"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding and at the same time amalgamating ores containing free gold or silver."-Whitney, 1902

Arrastre

"Mexican Arrastre. A rude apparatus used in Mexico, and to some extent in the United States, for grinding…

A tool used for boring holes in metal, stone, wood, or an other hard substance.

Drill Bit

A tool used for boring holes in metal, stone, wood, or an other hard substance.

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher breaks the large, mined rocks containing the gold (ore) into small pieces, to then be reduced to the finest powder by stamps.

Blake Ore Breaker

This illustration shows a Blake Ore Breaker (stone crusher), used in a gold stamp mill. This crusher…

An illustration of a coal bucket.

Coal Bucket

An illustration of a coal bucket.

A light steel mining cage and car used to raise and lower cars in gold and silver mines. The car is loaded with the minerals from the mined and raised to the surface by a hoist.

Light Steel Safety Mining Cage and Car for Gold and Silver Mines

A light steel mining cage and car used to raise and lower cars in gold and silver mines. The car is…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside of which is moistened with water and treated with chlorine gas to form a solution of Gold Chloride. This is then run off, and the gold precipitated , usually by means of Ferrous Sulphate or charcoal.

Chlorination Barrel (End Section)

The chlorination process in gold extraction employs large vats or revolving barrels, the material inside…

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation of the delicate frond of ferns. Remove a scale of rock and we discover an exquisite fossilized fern. Fossil ferns such as this acient tree fern are often found in association with coal seams.

Fossilized Coal Ferns

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation…

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation of the delicate frond of ferns. Remove a scale of rock and we discover an exquisite fossilized fern. Fossil ferns such as these are often found in association with coal seams.

Fossilized Coal Ferns

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation…

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation of the delicate frond of ferns. Remove a scale of rock and we discover an exquisite fossilized fern. Fossil ferns such as these are often found in association with coal seams. Fossil of scale tree, Lipidodendra.

Fossilized Coal Ferns

The rocky ceiling of a coal mine is ornamented everywhere by exquisite tracery, inimitale representation…

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern, central, and western sections of the country.

Coal Mine

The coal-fields of the United States are the richest in the world. Immense deposits occur in the eastern,…

An anthracite coal mine. Anthracite is a variety of mineral coal known by its high luster.

Coal Mine

An anthracite coal mine. Anthracite is a variety of mineral coal known by its high luster.

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this, ther were always side rooms through which no circulation could be effected. These areas were where explosive "fire-damp", or light carbide of hydrogen, evolved spontaneously from the coal, and often caused fatal accidents to the miners.

Explosion in a Coal Mine

Circulation of fresh air was critical in coal mining. In spite of passages created to control this,…

A utensil for holding coal.

Coal-scuttle

A utensil for holding coal.

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution of Potassuim Cyanide (KCN), containing 0.05 to 0.3 percent KCN (or its equivalent, Sodium Cyanide, NaCN) which is allowed to remain for twelve to twenty-four hours to dissolve the gold.

Cyanide Leaching Tank (Gold Extraction)

In the gold extraction process, finely crushed ores are leached in vats with a very diluted solution…

Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. There are several techniques by which gold may be extracted from the earth.

Original Gold Mining Device

Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground.…

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the mine to the atmosphere.

Capell Ventilation Fan for Mining

An inside view of the Capell Fan for ventilation in mining. The fan removes the hazardous air from the…

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being driven between them for this purpose." -Whitney, 1911

Feather and Tare

"Two pieces of metal placed in a hole in a stone which is to be split a wedge-shaped key or plug being…

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (End View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

Frue Vanner (Side View)

A Frue Vanner is a shaking, rubber belt used to concentrate gold ore 'pulp'.

A granite quarry.

Granite

A granite quarry.

A German headgear located in Dortmund and designed by Aug. Klönne. This headgear is made out of steel frame carrying hoisting ropes used in mining. The towers are located at the mouth shaft.

German Steel Mining Headgear Hoist Tower

A German headgear located in Dortmund and designed by Aug. Klönne. This headgear is made out of…

A headgear is a wood or steel frame carrying hoisting ropes commonly used in mining. The towers are located at the mouth shaft.

Mining Headgear Hoist Tower

A headgear is a wood or steel frame carrying hoisting ropes commonly used in mining. The towers are…

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury, in which a wooden runner c, nearly of the same shape as the inside of the pan, and armed below with several projecting blades, is made to revolve by gearing wheels placed either above or below." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Hungarian Mill

"This consists of a cast-iron pan a, having a shallow cylindrical bottom b, holding 50 lb of mercury,…

An iron mine.

Iron

An iron mine.

An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

Iron Furnaces

An illustration depicting iron furnaces located in Rockwood, Tennessee.

The Klondike Gold Rush during the late 19th century. Many immigrants moved to Dawson City in the Yukon Territory, Canada, in hopes of finding gold.

Klondike Miners

The Klondike Gold Rush during the late 19th century. Many immigrants moved to Dawson City in the Yukon…

A marble quarry.

