Arm of humans; h Humerus or bone of upper arm; r and u Radius and Ulna, or bones of the forearm; c Carpus, or bones of the wrist; m Metacarpus, or bones of the root of the hand; p Phalanges, or bones of the fingers.

Bones of Arm

Arm of humans; h Humerus or bone of upper arm; r and u Radius and Ulna, or bones of the forearm; c Carpus,…

"Superficial arteries and nerves of the face and neck. 1, Temporal artery; 2, artery behind the ear; 3, occipital artery; 4, greater occipital nerve; 5, smaller occipital nerve; 6, nerve of the neck; 7, trapezius muscle; 8, clavicular nerves; 9, clavicle; 10, sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle; 11, outer artery of the head; 12, inner artery of the head; 13, salivary gland; 14, nerves of the lower jaw; 15, outer maxillary artery; 16, nerve of the chin; 17, circular muscle of the mouth; 18, greater yoke muscle; 19, nerves below the eye; 20, masseter, or chewing muscle; 21, ear passage; 22, arteries of the forehead; 23; nerves of the forehead; 24, eye-closing muscle; 25, facial artery; 26, facial nerve." -Foster, 1921

Arteries and Nerves

"Superficial arteries and nerves of the face and neck. 1, Temporal artery; 2, artery behind the ear;…

"Section through right ear. 1, helix; 2, concha; 3, outer passage; 4, 5, 6, semi-circular canals; 7, oval window; 8, cochlea; 9, Eustachian tube; 10, eardrum." -Foster, 1921

Ear

"Section through right ear. 1, helix; 2, concha; 3, outer passage; 4, 5, 6, semi-circular canals; 7,…

"External Ear, or Pinna. 1, helix; 2, fossa of antihelix, or fossa triangularis; 3, fossa of helix, or fossa scaphoidea; 4, antihelix; 5, 5, concha; 6, antitragus; 7, lobule; 8, tragus." -Whitney, 1911

External Ear

"External Ear, or Pinna. 1, helix; 2, fossa of antihelix, or fossa triangularis; 3, fossa of helix,…

"Transverse Section through Side Walls of Skull, showing the Inner Parts of the Ear. Co, concha or external ear, or pinna; EM, external auditory meatus; TyM, tympanic membrane; Inc, incus; Mall, malleus; ASC, PSC, ESC, anterior, posterior, and external semicircular canals; Coc, cochlea; Eu, Eustachian tube; IM, internal auditory meatus, through which the auditory nerve passes to the organ of hearing." -Whitney, 1911

Inner Ear

"Transverse Section through Side Walls of Skull, showing the Inner Parts of the Ear. Co, concha or external…

"Early Human Embryo, giving diagrammatically the principal vessels antecedent to the establishment of the regular fetal circulation. H, heart; P, lungs; L, liver; T A, the aortic trunk or cardiac aorta; c, c', c", common, external, and internal carotids; s, subclavian artery; v, vertebral artery; 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, the aortic arches (the persistent left aortic arch hidden); A, subvertebral aorta; o, o', omphalomeseraic artery and vein, to and from U, the umbilical vesicle with its vitelline duct, dv; u, u, the two hypogastric or umbilical arteries, with the ramifications, u", u", in the placenta; u', umbilical vein; vh, hepatic vein; cv, inferior vena cava; vil, iliac veins; az, an azygous vein; vc, a posterior cardinal vein; vi, innominate vein; vp, portal vein; Dv, the ductus venosus; DC, a ductus Cuvieri. The anterior cardinal vein is seen beginning in the head and running down to the ductus Cuvieri, on the under side of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5." -Whitney, 1911

Human Embryo

"Early Human Embryo, giving diagrammatically the principal vessels antecedent to the establishment of…

