"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the receiver, and the space that it encloses is that from which it is desired to remove the air. It is usually made of glass, and the edges are ground so as to be perfectly air-tight. When made in the form shown, it is called a bell-jar receiver." — Hallock, 1905

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the…

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the receiver, and the space that it encloses is that from which it is desired to remove the air. It is usually made of glass, and the edges are ground so as to be perfectly air-tight. When made in the form shown, it is called a bell-jar receiver." — Hallock, 1905

Air Pump

"The air pump is an instrument for removing air from a given space. A closed vessel R is called the…

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed, and are very portable." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Hot-wire Ammeter

"Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly contructed,…

"The principal part of the aneroid barometer is a cylindrical air-tight box of metal closed by a corrugated top of thin elastic metal. The air is exhausted from the box, which is then sealed. Evidently, the pressure of the air on the outside of the cover will cause the cover to curve inwards, as the space inside of the cover is void of pressure, until the resistance due to the elasticity of the cover, aided by the resistance of a spring beneath it, is equal to the force exerted by the air." — Hallock, 1905

Aneroid Barometer

"The principal part of the aneroid barometer is a cylindrical air-tight box of metal closed by a corrugated…

This is the arm rest for musicians who play violin, the arm rest is a musical instrument implement used to facilitate the musician when playing music.

Arm Rest for Musical Instruments

This is the arm rest for musicians who play violin, the arm rest is a musical instrument implement used…

"Armillary Sphere, an instrument used in astronomy. In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed in the plane of the equator, the armilla is one of the most ancient of astronomical instruments. Slightly developed, it was crossed by another ring fixed in the plane of the meridian." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Armilla

"Armillary Sphere, an instrument used in astronomy. In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed…

"Originally used for any instrument used for observing stars; afterwards used for an instrument for measurement of altitute; replaced, in modern times, by the quadrant." — Williams, 1889

Astrolabe

"Originally used for any instrument used for observing stars; afterwards used for an instrument for…

"Roman Ivory Aulos found at Pompeii, showing slides and rings." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Aulos

"Roman Ivory Aulos found at Pompeii, showing slides and rings." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Beak mouthpiece. Found at Pompeii." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Aulos Mouthpiece

"Beak mouthpiece. Found at Pompeii." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"The most accurate method of determining the specific gravity of a mineral is by the use of a chemical balance. To one beam of the balance is suspended a wire basket which is so arranged that it can be immersed in a beaker of water. The basket is hung in the water and then counterbalanced by weights on the opposite pan of the balance. The mineral specimen to be tested, having been first weighed on the balance in the ordinary fashion, is now placed in the basket under the water and weighed again." — Ford, 1912

Chemical balance

"The most accurate method of determining the specific gravity of a mineral is by the use of a chemical…

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge of the art, is evident from the instruments which they used." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian band

"That the Egyptians paid great attention to the study of music and had arrived at a very accurate knowledge…

"The barometer is simply a pressure gauge that registers the pressure of the air. In this case the cup and tube at the bottom are protected by a brass or iron casing. At the top of the tube is a graduated scale. Attached to the casing is an accurate thermometer for determining the temperature of the outside air at the time the barometric observation is taken." — Hallock, 1905

Barometer

"The barometer is simply a pressure gauge that registers the pressure of the air. In this case the cup…

An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Barometer

An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Barometer

An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

"The aneroid barometer is an easily portable instrument, and avoids the use of any liquid. It consists of a circular metallic box, exhausted of air, the corrugated diaphragm of which is held in a state of tension by springs." — Avery, 1895

Aneroid barometer

"The aneroid barometer is an easily portable instrument, and avoids the use of any liquid. It consists…

"A wood-wind instrument, not a "horn," member of the clarinet family, of which it is the tenor. The basset horn consists of a nearly cylindrical tube of wood (generally cocus or box-wood), having a cylindrical bore and terminating in a metal bell wide than that of the clarinet. For convenience in reaching the keys and holes, the modern instrument is usually bent or curved either near the mouthpiece or at the bell, which is turned upwards." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Basset Horn

"A wood-wind instrument, not a "horn," member of the clarinet family, of which it is the tenor. The…

"Bassoon with 17 keys. Savary Model." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Bassoon

"Bassoon with 17 keys. Savary Model." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

A pointed instrument for making holes.

