Santos Dumont's Airship rounding the Eiffel Tower.

Airship

Santos Dumont's Airship rounding the Eiffel Tower.

The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France honoring those who fought for France, commissioned during the Napoleonic wars.

Arc de Triomphe

The Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France honoring those who fought for France, commissioned during the Napoleonic…

"In the center of the Place de l'Étoile, from which twelve broad avenues radiate in all directions. Commenced by Napoleon in 1805, but not completed until the reign of Louis Philippe. It is the largest triumphal arch in the world, being 162 feet high and 147 feet wide. The monument is adorned with groups of sculpture representing the military triumphs of the revolutionary and Napoleonic armies."—Webster, 1920

Arc de Triomphe

"In the center of the Place de l'Étoile, from which twelve broad avenues radiate in all directions.…

An illustration of the Avenue de Champs Élysées in Paris, France. It is known for its luxury specialty shops and is one of the most famous streets in the world. It was originally a stretch of fields and market gardens.

Avenue de Champs Élysées

An illustration of the Avenue de Champs Élysées in Paris, France. It is known for its luxury…

A French Jacobin, born in Province, in 1755, of an ancient family; served as second lieutenant in the regiment of Languedoc until 1775. He made, about this time, a voyage to the Isle-de-France, the governor of which was one of his relations, and entered into the garrison of Pondicherry. On his return, he gave himself up to gambling and women, and dissipated his fortune. The Revolution broke out. He immediately showed himself an opponent of the Court, and had a seat in the <em>tiers-etat</em>, while his brother was sitting in that of the nobility. July 14, 1789, he took part in the attack upon the Bastille, and Aug. 10, 1792, upon the Tuileries. In 1792 he was elected a member of the National Convention, and voted for the unconditional death of Louis XVI. He was sent, in 1793, to the South of France, and commanded the left wing of the besieging army under Dugommier, and it was here that he first met Napoleon Bonaparte, then captain of artillery. The patriotic reputation of Barras was so well established that he abd Freron were the only representatives not denounced by the popular societies. Robespierre, however, was friend of his, and often wished to arrest him. Barras, knowing this, became one of the principle actors of the 9th Thermidor, and put himself at the head of the troops which surrounded Robespierre at the Hotel de Ville. In 1794 he was named one of the Committee of Public Safety, and became a great enemy to the members of the members of the "Mountain." In February, 1795, he was elected President of the Convention, and, in that capacity, declared Paris in a state of siege, when the Assembly was attacked by the populace. Afterward, when the Convention was assailed, Bonaparte, by Barras' advice, was appointed to command the artillery; and that general, on the 13th Vendemaire, decisively repressed the royalist movement. For his services, Barras was now named one of the Directory, and took a prominent part in the changes which that body unerwent until Napoleon's <em>coup d'etat</em> on the 18th Brumaire, which effectually overthrew the power of Barrras and his colleagues. His life, from this date, was, generally speaking, one of retirement. He died in Paris, Jan. 29, 1829. His "Memoirs" appeared in 1895.

Comte de Barras

A French Jacobin, born in Province, in 1755, of an ancient family; served as second lieutenant in the…

The Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris remembered by the storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution.

Bastille

The Bastille, a fortress-prison in Paris remembered by the storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution.

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat of the Bishop of Amiens, Jean-Luc Marie Maurice Louis Bouilleret. The cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, with the greatest interior volume (estimated at 200,000 m&sup3;). The vaults of the nave are 42.30 m high, the tallest nave vaults in any completed French cathedral, and surpassed only by the incomplete Beauvais Cathedral. This monumental cathedral is located in Amiens, the chief city of Picardy, in the Somme River valley a little over 100 kilometers north of Paris.

Amiens Cathedral

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Amiens or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and seat…

This chair was made in Paris, France in the Elizabethan style. It has a carved wooden back with a cushion on the seat.

