Capital from Eleusis.

Capital

Capital from Eleusis.

Corinthian capital from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, restored.

Capital

Corinthian capital from the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, restored.

The antique Corinthian capital is a found in Melos, Greece. It is a design of a two rows of leaves that clothe the lower cylindrical part of the capital.

Antique Corinthian Capital

The antique Corinthian capital is a found in Melos, Greece. It is a design of a two rows of leaves that…

The Greek Corinthian capital is found in a monument in Lysikrates, Athens. It is a design of spiral curves that rise from the rows of leaves and unite in pairs. The center of each sides of the abacus is decorated with palmettes or rosettes.

Greek Corinthian Capital

The Greek Corinthian capital is found in a monument in Lysikrates, Athens. It is a design of spiral…

The ionic capital is a design of a scroll rolled on both sides with spiral curves. It is found in Bassae, Ancient Greece.

Ionic Capital

The ionic capital is a design of a scroll rolled on both sides with spiral curves. It is found in Bassae,…

"The carchesium was a beaker, or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times. It was slightly contracted in the middle, and its two handles extended from the top to the bottom. It was much employed in libations of wine, milk, blood, and honey." — Anthon, 1891

Carchesium

"The carchesium was a beaker, or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times. It…

The Greek Caryatid is a female figure used as a support in place of a column. It is found in the temple of Erechtheum, Athens, Greece.

Greek Caryatid

The Greek Caryatid is a female figure used as a support in place of a column. It is found in the temple…

Ceiling of Pleroma, Parthenon.

Ceiling Panel

Ceiling of Pleroma, Parthenon.

"Centaur, from the Metopes of the Parthenon." — Smith, 1882

Centaur

"Centaur, from the Metopes of the Parthenon." — Smith, 1882

"Arms and a chariot are here assigned to June through not properly a warlike goddess. The idea itself, of giving such appendages to Diety, seems borrowed from the habits of the heroic age. The following delineation of a chariot is from an ancient one preserved in the Vatican; <em>Hoc regnum dea</em> etc." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Chariot

"Arms and a chariot are here assigned to June through not properly a warlike goddess. The idea itself,…

"In the battles, as depicted by Homer, the chiefs are the only important combatants, while the people are an almost useless mass, frequently put to rout by the prowess of a single hero. The chief is mounted in a war chariot, and stands by the side of his charioteer, who is frequently a friend." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Greek chariot

"In the battles, as depicted by Homer, the chiefs are the only important combatants, while the people…

"The chariot-race." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Chariot-race

"The chariot-race." — Smith, 1882

"The chlamys was a species of cloak or scarf, oblong instead of square, its length being generally about twice its breadth." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Chlamys

"The chlamys was a species of cloak or scarf, oblong instead of square, its length being generally about…

"The following cut will show specimens of ancient clasps." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Ancient clasps

"The following cut will show specimens of ancient clasps." — Anthon, 1891

The Muse Clio.

Clio

The Muse Clio.

Clisthenes, also known as the Father of Athenian democracy, is depicted competing in a chariot race in the Olympic games.

Clisthenes in the Olympic Games

Clisthenes, also known as the Father of Athenian democracy, is depicted competing in a chariot race…

A Greek coin, with an elderly man on it.

Greek coin

A Greek coin, with an elderly man on it.

The Greek console is shown in the front and side view. It is found as a support to the North door of the Greek Temple Erechtheum in Athens, Greece.

Greek Console

The Greek console is shown in the front and side view. It is found as a support to the North door of…

An image depicting the city of ancient Corinth.

Ancient Corinth

An image depicting the city of ancient Corinth.

Corinthian capital from Temple of Zeus at Athens.

Corinthian Capital

Corinthian capital from Temple of Zeus at Athens.

Early Corinthian capital from Bassae.

Corinthian Capital

Early Corinthian capital from Bassae.

Capital from "Tower of the Winds" Athens.

Corinthian Capital

Capital from "Tower of the Winds" Athens.

"Afterwards [Solon] went to Sardis and made the acquaintance of Cresus. It was on this occasion that the celebrated interview occurred which has been so much repeated for its lesson. Cresus, desiring to make an impression on his visitor, took him into his treasury and showed him his riches."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Cresus Showing Solon His Treasures

"Afterwards [Solon] went to Sardis and made the acquaintance of Cresus. It was on this occasion that…

"The preceding cut represents the tombstone of a <em>cultrarius</em>, or the individual who slew the victim at the altar, and upon it two <em>cultri/i>, or sacrificial knives." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Tombstone of a cultrarius

"The preceding cut represents the tombstone of a cultrarius, or the individual who slew the…

Image depicting a mythical moral anecdote, consisting of two morals. The first that regardless of who wears the crown, they are bound to have threats sent their way. The second is that the threat of terrorism is much greater than the act itself.

