The St. Peter's Basilica is located within the Vatican city in Rome, Italy. This drawing shows the architecture of the front of the church. It was built in 1626 in a Renaissance and Baroque style. The church was named after one of Jesus's twelve disciples, Simon known as Peter.

St. Peter's Basilica

The St. Peter's Basilica is located within the Vatican city in Rome, Italy. This drawing shows the architecture…

The Court of the Palace at Blois is an example of Renaissance architecture.

Blois Palace

The Court of the Palace at Blois is an example of Renaissance architecture.

The Chateau of Blois is located in the Loire Valley in France. It was the residence of many French Kings, and the place where Joan of Arc was blessed. The Chateau of Blois is built in the middle of town, and consists of several buildings that were built between the 13th and 17th century.

Chateau of Blois

The Chateau of Blois is located in the Loire Valley in France. It was the residence of many French Kings,…

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps.The castle has only been partially rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is located 80 m (262 ft) up the northern part of the Königstuhl hillside, and thereby dominates the view of the old downtown. It is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl.The earliest castle structure was built before AD 1214 and later expanded into 2 castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt destroyed some rebuilt sections."The Renaissance style was not employed in Germany before the middle of the sixteenth century, and the most noteworthy instances of it are the Belvedere of Ferdinand I., on the Hradschin at Prague, and the so-called Otto Henry buildings at Heidelberg Castle (1556-1559). The Façade of the last-mentioned structure" "in peculiar for a richness and variety of details which almost border on excess. At the same time a certain heaviness prevails, which forms a contrast to the graceful elegance of the best Italian buildings in the same style: in fact these faults may be said to characterize the productions of the German Renaissance style in general. A further instance of this is afforded by [this image], which represents a portion of the façade , though, properly speaking, it belongs to the Roccocco style."

Façade of the Building of Henry the Wise in Heidelberg Castle (1601-1607)

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and…

The Château de Beaumesnil was begun in 1633 by Jacques de Nonant for his wife Marie Dauvet Desmaret. Construction lasted until 1640.Today, Beaumesnil is a commune, the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic, in the Eure department in Haute-Normandie in northern France."Although Du Cerceau was obligated to leave France in the year 1604, the impulse which he had given in the direction of the above-mentioned manner led to its being generally adopted. The new buildings were more correct, but less picturesque than those built during the earlier period of the French Renaissance, and a certain insipidity seems to characterize the various structures erected during the reigns of Henry IV., and especially Louis XIII. As is shown [here], a combination of free-stone and brick was restored to in such a way that the former was employed for the mouldings, and for the quoins and dressings of the doors and windows, whilst brick was used for the spaces between. In the case of the windows the free-stone introduced assumed the forms of quoins. If ornamentation had been previously excessive, it now retired into the background, and was only employed in moderation; and the method of its treatment began to be distinguished from that of the former period. The forms of the details above all began to lose in purity: rustications were inappropriately introduced in the walls and columns, and the roofs were made high and steep, which gave the rest of the building a heavy and squat appearance, whilst the numerous turret-shaped chimneys, which were necessitated by these high roofs, formed a peculiar feature in the construction. The Roccoco, or Baroque Style, was beginning at the same time to exert its influence. Commencing from the second half of the seventeenth century, this new architectural deviation became prevalent in all civilized countries, owing to the splendor and influence of the French power and manners, and the influence of Italian art was consequently paralyzed. [This image] gives a characteristic example of French architecture of this period of the Later Renaissance, showing the peculiarities which have been described above."

Château de Beaumesnil

The Château de Beaumesnil was begun in 1633 by Jacques de Nonant for his wife Marie Dauvet Desmaret.…

The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable châteaux in the world because of its very distinct French Renaissance architecture that blends traditional French medieval forms with classical Italian structures."The artistic influence of Italy came into operation in France sooner than in other European countries, for as early as the fifteenth century the Renaissance style was introduced there by Italian architects, as, for instance, by Fra Giocondo, who was summoned thither by Louis XII. But at the epoch the Flamboyant style was still in its vigour, and the buildings then erected could not extricate themselves from its influence. The consequence was that a blending of the two styles temporarily prevailed, as, for instance in the Château de Blois, which Louis XII. caused to be built, and which has lately been restored by Duban. It was in these country residences of the nobility, especially on the banks of the Loire, that this architectural activity was displayed during the earlier period of the Renaissance; amongst their number the Château de Chambord [shown here] is most worthy of notice. The pilasters and their mouldings of the Renaissance style were, it is true, somewhat rudely carried out, and in the earlier period were combined with certain elements of the Flamboyant style. Highly ornamental gables and dormer-windows. especially, were executed in the latter style. Buildings were contemporaneously constructed entirely in the Flamboyant style, as, for instance, the Cathedral, the Palais de Justice, and the Hâtel Bourgtheroulde, all at Rouen, and the Hâtel de Ville at Compiègne."

Château de Chambord

The royal Château de Chambord at Chambord, Loir-et-Cher, France is one of the most recognizable…

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle is famous for its French Renaissance architecture that blends French Medieval with classical Italian styles. It was constructed by King Francois I, and is the largest castle in Loire Valley.