Chair

This chair was made in Paris, France in the Elizabethan style. It has a carved wooden back with a cushion…

"This fine structure was built in the eighteenth century as a palace for members of the Bourbon-Cond&eacute; family. It became national property during the French Revolution. The fa&ccedil;ade, which faces the Pont de la Concorde, is in the style of an ancient temple."&mdash;Webster, 1920

Chamber of Deputies (Paris)

"This fine structure was built in the eighteenth century as a palace for members of the Bourbon-Condé…

The Viaduct of Chaumont is a railway bridge that connects Paris to Basel. It was built in 1856 and stands on the Marne River in Chaumont, a commune in France.

Viaduct of Chaumont

The Viaduct of Chaumont is a railway bridge that connects Paris to Basel. It was built in 1856 and stands…

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun in 1627 and completed in 1641 and is an examaple of Jesuit architecture. It was designed based on the Ges&uacute; church in Rome. The letters IHS, as shown on the front of the church, is an abbreviation, the first three letters, of Jesus' name in Greek, &Iota;&Eta;&Sigma;&Omicron;&Upsilon;&Sigma;, translated into English characters."In this style curved lines of the most varied description supersede all straight lines both in ground plans and in designs, whilst the most ordinary and characteristic embellishments are volutes, shellfish, and scrolls; groups of fruit and garlands of flowers, hangings, curtains, etc. [shown here]." "During the time that the license of the Roccoco Style prevailed, the elements of the ancient columnar orders were often misapplied, engaged columns and pilasters were frequently so connected with other side-pilasters which were recessed behind them to the number of one, two, or even three, that the cornices and, in fact, all horizontal mouldings were separately profiled over each column or pilaster [shown here]."

Façade of the Church of St. Paul and St. Louis at Paris

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun…

The Gothic boss circular panel is a 16th century design found in St. Benoit, Paris.

Gothic Boss Circular Panel

The Gothic boss circular panel is a 16th century design found in St. Benoit, Paris.

This modern french cresting border is found in Cour de Cassation (French Judiciary court) in Paris, France. It is found on the ridge or top of roof.

Modern French Cresting Border

This modern french cresting border is found in Cour de Cassation (French Judiciary court) in Paris,…

This modern French cross is found in Paris, France. It is typically used as a finial on gables (top of roofs).

Modern French Cross

This modern French cross is found in Paris, France. It is typically used as a finial on gables (top…

This steeple cross is found in a commune in Paris, France.

Steeple Cross

This steeple cross is found in a commune in Paris, France.

The Italian Renaissance Dolphin is found at the Louvre in Paris.

Italian Renaissance Dolphin

The Italian Renaissance Dolphin is found at the Louvre in Paris.

The Akroter Eagle is shown at the Flora Pavillion in the Louvre in Paris, France. It was designed by Architect Lefeul.

Akroter Eagle

The Akroter Eagle is shown at the Flora Pavillion in the Louvre in Paris, France. It was designed by…

The French Eagle is a modern design found at the Opera House in Paris, France. It was designed by Architect Garnier.

French Eagle

The French Eagle is a modern design found at the Opera House in Paris, France. It was designed by Architect…

The Olive Branch Eagle is a medallion shown at the Louvre, Paris.

Olive Branch Eagle

The Olive Branch Eagle is a medallion shown at the Louvre, Paris.

"The Eiffel Tower is a notable structure in Paris, France. The plans for the Paris exposition of 1889 included a monstrous iron tower, to be raised on the Champs-de-Mars, 1,000 feet high. The designer, Gustave Eiffel, constructed it of iron lattice-work, with three sets of elevators giving access to the summit."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Eiffel Tower

"The Eiffel Tower is a notable structure in Paris, France. The plans for the Paris exposition of 1889…

The Eiffel Tower, a global icon on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France stands 984 feet high.

Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower, a global icon on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France stands 984 feet high.

The west corner dome of the main exposition building in Paris.

Exposition Building

The west corner dome of the main exposition building in Paris.

This finial modern vase is found in the ministry of war in Paris, France. It is typically used on tombs, doorposts and on attics of ornamental architecture.

