An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

Iron Furnaces

An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

The Iron Mask.

Iron Mask

The Iron Mask.

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion remains gaseous and is used as fuel, a large part is condensed to a dark, tarry liquid." -Brownlee 1907

Cylindrical Iron Retort and Condenser

"Wood is heated in cylindrical iron retorts. the volatile materials are cooled, and while a portion…

"...crude petroleum is distilled in iron retorts connected with condensers and receiving tanks." -Brownlee 1907

Iron Retorts

"...crude petroleum is distilled in iron retorts connected with condensers and receiving tanks." -Brownlee…

An agricultural tool used for flattening land and breaking up large pieces of dirt.

Iron Roller

An agricultural tool used for flattening land and breaking up large pieces of dirt.

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

Iron Workers

An illustration of mine workers refining iron ore.

A cylindrical metal home appliance that heats a lock of hair that has been curled around it

Curling Iron

A cylindrical metal home appliance that heats a lock of hair that has been curled around it

"A device for making flutes in a fabric or article of dress, as a ruffle." -Whitney, 1911

Fluting Iron

"A device for making flutes in a fabric or article of dress, as a ruffle." -Whitney, 1911

Ironing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from fabric. The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long chain polymer molecules.

Sad Iron

Ironing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from fabric. The heating is commonly done…

The work of using a heated tool, or iron to remove wrinkles from fabric. Heating is commonly done to a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material.

Sad Iron

The work of using a heated tool, or iron to remove wrinkles from fabric. Heating is commonly done to…

Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material.

Sad Iron

Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material.

Works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material.

Sad Iron

Works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material.

A hand tool with a heatable tip; used to melt and apply solder

Soldering Iron

A hand tool with a heatable tip; used to melt and apply solder

A case used for growing a plant that requires a moist atmosphere.

Wardian Case of Iron

A case used for growing a plant that requires a moist atmosphere.

Ironing is the work of using a heated tool, or tools, (an iron) to remove wrinkles from fabric. The heating is commonly done to a temperature of 100° Celsius. Ironing works by loosening the bonds between the long-chain polymer molecules in the fibers of the material. While the molecules are hot, the fibers are straightened by the weight of the iron, and they hold their new shape as they cool. Some fabrics, such as cotton, require the addition of water to loosen the intermolecular bonds. Many modern fabrics are advertised as needing little or no ironing. Permanent press clothing was developed to reduce the ironing necessary by combining wrinkle-resistant polyester with cotton.

Wrinkle Free Sad Iron

Ironing is the work of using a heated tool, or tools, (an iron) to remove wrinkles from fabric. The…

A shirt on an ironing board ready to be ironed.

Ironing

A shirt on an ironing board ready to be ironed.

An ironing board used to provide a flat surface for ironing.

Ironing Board

An ironing board used to provide a flat surface for ironing.

This illustration shows a light inverted bow-string girder, as well as a section.

Light Inverted Bow-String Girder (Elevation and Section)

This illustration shows a light inverted bow-string girder, as well as a section.

"An iron pile light erected at Haneda, in the Bay of Yedo, Japan." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lighthouse

"An iron pile light erected at Haneda, in the Bay of Yedo, Japan." —The Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"The two most common forms of artificial magnets are the bar magnet and the horseshoe magnet. The first of these is a straight bar of iron and steel; the second is U-shaped." — Avery, 1895

Horseshoe magnet

"The two most common forms of artificial magnets are the bar magnet and the horseshoe magnet. The first…

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied to a double puddling furnace." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Mechanical Rabble

"A representation of one of the class of mechanical rabbles known as Witham's machine rabble applied…

"Argent, a millrind, gules. MILLRIND. The iron placed in the centre of a grindstone to protect the hole in the centre from the action of the axis; it is a charge frequently borne on escutcheons of persons connected with agriculture." -Hall, 1862

Millrind

"Argent, a millrind, gules. MILLRIND. The iron placed in the centre of a grindstone to protect the hole…

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

Mining

An illustration of a miners loading a mine cart with iron ore in St. Louis, MO.

