"A needle, a pin. Pins were made not only of metal, but also of wood, bone, and ivory. They were used for the same purposes as with us, and also in dressing the hair. The mode of platting the hair, and then fastening it with a pin or needle, is shown in the annexed figure of the female head. This fashion has been continued to our own times by the females of Italy." — Smith, 1873

Acus

"A needle, a pin. Pins were made not only of metal, but also of wood, bone, and ivory. They were used…

"Acutenaculum, or Needle-holder'"-Whitney, 1902

Acutenaculum

"Acutenaculum, or Needle-holder'"-Whitney, 1902

The point of the finest cambric needle, with a particle of dust (above) and bacteria (below) for scale.

bacteria and cambric needle

The point of the finest cambric needle, with a particle of dust (above) and bacteria (below) for scale.

Bone points and bone needles. Crafted during the Reindeer age.

Reindeer age articles, Bone points and needles

Bone points and bone needles. Crafted during the Reindeer age.

A magnetic compass.

Compass

A magnetic compass.

"Three principal parts, the card, the needle on its lower suface, and the case. The whole is enclosed in the compass-box, or binnacle. the term compass is said to have been applied to the instrument because the card involves or compasses the whole plane of the horizon, or because the needle indicates the whole circle of possible variations of direction. The surface of the card is divided by radiating lines into 32 parts, each containing 11 degrees." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Compass Card

"Three principal parts, the card, the needle on its lower suface, and the case. The whole is enclosed…

"It has four cardinal points, N, E, S, and W marked, as well as a circle graduated in degrees from sero to 360 degrees, clockwise around the circle." — Moss, 1914

Box compass

"It has four cardinal points, N, E, S, and W marked, as well as a circle graduated in degrees from sero…

"Two feet long, with the under jaw greatly protruded; it swims near the surface; bites at a hook; makes violent resistance when drawn up, and emits a strong smell when just taken." — Goodrich, 1859

Gar

"Two feet long, with the under jaw greatly protruded; it swims near the surface; bites at a hook; makes…

Girl sewing in silhouette.

Girl sewing

Girl sewing in silhouette.

"The mode of platting the hair, and then fastening it with a pin on a needle, is shown in the annexed figure of a female head, taken from a marble group which was found at Apt, in the south of France." — Anthon, 1891

Platted hair

"The mode of platting the hair, and then fastening it with a pin on a needle, is shown in the annexed…

A pair of hands, each holding a narrow bit of wire over a compass needle.

Hands with wires

A pair of hands, each holding a narrow bit of wire over a compass needle.

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some places, the magnetic needle does not point ot the geographical north. The angle that the axis of a compass-bneedle makes with the geographical meridian at any place is called the declination or variation of the needle at that place...Lines drawn through places on the earth where the declination is the sam are called isogonic lines, as shown." -Avery 1895

Isogonic Lines of Earth

"The magnetic poles of the earth do notc oincide with its geographical poles and, condequently, in some…

"Oersted's experiements are illustrated...which shows, at A, B, C and D, the four different positions which a balanced magnetic needle tends to assume when placed parallel to a wire through wich an electric current is flowing in the different directions indicated by the arrows..." -Atkinson 1903

Deflection of te Magnetic Needle by the Electric Current

"Oersted's experiements are illustrated...which shows, at A, B, C and D, the four different positions…

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south." —Wells, 1857

Magnetic Needle

"A bar of steel which is a magnet, suspended in such a way that it can freely turn to the north or south."…

A needle, used for dissection.

Needle

A needle, used for dissection.

"Bring the two ends of the wire into contact, and thus close the circuit. The needle instantly flies around as though it was trying to place itself at right angles to the wire. Break the circuit, and the needle swings back to its north and south position. Twist the wires together, and bend the conductor into a loop so that the current passes above the needle in one direction and beneath the needle in the other direction. The deflection of the needle will be greater than before." — Avery, 1895

Needle, compass

"Bring the two ends of the wire into contact, and thus close the circuit. The needle instantly flies…

"A small bar magnet suspended in such a manner as to allow it to assume its chosen position relative to the earth is a magnetic needle. The needle may turn in a horizontal plane, it is a horizontal needle; e.g., the mariner's or the surveyor's compass. If it turns freely in a vertical plane, it constitutes a dipping-needle." — Avery, 1895

Dipping needle

"A small bar magnet suspended in such a manner as to allow it to assume its chosen position relative…

"The Egyptian needles were of the following fashion. They wrote with a reed, or rush, many of which have been found, with the tablets and inkstands belonging to the writeres." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian needle

"The Egyptian needles were of the following fashion. They wrote with a reed, or rush, many of which…

This medicinal needle is an enlarged view of early type acupuncture; the procedure in which an insertion of needles into various points on the body to relieve pain.

Medicinal Needle

This medicinal needle is an enlarged view of early type acupuncture; the procedure in which an insertion…

A needle used in sewing to pull thread through cloth

Sewing Needle

A needle used in sewing to pull thread through cloth

Hands sewing with thread and needle.

Sewing

Hands sewing with thread and needle.

A detail of a Singer sewing machine.

Details of a sewing machine

A detail of a Singer sewing machine.

A pair of scissors along with a needle, thread, and thimble.

Sewing Supplies

A pair of scissors along with a needle, thread, and thimble.

"An allotrope of sulphur, when heated to 115 degrees Celcius, will cool to be yellowish-brown, needle-shaped crystals, derived from an oblique prism." —Hallock 1905

Sulphur

"An allotrope of sulphur, when heated to 115 degrees Celcius, will cool to be yellowish-brown, needle-shaped…

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition, the needle may be made to float...Closely examine the surface of the water. Notice that the needle rests in a little depression or bed, just as it would if the surface of the water was a thin skin or membrane." -Avery 1895

Surface Tension and Needle

"Carefully place a fine sewing needle upon the surface of the water. With care, and perhaps repitition,…

A syringe is a simple piston pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), allowing the syringe to take in and expel a liquid or gas through an orifice at the open end of the tube.

Syringe

A syringe is a simple piston pump consisting of a plunger that fits tightly in a tube. The plunger can…

To pass a thread through the eye of a needle.

Thread

To pass a thread through the eye of a needle.

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler needle, patented by Mr. M. Townsend in 1858. The tumbler needle consists of a stem somewhat bulged near the point. The bulged part contains a groove in which there is hinged a short pin. The pin is so placed that, when turned to the hooked or curved point, its own point falls into a spoon-like indent, thus forming a smooth metal loop." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Tumbler Needle

"An improvement of great importance in the hosiery trade was effected through the invention of the tumbler…

"The instant this is done and the galvanic circle completed, the needle will deviate from its north and south position, turning towards the east or west, according to the direction in which the galvanic circle flows." -Comstock 1850

Uniting Wire above the Needle

"The instant this is done and the galvanic circle completed, the needle will deviate from its north…

"Uniting wire below the needle." -Comstock 1850

Uniting Wire Below the Needle

"Uniting wire below the needle." -Comstock 1850

"...with the uniting wire on the east side." -Comstock 1850

Wire on the East Side of the Uniting Wire

"...with the uniting wire on the east side." -Comstock 1850