cylinders Showing Piston and Crankshaft

"Cylinders showing piston in place and connected to crankshaft. Gasoline vapor is exploded in the cylinders.…

"The gears or 'cogwheels' are for running the fan, the pump and other parts." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 04: Cogwheels

"The gears or 'cogwheels' are for running the fan, the pump and other parts." -Bodmer, 1917

"Cylinder added to crankcase. The cylinders are next bolted down to the crankcase, the pistons and crankshaft having been connected. A cover is placed over the gears to keep them clean." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 05: Cylinder Added to Crankcase

"Cylinder added to crankcase. The cylinders are next bolted down to the crankcase, the pistons and crankshaft…

"An oil pan or reservoir is attached to the bottom of the crankcase to hold oil for the engine." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 06: Reservoir Added

"An oil pan or reservoir is attached to the bottom of the crankcase to hold oil for the engine." -Bodmer,…

"The carburetor furnishes the gasoline vapor for the cylinders. It is connected to the engine by a crooked pipe called the intake manifold. After the gasoline has been exploded a valve opens and allows the burned gases to escape through another pipe, called the exhaust manifold." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 07: Carburetor

"The carburetor furnishes the gasoline vapor for the cylinders. It is connected to the engine by a crooked…

"Oil pump and filler added to motor. Oil is poured in the spout which is at the left of the carburetor. It runs down into the reservoir and is pumped up through the engine a little at a time." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 08: Oil Pump and Filler

"Oil pump and filler added to motor. Oil is poured in the spout which is at the left of the carburetor.…

"The electric generator makes electricity to be used for starting the engine and lighting the car." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 09: Electric Generator

"The electric generator makes electricity to be used for starting the engine and lighting the car."…

"The magneto gives an electric spark, which explodes the gasoline in the cylinders. The water pump keeps water flowing around the cylinders to prevent them from getting too hot. This water comes back to the pump through the radiator at the front of the car. Wind blows through the radiator and cools off the water. The tire pump on up-to-date cars is run by the engine. It does not pump except when the gears, which are shown in the picture, are pulled together." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 10: Magneto

"The magneto gives an electric spark, which explodes the gasoline in the cylinders. The water pump keeps…

"An electric motor starts the engine by turning the fly-wheel. This makes it unnecessary to get out and crank the car by hand." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 11: Motor

"An electric motor starts the engine by turning the fly-wheel. This makes it unnecessary to get out…

"The transmission is added. The transmission makes it possible to reverse the car. It also enables the driver to go into high-speed gear when on level roads and low-speed gear for starting and for pulling hills." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 12: Transmission

"The transmission is added. The transmission makes it possible to reverse the car. It also enables the…

"Double-drop pressed steel frame. The frame on which the car is built." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 13: Frame

"Double-drop pressed steel frame. The frame on which the car is built." -Bodmer, 1917

"Addition of semi-elliptic and three-fourths-elliptic springs to frame. Large springs are placed at the front and rear of the frame. The make the car ride smoothly." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 14: Elliptic Springs

"Addition of semi-elliptic and three-fourths-elliptic springs to frame. Large springs are placed at…

"Adding the front axle." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 15: Front Axle

"Adding the front axle." -Bodmer, 1917

"Showing addition of full-floating rear axle." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 16: Rear Axle

"Showing addition of full-floating rear axle." -Bodmer, 1917

"Completed engine and transmission is next fastened to the frame and connected to the rear axle by the drive shaft." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 17: Engine and Transmission Attached to the Frame

"Completed engine and transmission is next fastened to the frame and connected to the rear axle by the…

"Showing addition of gasoline tank and gas lead to carburetor." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 18: Gasoline Tank

"Showing addition of gasoline tank and gas lead to carburetor." -Bodmer, 1917

"Showing how steering gear is connected." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 19: Steering Gear

"Showing how steering gear is connected." -Bodmer, 1917

"Wheels are next added to chassis." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 20: Wheels

"Wheels are next added to chassis." -Bodmer, 1917

"Completed chassis with radiator added. The water which keeps the engine from getting too hot is pumped around the cylinders and then through the radiator. The wind blows through the little openings in the radiator, and cools off the water. Then the water is pumped around the cylinders again." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 21: Radiator

"Completed chassis with radiator added. The water which keeps the engine from getting too hot is pumped…

"The steps and fenders are next attached." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 22: Fenders

"The steps and fenders are next attached." -Bodmer, 1917

"The finished car." -Bodmer, 1917

Building an Automobile, Step 23: Finished Car

"The finished car." -Bodmer, 1917

"It is usual to put the engine on center before setting the valve. First put the engine in a position where the piston has nearly completed the outward stroke, and make a mark M on the guide opposite the corner of the crosshead or at some convenient place." —Derr, 1911

Steam Engine Valve Centered with Piston

"It is usual to put the engine on center before setting the valve. First put the engine in a position…

An illustration of the Rolls Royce chassis with engine and axle viewed form the top. A chassis is the underneath frame and the gears in the car. The back axle is connected to the shaft coming from the engine.

Top View of Six Cylinder 1910 Rolls Royce Chassis with Engine and Axle

An illustration of the Rolls Royce chassis with engine and axle viewed form the top. A chassis is the…

"The Chica Ballapura engine consists of two upright rollers, A, the heads of which are formed into double spiral screws, B, which work in one another, so that when an ox is yoked to the long curved lever C, and goes round, one of the upright rollers, being connected with the lever, is made to revolve, and its screw carries the other one round but in the opposite direction." — Chambers, 1881

Chica Ballapure engine

"The Chica Ballapura engine consists of two upright rollers, A, the heads of which are formed into double…

A superheated steam tractor built by Colonel Crompton. The boiler, located in the front, heats the water, then the steam enters the piston near the rear wheel. The large rear wheel is connected to the gears by a drive chain.