Marble

A marble quarry.

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

Mine Shaft Placement

An illustration of horizontal and vertical mine shaft placement.

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

Mining crib

"When rock is reached, a curb or crib of either wood or iron is inserted."—Finley, 1917

Ingersoll-Sergeant mining drill

Mining Drill

Ingersoll-Sergeant mining drill

A trommel is a screened cylinder used to separate materials by size, separating the biodegradable fraction of mixed municipal waste or separating different sizes of crushed stone.

Mining Machine

A trommel is a screened cylinder used to separate materials by size, separating the biodegradable fraction…

Children mining for Halloween treats.

Children mining

Children mining for Halloween treats.

A salt mine is an operation involved in the extraction of salt from rock salt or halite. The manufacture of salt in Mason City, West Virginia was started by Albert Edward Smith in 1880.

Salt Mining

A salt mine is an operation involved in the extraction of salt from rock salt or halite. The manufacture…

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating, are covered with wire netting and plastered over with a mixture of clay and smithy scales. They are mounted in a frame and set loose in an iron pot with a hemispherical bottom, which is heated by a fire from below, the pot also serves to catch the contents of the porcelain vessel if the latter should be accidentally broken. The cover is perforated by a hole in the center for the passage of a lead pipe to carry off the sulphurous acid fumes." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Parting Vessel

"The parting vessels are of porcelain which, to protect them against fracture by irregular heating,…

"The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated in [the illustration], which represents a line direct from the dip to the rise of the field, the inclination of the strata being one in eight." -Britannica, 1910

Proving Mineral Field

"The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated in [the illustration], which represents…

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

Refinery Siphon

Refinery Siphon and Alembic.

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated in grinding pans in the bottom of which mercury is placed. The amalgam (mercury alloy), after squeezing out the excess mercury, is heated in the retort, to distil (separate) off the rest and leave the gold, which is then melted and cast into bars of gold bullion of varying fineness.

Retort Furnace for Gold Bullion

This furnace is used to purify a gold concentrate. The gold concentrates, if non-pyritic, are treated…

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley, 1917

Shaft lining

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley,…

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley, 1917

Shaft lining

"Until hard rock is reached the sides of the excavation are supported temporarily by a lining"—Finley,…

Shaft wall from mining.

Shaft wall

Shaft wall from mining.

"A small skip; the upper illustration showing position for dumping. The lower cut is of a skip for either ore or water; note valve in bottom. Hoisting buckets or kibbles are employed for small scale work or temporary service, such as raising the material blasted in sinking shafts."—Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910

Ore and Water Skips for Inclined Shaft

"A small skip; the upper illustration showing position for dumping. The lower cut is of a skip for either…

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 inches apart at a." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Sluice

"One of the simplest forms of sluice as used in river diggings in the north-west of America. A rectangular…

Dressing slates.

Splitting slates

Dressing slates.

Splitting slates.

Squaring slates

Splitting slates.

Stamp Mill.

Stamp Mill

Stamp Mill.

A stamp mill facilitates the crushing of ore (in this case, gold ore) into very small grains, with many mechanical parts, including: the ore car, to carry ore from the mine to the Mill (a); the trestle, the tunnel from the mine to the mill that the ore car travels through (b); the grizzly (c); the crushing floor (d); the bin for crushed ore (e); the stamp, a vertical iron rod having a cast-iron or steel shoe, which, falling on the mortar block, crushes the ore (f); the mortar (g); and the apron plate (h).

Stamp Mill for Gold Ores (Sectional View)

A stamp mill facilitates the crushing of ore (in this case, gold ore) into very small grains, with many…

A plan of direct acting hoisting machine for mining industry. The machine is operated by compound Corliss steam engines. The shaft turns the two conical drums to lower or raise the cable.

Plan of Direct Acting Hoisting Machine with Corliss Steam Engines for Mining

A plan of direct acting hoisting machine for mining industry. The machine is operated by compound Corliss…

Ancient cedar trees were found buried beneath the Dennisvill swamp in southern New Jersey. It was believed the perculiar action of water and wind kept these trees in the same stage of decay as when they fell. This discovery resulted in the novel business of "mining cedar trees".

Buried Swamp

Ancient cedar trees were found buried beneath the Dennisvill swamp in southern New Jersey. It was believed…

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

Large trepan

A trepan used for boring large shafts.

A trepan used for boring small shafts.

Small trepan

A trepan used for boring small shafts.

Men are breaking up the rocks with water so they can get to the silver or gold among the rocks.

Washing

Men are breaking up the rocks with water so they can get to the silver or gold among the rocks.

The Great Seal of the State of Wyoming. The seal shows two men symbolizing livestock and mining next to a draped statue with the banner "Equal Rights." The ribbon around the columns reads "Oil, Mines, Livestock, Grain."

Seal of Wyoming

The Great Seal of the State of Wyoming. The seal shows two men symbolizing livestock and mining next…