"Diagram of Vertebrate Encephalon ... in longitudinal vertical section. Mb, mid-brain; in front of it all is forebrain, behind it all is hind-brain; laminaterminalis, represented by the heavy black line in upper figure; Olf, olfactory lobes; Hmp, cerebral hemispheres; ThE, thalamencephalon; Py, pituitary body; FM, foramen of Monro; CS, corpus striatum; Th, optic thalamus; CQ, corpora quadrigemina; CC, crura cerebri; Cb, cerebellum; PV, pons Varolii; MO, medulla oblongata; I, olfactory nerves; II, optic nerves; III, point of ext from brain of the oculimotores; IV, of the pathetici; VI, of the abducentes; V-XII, origins of other cerebral nerves; 1, olfactory ventricle; 2, lateral ventricle; 3, third ventricle; 4, fourth ventricle." -Whitney, 1911

Encephalon

"Diagram of Vertebrate Encephalon ... in longitudinal vertical section. Mb, mid-brain; in front of it…

"Diagram of Vertebrate Encephalon ... in horizontal section. Mb, mid-brain; in front of it all is forebrain, behind it all is hind-brain; Lt, laminaterminalis; Olf, olfactory lobes; Pn, pineal body, or conarium; M, foramen of Monro; CS, corpus striatum; Th, optic thalamus; Cb, cerebellum; MO, medulla oblongata; I, olfactory nerves; II, optic nerves; 1, olfactory ventricle; 2, lateral ventricle; 3, third ventricle; 4, fourth ventricle; + is in the iter e tertio ad quartum ventriculum." -Whitney, 1911

Encephalon

"Diagram of Vertebrate Encephalon ... in horizontal section. Mb, mid-brain; in front of it all is forebrain,…

"Cross-section of the eye. Parts: co, cornea; I, iris; aq, anterior chamber of aqueous humor; L, lens; cp, ciliary process; sc, sclerotic coat; R, retina; ch, choroid; V, vitreous body; m, yellow spot; bs, blind spot; O, optic nerve." -Foster, 1921

Eye Cross-Section

"Cross-section of the eye. Parts: co, cornea; I, iris; aq, anterior chamber of aqueous humor; L, lens;…

"Section through the left eye, closed. 1, lifting muscle; 2, upper straight muscle; 3, optic nerve; 4, fatty cushion; 5, lower straight muscle; 6, vitreous humor; 7, lower cross muscle; 8, lower eyelid; 9, upper eyelid; 10, crystalline lens." -Foster, 1921

Eye Section

"Section through the left eye, closed. 1, lifting muscle; 2, upper straight muscle; 3, optic nerve;…

"Exterior of Left Human Eye. 1, supercilium, or eyebrow; 2, palpebra superior, or upper eyelid; 3, 3, cilia, or eyelashes; 4, caruncula lacrymalis; 5, plica semilunaris; 6, pupil; 7, iris." -Whitney, 1911

Exterior of Left Human Eye

"Exterior of Left Human Eye. 1, supercilium, or eyebrow; 2, palpebra superior, or upper eyelid; 3, 3,…

"Diagrammatic horizontal section of the eye of man. c, cornea; ch. choroid (dotted); C. P, ciliary processes; e. c, epithelium of cornea; e. cj, conjunctiva; f. c, yellow spot; I, iris; L, lens; ON, optic nerve; OS, ora serrata; o-x, optic axis; p. c. R, anterior non-visual portion of retina; P. E, pigmented epithelium (black); R, retina; sp. l, suspensory ligament; Scl, sclerotic; V. H, vitreous body." -Parker, 1900

Human Eye

"Diagrammatic horizontal section of the eye of man. c, cornea; ch. choroid (dotted); C. P, ciliary processes;…

"Human Eye, in Median Vertical Anteroposterior Section. (Ciliary processes shown, through not all lying in this section.) A, anterior, and A', posterior chambers of aqueous humor; a, central artery of retina; C, cornea; Ch, choroid; cj, conjunctiva; cm, ciliary muscle; cp, ciliary processs; H, hyaloid; I, iris; L, crystalline lens in its capsule (the reference-line passes through the pupil); l, l', insertion of tendon of superior and inferior rectus muscles; o, optic nerve; P, canal of Petit; R, retina; S, sclerotic; s, s', circular sinus or canal of Schlemm; V, vitreous body filling back part of the eye." -Whitney, 1911