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

Mining crib

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

Mining Dump

An illustration of an iron ore mine dumb in St. Louis, MO in 1874.

In honor of the forty percent of South Carolina's palmetto regiment an iron palmetto was erected. This monument which now stands on the state grounds which honors the forty percent of the regiment who died of disease and wounds.

Iron Palmetto

In honor of the forty percent of South Carolina's palmetto regiment an iron palmetto was erected. This…

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making differs in no material respect from the Pernot puddling furnace; it is substantially a Siemens-Martin furnace with a rotating bed. The hearth is a saucer-shaped cavity supported by an iron frame, mounted on the top of a slightly inclined nearly verticle axis, and running on wheels upon a rail or guide supported on a stout bogie." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Pernot Furnace

"Pernot and Ponsard Furnaces and Allied Appliances. The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making…

"Two hoops of thin iron are placed upon an axis which passes through their poles. The two ends of each hoop cross each other at right angles, and are fastened together, and to the axis at the bottom. At the upper end they slide up and down on the axis, which is turned rapidly by wheel-work as represented. These hoops, before the motion begins, have an oval form, but when turned rapidly, the centrifugal force causes them to expand, or swell at the equator, while they are depressed at the poles, the two polar regions becoming no more distant than a and b." —Comstock, 1850

Pole Depression

"Two hoops of thin iron are placed upon an axis which passes through their poles. The two ends of each…

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

Attractive poles

A pair of opposite poles attracting, the magnetic force shown by iron filings.

The outline of a bar magnet, and the influence of its poles on a surface covered with iron filings.

Magnetic polse

The outline of a bar magnet, and the influence of its poles on a surface covered with iron filings.

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

Repelling poles

A pair of similar magnetic poles repelling, the magnetic forces shown by iron filings.

George Clymer improved upon Gutenberg's press by making it out of iron therefore reducing the force required.

Columbian Press

George Clymer improved upon Gutenberg's press by making it out of iron therefore reducing the force…

An agricultural tool used for flattening land and breaking up large pieces of dirt.

Press-Wheel Roller

An agricultural tool used for flattening land and breaking up large pieces of dirt.

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with an air course to cool it, c the bed supported on iron plates with air courses under them, f the exit flue leading to the chimney stack, which is surmounted with a damper k worked by a chain i from within the shen in which the forge is placed; b is the ashpit, g the slag-hole, and e the working door suspended by a chain from a lever with the counterpoise attached h, resting on the front side of the furnace roof." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Puddling Furnace

"The general arrangement of a puddling furnace; a is the charging door for the fuel, d the bridge with…

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Refinery

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified,…

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified, is in practice restricted to one particular operation practised as a preliminary stage in the puddling process, viz., melting pig iron on a hearth, on which the fuel is piled, the combustion being urged by a blast of air, which also partially oxidizes the iron, both as it melts and subsequently; the molten mass when the operation is complete is either run out into moulds, chilled by throwing water on it." — The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Refinery

"The term "refining," although in strictness applicable to all methods by which impure iron is purified,…

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken to the rolling mills, where it goes through the process of puddling and rolling, and is thus purified and put into proper shape for use." — Beach, 1900

Rolling Mills

"Pig iron, the crude form of iron, which is produced from iron ore by the process of blasting, is taken…

A Roman doodad.

Roman doodad

A Roman doodad.

A simple conical roof.

Conical Style Roof Type

A simple conical roof.

A simple hip roof.

Hip Style Roof Type

A simple hip roof.

A simple king-post roof.

King-post Roof

A simple king-post roof.

A simple m-roof.

Style M-Roof Type

A simple m-roof.

A simple queen-post roof.

Queen-post Roof

A simple queen-post roof.