Colonel Crompton's Superheated Steam Tractor

A superheated steam tractor built by Colonel Crompton. The boiler, located in the front, heats the water,…

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers from the seedpods and the sometimes sticky seeds, a job previously done by workers. These seeds are either used again to grow more cotton or, if badly damaged, are disposed of. It uses a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through the screen, while brushes continuously remove the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. The term "gin" is an abbreviation for engine, and means "machine".

Cotton Gin

A Cotton Gin (short for cotton engine) is a machine that quickly and easily separates the cotton fibers…

"The simplest idea of a crank is that of a handle to a wheel; its action is familiarly illustrated in the process of drawing water from a well: the bent handle attached to the wheel is first pushed out, then pulled in the opposite direction, and thus a continued rotatory motion is produced upon an axle. The application of this principle to the steam engine, and the variations of pressure on the crank of a steam enginre, may be conveniently illustrated by curves." —Comstock, 1850

Crank

"The simplest idea of a crank is that of a handle to a wheel; its action is familiarly illustrated in…

"When set full gear forward, the valve admits steam to the crank end of the cylinder, and the crank revolves as shown by the arrow. As the crank turns, both eccentrics impart motion to the link, but the "go ahead" link pin H approximately coincides with the link block." —Derr, 1911

Eccentric Motion of the Steam Engine Crank in Full Gear

"When set full gear forward, the valve admits steam to the crank end of the cylinder, and the crank…

Relation of ignition distributor to engine crankshaft.

Crankshaft

Relation of ignition distributor to engine crankshaft.

A beam or rod stretching across the top of something; specifically, the bar at the end of a piston rod of a steam engine, which slides on ways or guides fixed to the bed or frame of the engine.

Crosshead

A beam or rod stretching across the top of something; specifically, the bar at the end of a piston rod…

"The upper bearing with dowel—pins and key fit into corresponding dowel holes and key—way in the bottom of the shaft, and rotate with it. When the oil is supplied to the bearing, under a high pressure, it fills the central circular space between the blocks and forces them slightly apart. The oil then escapes between the annular edges of these two blocks and is collected into a drain and returned to the original supply." —Derr, 1911

Cross Sectional View of Curtis Turbine Step Bearing

"The upper bearing with dowel—pins and key fit into corresponding dowel holes and key—way…

"The plate A is 46 inches in diameter, and is composed of gun metal. These were put on by original graduation, mainly on the plan of Edward Troughton. One very great improvement in this engine is that the axis B is tubular, as seen at C. The object of this hollow is to receive the axis of the circle to be divided, so that it can be fixed flat to the plate by the clamps E, without having first to be detached from the axis and other parts to which it has already been carefully fitted. This obviates the necessity for resetting, which can hardly be done without some error. D is the tangent screw, and F the flame carrying it, which turns on carefully polished steel pivots. The screw is pressed against the edge of the plate by a spiral spring acting under the lever G, and by screwing the lever down the screw can be altogether removed from contact with the plate." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Dividing Engine

"The plate A is 46 inches in diameter, and is composed of gun metal. These were put on by original graduation,…

End elevation and section of Dixie 4-Cylinder Magneto showing construction and connections.

Dixie 4-Cylinder Magneto

End elevation and section of Dixie 4-Cylinder Magneto showing construction and connections.

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its double action, it is necessary to provide, at each end of the cylinder, a means of admission of steam from the boiler, and of escape for the steam to the condenser. Hence the double action, which means that the piston is both raised and depressed by the force of steam. For this purpose, a steam box is fixed to each end of the cylinder, communicating, in the one case with the upper, in the other with the lower, surface of the piston. B is the upper, and and B' the lower, steam box. Each of these boxes is furnished with two valves." —Comstock, 1850

Double-acting Cylinder

"The first alteration to be noticed in the double-acting engine is that of the cylinder. To insure its…

A generator consisting of a coil which rotates between the poles of an electromagnet causing a current to flow in.

Electric Machine for Dynamo

A generator consisting of a coil which rotates between the poles of an electromagnet causing a current…

A portable engine used for small machines.

Engine

A portable engine used for small machines.

A propellor engine illustrating of the motion of the propellor when in flight.

Aeroplane Engine

A propellor engine illustrating of the motion of the propellor when in flight.

A eight cylinder Bentley superheated steam engine fitted to a tractor. The steam is used to move the piston.

Bentley Eight Cylinder Diagonal Tandem Compound Superheated Steam Engine for Tractor

A eight cylinder Bentley superheated steam engine fitted to a tractor. The steam is used to move the…

A six cylinder Rolls Royce engine viewed from the carburetor side. The carburetor is used to mix air and fuel in the engine.

Carburetor Side View of Six Cylinder Rolls Royce Engine

A six cylinder Rolls Royce engine viewed from the carburetor side. The carburetor is used to mix air…

"In this engine the cam—shaft by which the steam and exhaust valves are operated is situated midway of the shaft." —Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Sheppee Motor Company Compact Double Acting SUperheated Engine

"In this engine the cam—shaft by which the steam and exhaust valves are operated is situated midway…

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Explosion Engine

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

Explosive Engine

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Gas Engine

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

Internal Combustion Engine

A machine that converts energy into mechanical force or motion.

This internal combustion engine comprises of fuel combustion which occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber.

Internal Combustion Engine

This internal combustion engine comprises of fuel combustion which occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion…

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work

Internal Combustion Engine

Motor that converts thermal energy to mechanical work