Median Vertical Anteroposterior Section of Eye

"Human Eye, in Median Vertical Anteroposterior Section. (Ciliary processes shown, through not all lying…

"Muscles of Left Human Eyeball. so, superior oblique, passing through a trochlea or pulley; io, inferior oblique; sr, superior rectus; ifr, interior rectus; ir, internal rectus; er, external rectus; f, frontal sinus; m, maxillary sinus; o, optic nerve." -Whitney, 1911

Muscles of Left Eyeball

"Muscles of Left Human Eyeball. so, superior oblique, passing through a trochlea or pulley; io, inferior…

The facial angle is an angle formed by two imaginary lines; one drawn fom the most prominent part of the forehead to a point opposite the incisor teeth; the other from the external ear to the same point, the object being to measure the elevation of the forehead.

Facial Angles

The facial angle is an angle formed by two imaginary lines; one drawn fom the most prominent part of…

"Anterior View of Human Right Femur. ec, external condyle; etu, external tuberosity; ic, internal condyle; itu, internal tuberosity; ltr, lesser trochanter; gtr, great trochanter; h, head; n, neck." -Whitney, 1911

Anterior View of Human Right Femur

"Anterior View of Human Right Femur. ec, external condyle; etu, external tuberosity; ic, internal condyle;…

"Right Femur of a Youth. E, E, epiphyses; gtr, ltr, greater and lesser trochanter; h, head; et, it, external and internal tuberosity; ec, ic, external and internal condyle; n, neck." -Whitney, 1911

Youth Femur

"Right Femur of a Youth. E, E, epiphyses; gtr, ltr, greater and lesser trochanter; h, head; et, it,…

"Diagram of head and brain of human foetus six weeks old (heavy boundaries). The dotted line indicates the outline of the brain of a foetus three months old. Note thee great growth of the hemisphere (h). cer, cerebellum; med, medulla oblongata; mes, mesencephalon; p, pituitary body; pr, prosencephalon; s.c., spinal cord; th, thalamencephalon; 1, olfactory nerve; 2, optic nerve." -Galloway, 1915

Human Fetus

"Diagram of head and brain of human foetus six weeks old (heavy boundaries). The dotted line indicates…

"Bones of Human Foot, or Pes, the third principal segment of the hind limb, consisting of tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges. a, astralagus; ca, calcaneum; n, navicular, or scaphoid; co, cuboid; c1, c2, c3, entocuneiform, mesocuneiform, and ectocuneiform, or inner, middle, and outer cuneiform bones. The foregoing seven bones constitute the tarsus, and m1 to m5, first to the fifth metatarsal, constitue the metatarsus. The remaining fourteen bones are the phalanges, three to each digit excepting the great toe; h, distal phalanx of the hallux or great toe." -Whitney, 1911

Bones of Human Foot

"Bones of Human Foot, or Pes, the third principal segment of the hind limb, consisting of tarsus, metatarsus,…

"Nerves of the had. 1, Nerves of the skin; 2, tendons; 3, arteries of the palm of the hand; 4, elbow nerve; 5, elbow artery; 6, nerve of the forearm; 7, nerve of the under-arm; 8, artery of the under-arm." -Foster, 1921

Hand Nerves

"Nerves of the had. 1, Nerves of the skin; 2, tendons; 3, arteries of the palm of the hand; 4, elbow…

"Anterior View, Distal End, of Right Humerus of a Man. H, humerus; epc, epicondyle, or external supracondyloid protuberance; ept, epitrochlea, or internal supracondyloid protuberance; cp, capitellum, or convex articular suface for head of radius; tr, trochlea, or transversely concave articular surface for the ulna; epc and cp are together the ectocondyle, and ept and tr are together the entocondyle." -Whitney, 1911