Finial Modern French Vase

This finial modern vase is found in the ministry of war in Paris, France. It is typically used on tombs,…

This finial modern vase is found on a house in the Monceau Park in, Paris, France. It was designed by architect Tronquois.

Finial Modern French Vase

This finial modern vase is found on a house in the Monceau Park in, Paris, France. It was designed by…

This finial modern vase is found on a house in the Monceau Park in, Paris, France. It was designed by architect Tronquois.

Finial Modern French Vase

This finial modern vase is found on a house in the Monceau Park in, Paris, France. It was designed by…

The termination of fountain finial is a 15th century design found in the Cluny museum in Paris, France. It is made out of wrought-iron in the shape of a flower.

Termination of Fountain Finial

The termination of fountain finial is a 15th century design found in the Cluny museum in Paris, France.…

The Mus&eacute;e du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre &mdash; in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre &mdash; is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet)."Du Cerceau, who flourished during the reign of Henry IV., connected the block of buildings which belong to the Louvre, and had been constructed under Catherine dei Medici, by a gallery with the Tuileries [shown here]. This architect abandoned the characteristic feature of the French Renaissance, which had prevailed hitherto, namely, of giving its peculiar columnar order to each storey, and assimilated his designs to those of the late Roman Renaissance, in which a striking effect was produced at the expense of truth by continuous columns and pilasters extending over several storeys and rows of windows."

Flore Pavilion and part of the Gallery of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

The Mus&eacute;e du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre &mdash; in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre &mdash; is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).Charles Le Brun (February 24 1619 &ndash; February 22 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France."Little by little a method of ornamentation was introduced by successive decorators and architects, which was eminently suited to the French taste. Androuet Du Cercean and Jean Lepautre are especially noticeable as representatives of this school of establishment. The sumptuous Apollo Gallery in the Louvre is a characteristic example of the productions of the latter. [This image] exhibits a portion of the system of decoration which pervades the whole gallery."

Fragment from the Apollo Gallery in the Louvre at Paris

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

"Gable of the South Transept Door of Notre Dame, Paris; 13th century." -Whitney, 1911

Gable at Notre Dame de Paris

"Gable of the South Transept Door of Notre Dame, Paris; 13th century." -Whitney, 1911

A gargoyle on the 13th century cathedral, La Sainte-Chapel in Paris, France, an example of Gothic architecture.

Gothic Gargoyle

A gargoyle on the 13th century cathedral, La Sainte-Chapel in Paris, France, an example of Gothic architecture.

The Val de Grace is located in Paris, France. It was built as a church by the order of Queen Anne of Austria, wife of Louis XIII. Completed in 1667, the church was designed by Francois Mansart and Jacques Lemercier in a Baroque style. Following the revolution the church was converted into a military hospital.

Val de Grace

The Val de Grace is located in Paris, France. It was built as a church by the order of Queen Anne of…

This Modern French Grotesque mask is found at the Ministry of War in Paris, France. This design used on keystones, consoles, spouts, handles, shields, capitals, panels, and carved furniture.

Evil Modern French Grotesque

This Modern French Grotesque mask is found at the Ministry of War in Paris, France. This design used…

This Dolphin Head is shown in the form of a spout, designed by Barbezat in Paris, France.

Dolphin Head

This Dolphin Head is shown in the form of a spout, designed by Barbezat in Paris, France.

An illustration of the Hotel de Cluny in Paris, France. The Hotel de Cluny is a small palace from the Middle Ages which is now a museum containing objects relating to the medieval times.

Hotel de Cluny

An illustration of the Hotel de Cluny in Paris, France. The Hotel de Cluny is a small palace from the…

An illustration of the Church of the Hotel des Invalides located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France. This complex of buildings contains museums and monuments all relating to the military history of France.