"A scissors-shaped implement for fluting or crimping linen, etc. It has small cylindrical fingers, one of which is hollow to hold a heated iron. When the scissors are closed, this heated finger forces the cloth between the two other fingers, thus forming a flute." -Whitney, 1911

Fluting Scissors

"A scissors-shaped implement for fluting or crimping linen, etc. It has small cylindrical fingers, one…

"A self-contained shearing and punching machine. The apparent ease with which machines of this kind, acting with a slow quiet stroke, shear or perforate plates of iron, even when of considerable thickness, gives an altogether false impression of the amount of power which the operation requires." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Shearing Machine

"A self-contained shearing and punching machine. The apparent ease with which machines of this kind,…

This illustration shows a simple lattice girder.

Simple Lattice Girder (Elevator and Elevation)

This illustration shows a simple lattice girder.

"The middle one an ordinary hook tool, suited for outside work on wrought iron or steel, and the one above it a left hand tool which can be used also for inside. Their cutting edges are of course forged and ground straighter or more pointed or otherwise varied according to circumstances, and for cast iron or brass the angle of the edge is made much less acute, as in the lowest of the three in the engaving." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Slide-Rest Tools

"The middle one an ordinary hook tool, suited for outside work on wrought iron or steel, and the one…

"Coil some No. 12 copper wire throuh holes in a board, as shown, and pass a strong current through it. Sprinkle iron filling as before and note the effect. Such a coil of conducting wire, wound so as to afford a number of equal and parallel circular electric circuits arranged upon a common axis, is called a solenoid." -Avery 1895

Solenoid

"Coil some No. 12 copper wire throuh holes in a board, as shown, and pass a strong current through it.…

"Illustrating the effects of introducing an iron core into a solenoid. In the upper firgure, the air space or 'air core' surrounded by the solenoid offers considerable resistance to the passage of magnetic lines, allowing only a small number to pass through. If a pieve of iron be introduced, as in the lower figure, the number of lines will be greatly increased." -Hawkins, 1917

Effect of a metal core in a solenoid

"Illustrating the effects of introducing an iron core into a solenoid. In the upper firgure, the air…

"Place a strip of shet iron in the solenoid, as shown...Hotice that most of the lines of force are gathered into the iron and issue from its ends. Notice that the lines curve outward and tend to return, forming closed loops or complete magnetic circuits. Change the iron from the inside of the solenoid to the outside, and repeat...Notice that the iron again gathers in the lines of force as if it offered an easier path for them." -Avery 1895

Solenoid with Iron Bar

"Place a strip of shet iron in the solenoid, as shown...Hotice that most of the lines of force are gathered…

An Anglo-Saxon spearhead, made of iron.

Anglo-Saxon spearhead

An Anglo-Saxon spearhead, made of iron.

An iron stand used to hold decorative flowers.

Iron Flower Stand

An iron stand used to hold decorative flowers.

An iron plant stand.

Iron Plant Stand

An iron plant stand.

"The sweating blacksmith here is seen to stand / Beside his forge, with hammer in his hand, / And while the fiery sparks are flying far, / With might and main he strikes the red-hot bar." —Barber, 1857

Strike While the Iron is Hot

"The sweating blacksmith here is seen to stand / Beside his forge, with hammer in his hand, / And while…

"Root suckers are young shoots from the roots of plants, chiefly woody plants, as may often be seenin the case of the elm and the plum. The shoots when used for propagation must be transplanted with all the roots attached to them, care being taken not to injure the parent plant. If they spring from a thick root it is not to be wantonly severed, but the soil should be removed and the sucker taken off by cutting away a clean slice of the root." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Suckering Iron

"Root suckers are young shoots from the roots of plants, chiefly woody plants, as may often be seenin…

The clothing pressed or to be pressed with a heated iron.

Ironing Table

The clothing pressed or to be pressed with a heated iron.

This design of an ironing table allows for unique placement on a door or window.

Ironing Table

This design of an ironing table allows for unique placement on a door or window.

Outlines of household items (iron, pipe, kettle, cup, candle, hammer) made from tangram pieces. Tangrams, invented by the Chinese, are used to develop geometric thinking and spatial sense. 7 figures consisting of triangles, squares, and parallelograms are used to construct the given shapes.

Household Items Outline Tangram Card

Outlines of household items (iron, pipe, kettle, cup, candle, hammer) made from tangram pieces. Tangrams,…