Humerus

"Anterior View, Distal End, of Right Humerus of a Man. H, humerus; epc, epicondyle, or external supracondyloid…

Transverse section of the human kidney: "(a) cortex; (b) medulla; (c) small branch of the renal artery; (d) renal artery; (e) ureter; (f) pelvis." -Foster, 1921

Kidney

Transverse section of the human kidney: "(a) cortex; (b) medulla; (c) small branch of the renal artery;…

"The Lungs. 1, Summit of lungs. 2, Base of lungs. 3, Trachea. 4, Right bronchus. 5, Left bronchus. 6, Left aurical of heart. 7, Left superior pulmonary vein. 8, Right superior pulmonary vein. 9, Left ventricle of heart. 10, Right ventricle of heart." -Foster, 1921

Lungs

"The Lungs. 1, Summit of lungs. 2, Base of lungs. 3, Trachea. 4, Right bronchus. 5, Left bronchus. 6,…

A,b,c, deltoid muscle; d, coracobrachialis muscle; r,r, triceps;e,i, extensors of the hand; km, flexor of fingers and radial and ulnar sides of the wtist, and l, palm of the hand, or palmaris longus; p, palmaris brevis; q, palmar fascia; o, biceps.

Arm Muscle

A,b,c, deltoid muscle; d, coracobrachialis muscle; r,r, triceps;e,i, extensors of the hand; km, flexor…

Nerve Ganglia, or Knots (sing. Ganglion; Knot) occur as collections of nerve cells on the course of a nerve, forming and obvious swelling. In surgery, it is the swelling caused by the collection of fluid in the fibrous sheath which surrounds a tendon. It arises from inflammation of the tendon-sheath, and occurs most often at the back of the wrist. Sometimes the cyst may be broken by firm pressure or by a smart blow, and the fluid be thus dispersed; or a puncture may be made, with proper antiseptic precautions, and the fluid be pressed out. Sometimes counter-irritation with iodine causes absorption. In any case, firm pressure with pad and bandage must be used afterwards, to prevent refilling until the cyst walls have united. This illustration shows a cross-section of a spinal cord and spinal nerve cells (g being ganglia).

Nerve Ganglia (Spinal)

Nerve Ganglia, or Knots (sing. Ganglion; Knot) occur as collections of nerve cells on the course of…

"Diagram of a cross-section of the spinal cord through the roots of spinal nerves. c, central canal; d.f., dorsal fissure; d.r., dorsal root of spinal nerve arising from the dorsal horn of the gray matter (g); gn., ganglion on the dorsal root; n, spinal nerve; v.f., ventral fissure; v.r., ventral root of the spinal nerve, arising from the ventral horn of the gray matter; w., white matter." -Galloway, 1915

Spinal Cord

"Diagram of a cross-section of the spinal cord through the roots of spinal nerves. c, central canal;…

"Thorax and abdomen. 1, 1, 1, 1. Muscles of the chest. 2, 2, 2, 2. Ribs. 3, 3, 3. Upper, middle and lower lobes of the right lung. 4, 4. Lobes of the left lung. 5, Right ventricle of the heart. 6. Left ventricle. 7. Right auricle. 8. Left auricle. 9. Pulmonary artery. 10. Aorta. 11. Descending vena cava. 12. Trachea. 13. Oesophagus. 14, 14, 14, 14. Pleura. 15, 15. Diaphragm. 16, 16. Right and left lobes of the liver. 17. Gall cyst. 18. Stomach. 19. Duodenum. 20. Ascending colon. 21. Transverse colon. 22. Descending colon. 23, 23. Small intestine. 24. Thoracic duct opening into the left subclavian vein. 25. Spleen." -Foster, 1921

Thorax and Abdomen

"Thorax and abdomen. 1, 1, 1, 1. Muscles of the chest. 2, 2, 2, 2. Ribs. 3, 3, 3. Upper, middle and…