Church of the Hotel des Invalides

An illustration of the Church of the Hotel des Invalides located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris,…

"The French town houses differ, moreover, essentially in entire design, which influences their style, from those of other countries. This remark does not apply to those houses which are calculated for one family only, nor to the palatial residences of the nobility and plutocracy, which the French call H&ocirc;tels. This difference partly consists in the universal employment of the ground-floor as shops, which are only separated from the street by an opening which is glazed over and supported by individual iron girders. The whole fa&ccedil;ade consequently appears rather to be suspended in the air than supported architecturally. Over the shop, there is almost always an entresol, that is to say, a low storey between the ground floor and the first storey. The restriction to a certain height which the fa&ccedil;ade may not exceed has a determinating influence on the form of the topmost portion of the building, inasmuch as above this height the fa&ccedil;ade is terminated by an offset which slopes backwards over the upper storey [shown here]. Projecting balconies are, moreover, usual along the whole length of the fa&ccedil;ades, making the divisions into storeys. When these balconies are not met with, the windows of each storey come down to the top of the storey below, or at any rate nearly so, and have iron balustrades in front of them; this construction is partly owing to the storeys from their great number being so low that without this remedy the windows would appear too small and badly proportioned. The lowness of the storeys necessarily exercises a prejudicial effect on the architectural beauty of the fa&ccedil;ades; so that it is difficult to impart any structural significance to the houses, which consequently only convey and sense of beauty through their details."

Façade of a House in Paris

"The French town houses differ, moreover, essentially in entire design, which influences their style,…

Les Invalides in Paris, France, is a complex of buildings in the city's 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans. The buildings house the Mus&eacute;e de l'Arm&eacute;e, the military museum of the Army of France, the Mus&eacute;e des Plans-Reliefs, and the Mus&eacute;e d'Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France's war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte."The principal architectural activity of this period was displayed by Jules Hardouin Mansard, who was head architect to the king and the head of the influential school, as Len&ocirc;tre at the same time was principal horticulturist. Mansard built the palaces of Versailles (1647-1708, Marly, the Grand Trianon, as also the Invalides at Paris [shown here]."

Invalides at Paris

Les Invalides in Paris, France, is a complex of buildings in the city's 7th arrondissement containing…

The tomb of General Lafayette.

Lafayette's Tomb

The tomb of General Lafayette.

The Modern Leaf Festoon is found in Paris, France.

Modern Leaf Festoon

The Modern Leaf Festoon is found in Paris, France.

The palais du Louvre in Paris, on the Right Bank of the Seine is a former royal palace, situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois. Its origins date back to the medieval period and its present structure has evolved in stages since the sixteenth century.

Plan of Louvre and Tuileries, Paris

The palais du Louvre in Paris, on the Right Bank of the Seine is a former royal palace, situated between…

"Louvre is the name of a celebrated public building of Paris, situated in the N. part of the city, near the right band of the Seine."&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Louvre West Pavilion

"Louvre is the name of a celebrated public building of Paris, situated in the N. part of the city, near…

An illustration of the Louvre Museum in Paris, France from a bird's-eye view. The Louvre is one of the the world's largest museums and is the most visited museum in the world.

Bird's Eye View of the Louvre

An illustration of the Louvre Museum in Paris, France from a bird's-eye view. The Louvre is one of the…

"The change from the pure to the later Renaissance , which was formerly seen only in individual instances, has now received a certain extension. This is mainly owing to the key-note struck in the New Louvre [shown here], begun by Visconti, but finished by another architect. Although it is true that the new building conforms in general to the architecture of the Old Louvre, yet still an increase rather than a decrease is to be perceived in the effort for picturesque effect, in the licence of the Roccoco style, and in an unstructural treatment of the individual forms and ornamental parts."

Corner Pavilion of the New Louvre

"The change from the pure to the later Renaissance , which was formerly seen only in individual instances,…

The Mus&eacute;e du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre &mdash; in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre &mdash; is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).The Louvre was built by "three prominent architects, [one of which was] Pierre Lescot (1510-1578), who desiged the celebrated Western Fa&ccedil;ade of the Louvre [shown here]."