Bodkin

A pointed instrument for making holes.

An illustration of a boy blowing a horn with dogs by his side.

Boy Blowing Horn with Dogs by His Side

An illustration of a boy blowing a horn with dogs by his side.

An illustration of a little boy playing a drum.

Boy Playing Drum

An illustration of a little boy playing a drum.

"Brank, or Branks, an instrument and formerly used in Scotland, and to some extent also in England, as a punishment for scolds. It consisted of an iron frame which went over the head of the offender, and had in front an iron plate which was inserted in the mouth, where it was fixed above the tongue, and kept it perfectly quiet." — Winston's Encyclopedia, 1919

Brank

"Brank, or Branks, an instrument and formerly used in Scotland, and to some extent also in England,…

"A kind of horn trumpet, anciently made out of a shell, the form of which is exhibited in the two specimens annexed. In the former it is curved for the convenience of the performer with a very wide mouth, to diffuse and increase the sound. In the next, it still retains the original form of the shell. The buccina was distinct from the cornu; but it is often confounded with it. The buccina seems to have been chiefly distinguished by the twisted form of a shell from which it is originally made. In later times it was carved from horn, and perhaps from wood or metal, so as to imitate the shell. The buccina was chiefly used to proclaim the watches of the day and of the night, hence called buccina prima, secunda. It was also blown at funerals, and at festive entertainments both before sitting down to table and after." — Smith, 1873

Buccina

"A kind of horn trumpet, anciently made out of a shell, the form of which is exhibited in the two specimens…

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but uniform bore, the lower end of which dips into colored water." — Avery, 1895

Glass bulb

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but…

Butyrometer is a measuring instrument used to measure fat content in milk or milk products in general. the method used in the determination is Gerber's method as invented by german chemist Niklaus Gerber.

Butyrometer

Butyrometer is a measuring instrument used to measure fat content in milk or milk products in general.…

"A kind of compass for measuring the diameter of round bodies." — Williams, 1889

Calipers

"A kind of compass for measuring the diameter of round bodies." — Williams, 1889

"In Bunsen's instrument a test tube is sealed into and enclosed by an outer tube, the lower part of which, together with a tube leading from it to a narrow gauge, is filled with mercury."—Finley, 1917

Bunsen's Calorimeter

"In Bunsen's instrument a test tube is sealed into and enclosed by an outer tube, the lower part of…

Castanets held in a hand.

Castanets

Castanets held in a hand.

"Chelys, from a vase in the British Museum, where also are fragments of such an instrument, the back of which is of shell." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Chelys

"Chelys, from a vase in the British Museum, where also are fragments of such an instrument, the back…

String instrument, strung with wire instead of gut.

Cittern

String instrument, strung with wire instead of gut.

"Compass, Mariner's, is the name given to the instrument by which sailors are enabled to steer their course on the ocean out of sight of land, and when neither sun nor stars are visible. the ancients, to whom it was unknown, could seldom venture to lose sight of the coast. The direct power of the magnet seems to have been unknown in Europe till late in the 12th century." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Compass

"Compass, Mariner's, is the name given to the instrument by which sailors are enabled to steer their…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil and pen point are provided, either of which may be inserted into a socket in one leg of the instrument, for the drawing of circles in pencil or ink." — Hallock, 1905

Compasses

"The compasses, next to the T square and triangles, are used more than any other instrument. A pencil…

Ordinary-shape

Cornet-A-Pistons

Ordinary-shape

Circular shape

Cornet-A-Pistons

Circular shape

"A wind instrument, anciently made of horn, but afterwards of brass. Like the tuba, it differed from the tibia in being a larger and more powerful instrument, and from the tuba itself, in being curved nearly in the shape of a C, with a cross-piece to steady the instrument for the convenience of the performer. It had no stopples or plugs to adjust the scale to any particular mode; the entire series of notes was produced without keys or holes, by the modification of the breath and of the lips at the mouth-piece. The classicum, which originally meant a signal, rather than the musical instrument which gave the signal, was usually sounded with the cornu." — Smith, 1873