Banquet of Damocles

Image depicting a mythical moral anecdote, consisting of two morals. The first that regardless of who…

An ancient Greek town. In Greek mythology, the most important oracle resided at Delphi.

Delphi

An ancient Greek town. In Greek mythology, the most important oracle resided at Delphi.

"In the oratory of more thn two thousand years Demosthenes stands in the front rank, and will always hold first place among the orators of the ancient world. He was born in 384 B.C. When he was only seven years of age, his father, a wealthy manufacturer of arms in Athens, died. When the youth came of age he found himself stripped of his inheritance by dishonest trustees. Aided by Isaeus he commenced a lawsuit against the chief embezzler, and succeeded in recovering about a third of his father's estate. The loss of his patrimony was the means of developing a spirit of courage and self-relience, which might otherwise have remained latent." &mdash; The Delphian Society, 1913

Demosthenes

"In the oratory of more thn two thousand years Demosthenes stands in the front rank, and will always…

"Demosthenes had established himself as a public speaker before [the first Phillipic]; but it is chiefly in connection with Phillip that we are to view him as a statesman as well as an orator." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Bust of Demosthenes

"Demosthenes had established himself as a public speaker before [the first Phillipic]; but it is chiefly…

Demosthenes was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Sculpture of Demosthenes

Demosthenes was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a…

"The following cut, from an ancient gem, represents Diomede in the act of bearing away the Palladium." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Diomede

"The following cut, from an ancient gem, represents Diomede in the act of bearing away the Palladium."…

One of the earliest open-air theaters in Athens, Greece.

Theater of Dionysus

One of the earliest open-air theaters in Athens, Greece.

Also known as Discobolus. The Discus Thrower is a famous, ancient bronze statue that demonstrates a man participating in an ancient sport.

The Discus Thrower

Also known as Discobolus. The Discus Thrower is a famous, ancient bronze statue that demonstrates a…

A Greek object, with cherubs depicted.

Greek doodad

A Greek object, with cherubs depicted.

Doric order of the Parthenon, Athens.

Doric Column

Doric order of the Parthenon, Athens.

"Cadmus and the Dragon. (From a vase-painting at Naples.)" &mdash; The Delphian Society, 1913

Cadmus and the Dragon

"Cadmus and the Dragon. (From a vase-painting at Naples.)" — The Delphian Society, 1913

The evolution of the egg-and-dart motive.

Egg-and-Dart Motive

The evolution of the egg-and-dart motive.

Greek illustration of Elysium.

Elysium doodad

Greek illustration of Elysium.

Episema were used in Greece as a symbol for a country, region, or used on a shield or badge. This episemon depicts a lion's head with a fish in its mouth.

Episemon

Episema were used in Greece as a symbol for a country, region, or used on a shield or badge. This episemon…

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished, and probably not before the year preceding the breaking out of the Peloponnesian war. Its progress was no doubt delayed by that event, and it was probably not completed before 393 B.C. When finished it presented one of the finest models of the Ionic order, as the Parthenon was of the Doric. It stood to the north of the Acropolis." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Erechtheum restored

"The building of the new Erechtheum was not commenced till the Parthenon and Propylea were finished,…

"Euripides was born in the island of Salamis, in B.C. 480, his parents having been among those who fled thither at the time of the invasion of Attica by Xerxes. He studied rhetoric under Prodicus, and physics under Anaxagoras." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Euripides

"Euripides was born in the island of Salamis, in B.C. 480, his parents having been among those who fled…

"View of the Fort Euryalus at Syracuse." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Fort Euryalus

"View of the Fort Euryalus at Syracuse." — Smith, 1882

An exedra is a semicircular recess set into a building's facade. The exedra at the Street of Tombs in Assos (Turkey) is shown here.

Exedra at the Street of Tombs in Assos

An exedra is a semicircular recess set into a building's facade. The exedra at the Street of Tombs in…

"It was during the siege of Methone that Philip had the misfortune to lose on of his eyes. A random arrow discharged from the rampart fell square in the king's face and destroyed one-half of his sight. When the arrow-head was drawn away, it was found to contain the following label: "Astor to Philip's right eye." It appeared on inquiry that the unerring missile had been discharged by an offended archer who has recently offered his services to the king and been rejected. He hd represented to Philip that his skill with the bow was great that he could kill a small bird on the wing. The king not believing the story had put off the applicant with the remark, "Well, well, I shall make use of thee when I go to war with the starlings." Astor has then joined the Methoneans and now vindicated his skill in a way never to be forgotten."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Astor to Philip's Right Eye

"It was during the siege of Methone that Philip had the misfortune to lose on of his eyes. A random…

Carved finial of Choragic monument of Lysicrates, Athens.