Inner Façade of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

The Mus&eacute;e du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre &mdash; in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre &mdash; is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).The Louvre was built by "three prominent architects, [one of which was] Pierre Lescot (1510-1578), who desiged the celebrated Western Fa&ccedil;ade of the Louvre [shown here]."

Inner Façade of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

An illustration of one of the galleries in the Louvre in Paris, France. The Louvre is one of the world's largest museums and is most visited museum in the world.

Gallery in the Louvre

An illustration of one of the galleries in the Louvre in Paris, France. The Louvre is one of the world's…

The Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre was named after King Louis XIII first chief minister, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu. It is part of the Louvre Palace which is located along the Seine river in Paris, France. The Richelieu pavilion is located at the northern limb of the New Louvre.

Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre

The Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre was named after King Louis XIII first chief minister, Cardinal-Duc…

An illustration of Luxembourg Palace which is located in Paris, France. The Luxembourg Palace houses the famous Luxembourg Garden which displays a large garden and lawn full of statues and large water basins.

Luxembourg Palace

An illustration of Luxembourg Palace which is located in Paris, France. The Luxembourg Palace houses…

The Tympanum Medusa Head is found in the arch of the entrance of the Royal Palace of Tuileries in Paris, France.

Tympanum Medusa Head

The Tympanum Medusa Head is found in the arch of the entrance of the Royal Palace of Tuileries in Paris,…

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte located in the Church of the Hotel des Invalides.

Sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte located in the Church of the Hotel des Invalides.

An illustration of the tomb of the sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte located in the Church of the Hotel des Invalides.

Tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte

An illustration of the tomb of the sarcophagus of Napoleon Bonaparte located in the Church of the Hotel…

Notre Dame viewed from the front.

Notre dame

Notre Dame viewed from the front.

An illustration of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. This building is also known as Notre Dame de Paris which is French for Our Lady of Paris. It is the church which contains the official chair of the Archbishop of Paris.

Notre Dame Cathedral

An illustration of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France. This building is also known as Notre Dame…

An illustration of The Opera House in Paris, France. It is commonly known as the Paris Opera. This Opera house was built in the Neo-Baroque style by Charles Garnier and was known as one of the most advanced architectural works of its time.

Opera House

An illustration of The Opera House in Paris, France. It is commonly known as the Paris Opera. This Opera…

The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier, but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200-seat opera house on the Place de l'Opéra in Paris, France. A grand landmark designed by Charles Garnier in the Neo-Baroque style, it is regarded as one of the architectural masterpieces of its time."The newest and most important building is the new Opera House at Paris," this image "presents an external view.The competition which was announced for the plans for this building brought out at the time the most eminent, artistic, and architectural talent of France, and aroused a very general and lively interest in the result: inasmuch as an architectural chef-d'œuvre was to be produced, such as Paris did not possess before, and one in which the architecture of the present day was to make the utmost possible effect to build a theatre, which in every respect should be worthy of the metropolis of the world, and should thanks to the almost unlimited means at disposal, be the most perfect of its kind."

View of the Opera House in Paris

The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier, but more commonly as the Paris…

The Paris Opera House was built by architect Charles Garnier, who was chosen by Emperor Napoleon III. It was built in the late 19th century in a Neo-Baroque style.

Paris Opera House

The Paris Opera House was built by architect Charles Garnier, who was chosen by Emperor Napoleon III.…

The Early Gothic Ornament design is found in Notre Dame, Paris.

Early Gothic Ornament

The Early Gothic Ornament design is found in Notre Dame, Paris.

The Petit Palais (Small Palace) is a museum in Paris, France. It was built for the Universal Exhibition in 1900 and now houses the City of Paris Museum of Fine Arts.

Petit Palais

The Petit Palais (Small Palace) is a museum in Paris, France. It was built for the Universal Exhibition…

This panel design is found at the Louvre museum in Paris, France.

Panel

This panel design is found at the Louvre museum in Paris, France.

This trophy panel slab was designed on a quay front (dock) in Missileries, Paris, France.

Trophy Panel Slab

This trophy panel slab was designed on a quay front (dock) in Missileries, Paris, France.