Cornu

"A wind instrument, anciently made of horn, but afterwards of brass. Like the tuba, it differed from…

"Old English double curtail (before 1688)." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Curtail

"Old English double curtail (before 1688)." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

"Ancient Greek Double Pipes. Elgin Collection, British Museum." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Double Pipes

"Ancient Greek Double Pipes. Elgin Collection, British Museum." — The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Very old form of Egyptian Harp, resembling our modern violin." — Cooke, 1910

Egyptian Harp

"Very old form of Egyptian Harp, resembling our modern violin." — Cooke, 1910

"Egyptian Lyre now at Berlin." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Egyptian Lyre

"Egyptian Lyre now at Berlin." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

An electrical instrument used for measuring electric charge.

Electroscope

An electrical instrument used for measuring electric charge.

"In the gold-leaf electroscope (invented by Bennet in 1787), two light strips of gold-leaf hang from the lower end of a metal rod, which passes vertically through an opening in the top of a glass bottle and expands above into a plate. If a piece of rubbed sealing-wax or other electrified body be brought near the plate, the gold leaves will repel each other and diverge ... A cylinder of wire gauze placed just inside the glass case, improves the action of the instrument." -Hazeltine, 1894

Gold Leaf Electroscope

"In the gold-leaf electroscope (invented by Bennet in 1787), two light strips of gold-leaf hang from…

"Fuse protection on instrument circuit of an alternating-current switchboard." —Croft 1920

Fuse Protection on Alternating Current Switchboard

"Fuse protection on instrument circuit of an alternating-current switchboard." —Croft 1920

"The galvanometer is an instrument for determining the strength of an electric current by means of the deflection of a magnetic needle around which the current flows. When a galvanoscope is provided with a scale so that the deflections of its needle may be measured, it becomes a galvanometer." — Avery, 1895

Astatic galvanometer

"The galvanometer is an instrument for determining the strength of an electric current by means of the…

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument in the horizontal position on board ship, notwithstanding the rolling and pitching of the vessel. The instrument is suspended in the diametral axis of a ring, which is again suspended in the diametral axis of another ring, the two axes being at right angles to one another.

This illustration shows a diagram of a gimbals, showing the angle of the ship (A), the perpendicular axes of the rings, and the compass suspended horizontally in the gimbals (B).

Gimbals (Diagram)

A gimbals is a contrivance designed to keep a marine compass, chronometer, lamp, or other instrument…

An illustration of a girl playing the piano.

Girl Playing Piano

An illustration of a girl playing the piano.

A man playing a typical alto guitar fiddle in the 15th century.

Alto Guitar Fiddle

A man playing a typical alto guitar fiddle in the 15th century.

Representation of a European guitar in AD 1180.

European Guitar

Representation of a European guitar in AD 1180.

French guitar, from the seventeenth century.

Guitar, French Seventeenth Century

French guitar, from the seventeenth century.

A modern guitar.

Guitar, Modern

A modern guitar.

"This primitive-looking instrument was played horizontally, being born upon the performer's shoulder. between it and the grand vertical harps in the frescos of the time of Rameses III, More than 3000 years old, paintings discovered by the Laveller Bruce, there are varieties that permit us to bind the whole, from the simplest bow-form to the almost triangular harp, in to one family." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

Harp

"This primitive-looking instrument was played horizontally, being born upon the performer's shoulder.…

"This primitive-looking instrument was played horizontally, being born upon the performer's shoulder. between it and the grand vertical harps in the frescos of the time of Rameses III, More than 3000 years old, paintings discovered by the Laveller Bruce, there are varieties that permit us to bind the whole, from the simplest bow-form to the almost triangular harp, in to one family." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

Harp

"This primitive-looking instrument was played horizontally, being born upon the performer's shoulder.…

"Irish (Dalway) Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

Harp

"Irish (Dalway) Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

"Welsh Triple Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

Harp

"Welsh Triple Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

"Modern Erard Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

Harp

"Modern Erard Harp." — Encyclopediia Britannica, 1893

An Assyrian Harp.

Harp, Assyrian

An Assyrian Harp.

Egyptian harps.

Harp, Egyptian

Egyptian harps.