Finial

Carved finial of Choragic monument of Lysicrates, Athens.

The finial foliated shaft is a Greek design of the choragic monument of Lysikrates in Athens.

Finial Foliated Shaft

The finial foliated shaft is a Greek design of the choragic monument of Lysikrates in Athens.

"The Olympic games were of greater efficacy than the Amphictyonic Council in promoting the spirit of union among the various branches of the Greek race, and in keeping alive a feeling of their common origin. They were open to all persons who could prove their Hellenic blood, and were frequented by spectators from all parts of the Grecian world. They were celebrated at Olympia, on the banks of the alpheus, in the territory of Elis." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Foot-race

"The Olympic games were of greater efficacy than the Amphictyonic Council in promoting the spirit of…

"Gazzetta of the Ionian islands, 1801. A small copper coin, worth about 3 farthings, made in Venice for the Ionian islands." -Whitney, 1911

Obverse and Reverse Sides of a Gazzetta

"Gazzetta of the Ionian islands, 1801. A small copper coin, worth about 3 farthings, made in Venice…

This illustration shows various types of gladiators, each type with with his specific weapons attributed to him.
Gladiators were swordsmen whose profession was to fight for the public amusement. Gladiators are said to have been borrowed by Rome from the Etruscans. They were first exhibited in Rome in 246 BC, primarily at funerals, but afterwards at festivals, particularly those celebrated by the aediles and other magistrates. More than ten thousand were shown at Trajan's triumph over the Dacians. They were either free-born citizens, usually of a low class, who fought for hire, or captives, slaves, or malefactors, and were kept in schools, where they were carefully trained. Chief varieties were Andabatae, who wore helmets with no openings for the eyes, so that their blindfold movements provoked the spectators' mirth; Mirmillones, who used Gallic weapons, sword and shield; Retiarii, who carried a net and a three-pronged lance -- the net to entangle their opponents; and Thraces, who, like the Thracians, used a short sword and a round buckler. 
When a gladiator was severely wounded and defeated, the people cried out 'Habet' (He has it), and he lowered his arms; then, if the spectators wished his life to be spared, they turned their thumbs down; but it they desired his death, they turned them up. These combats were often attended by great cruelty and callousness on the part of the spectators; sometimes they were fights à outrance, none being spared alive. Discharged gladiators were presented with a rudis, or wooden sword, and hence were called rudiarii. Gladiatorial combats were disliked by the Greeks, and practically never took place in Greek cities.

Gladiators

This illustration shows various types of gladiators, each type with with his specific weapons attributed…

"A relief on the tomb of a certain Hegeso. It represents a woman, seated, taking a jewel from a casket held by an attendant."&mdash;Webster, 1913

An Athenian Gravestone

"A relief on the tomb of a certain Hegeso. It represents a woman, seated, taking a jewel from a casket…

"Represents the interior view of a bronze shield and a pair of greaves. These greaves are made right and left." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Greaves and shield

"Represents the interior view of a bronze shield and a pair of greaves. These greaves are made right…

Scene from the story, "Philemon and Baucis."

Greece

Scene from the story, "Philemon and Baucis."

A scene from ancient Greece, possibly from a vase.

Scene from ancient Greece

A scene from ancient Greece, possibly from a vase.

"The Greeks belong to the great Indo-European race, who from the earliest times have been the conquerers and civilizers of the world." &mdash;The Popular Cyclopedia, 1888

Greek

"The Greeks belong to the great Indo-European race, who from the earliest times have been the conquerers…

"Round, triangular, or square in plan, often elaborately adorned with sculpture, and bearing inscriptions."-Whitney, 1902

Greek Altar

"Round, triangular, or square in plan, often elaborately adorned with sculpture, and bearing inscriptions."-Whitney,…

Anthemions, black on red

Greek Band Design

Anthemions, black on red

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Greek Band Design

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Greek Band Design

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Greek Band Design

Palmette, black and brown on red.

Oblique anthemions, black on red.

Greek Band Design

Oblique anthemions, black on red.

Vine band, red on black.

Greek Band Design

Vine band, red on black.