Chateau of Chambord

The Chateau of Chambord is located in the commune of Chambord in the Loire Valley, France. The castle…

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun in 1627 and completed in 1641 and is an examaple of Jesuit architecture. It was designed based on the Gesú church in Rome. The letters IHS, as shown on the front of the church, is an abbreviation, the first three letters, of Jesus' name in Greek, ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, translated into English characters."In this style curved lines of the most varied description supersede all straight lines both in ground plans and in designs, whilst the most ordinary and characteristic embellishments are volutes, shellfish, and scrolls; groups of fruit and garlands of flowers, hangings, curtains, etc. [shown here]." "During the time that the license of the Roccoco Style prevailed, the elements of the ancient columnar orders were often misapplied, engaged columns and pilasters were frequently so connected with other side-pilasters which were recessed behind them to the number of one, two, or even three, that the cornices and, in fact, all horizontal mouldings were separately profiled over each column or pilaster [shown here]."

Façade of the Church of St. Paul and St. Louis at Paris

The St-Paul-St-Louis Church is located in Paris on Rue Saint Antoine in the Marais. The church was begun…

The Gewandhaus, or Cloth Hall, at Old Town Market in Brunswick originally served as a warehouse for a garment cutter. This image "shows an interesting and pleasing example of the German Renaissance."

Cloth Hall at Brunswick

The Gewandhaus, or Cloth Hall, at Old Town Market in Brunswick originally served as a warehouse for…

"It is especially this vitiated taste in form and details which characterized the Elizabethan Renaissance. The unusual Roccoco Renaissance forms also occur in it, as for instance, the quadrant-shaped gables curving alternately inwards and outwards, as also pilasters and columns intersected by quoins and bands; and various grotesque and debased forms. Enriched quoins are also freely used at angles and jambs. [This image] may serve as a specimen of the detail of the Elizabethan style."

Corner of a Fire-Place in the Elizabeth Gallery at Windsor Castle

"It is especially this vitiated taste in form and details which characterized the Elizabethan Renaissance.…

"The most noteworthy of the successors of Palladio at Venice were Scamozzi, and Longhena, the architect of the Della Salute church.Some of the churches of this style retain the Byzantine system of the Greek cross with barrel-vaultings and a central dome resting on four pillars or piers. Others, again, have the form of the basilica but with a system of their own, which produces a beautiful effect. This system consists of smaller domes in the aisles, all resting on pierces masses of masonry with barrel-vaultings connected with them, as, for instance San Salvador."The Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute (Basilica of St Mary of Health/Salvation), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a famous church in Venice, placed scenically at a narrow finger of land which lies between the Grand Canal and the Bacino di San Marco on the lagoon, visible as one enters the Piazza San Marco from the water. While it has the status of a minor basilica, its decorative and distinctive profile and location make it among the most photographed churches in Italy.

Della Salute Church and Custom House

"The most noteworthy of the successors of Palladio at Venice were Scamozzi, and Longhena, the architect…

The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church (Duomo) of Florence, Italy, begun in 1296 and with major construction completed in 1436. The basilica is notable for its dome designed by Filippo Brunelleschi, its exterior facing of polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink bordered by white.

Section of the Dome of Duomo, Florence

The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral church (Duomo) of Florence, Italy, begun in 1296…

"The same licence in the treatment and application of forms is also displayed in secular buildings. The façades and their details were especially treated with the greatest freedom, and the original construction intention of the latter was no longer a matter of consideration. [This image] gives an example of the Roccoco style as applied to dwelling houses."

Façade at Paris in the style of Louis XV

"The same licence in the treatment and application of forms is also displayed in secular buildings.…

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick was developed side-by-side with that which has just been touched upon. This material had already been employed in the foregoing period for churches, and it now came into frequent use in the construction of the palaces. Bologna is especially rich in palaces of this description, which, with an admixture of earlier forms, belong for the most part to the Early Renissance, with semicircles for the heads of the opening, as was necessitated by the character of the material. The easy multiplication of the ornamental parts in burnt clay, generally led to an undue increase of the decorative element. Inasmuch as the main streets of Bologna have arcades running along them of which the individual palaces only embrace a portion, these buildings do not present the appearance of being totally detached, but seem rather parts of the entire front of the street, and show much similarity in the architecture of their façades with that of the arcades themselves."

Façade of a Palace at Bologna

"Owing to the rarity and expensiveness of free-stone in Upper Italy, an architectural style in brick…

"The lower story of palaces by Palladio, the greater part of which are at Vicenza, is generally of rustic work, whilst the upper storeys have pilasters or a colonnade; occasionally, however, pilasters or arcades are introduced on the ground-floor."

Façade of a Palace at Vicenza

"The lower story of palaces by Palladio, the greater part of which are at Vicenza, is generally of rustic…

In the Giraud Palace and the great Palazzo della Cancelleria, pilasters appear in the external composition, and all the details of doors and windows betray the results of classic study, as well as the refined taste of their designer.

Façade of the Giraud Palace, Rome

In the Giraud Palace and the great Palazzo della Cancelleria, pilasters appear in the external composition,…

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy in Italy. According to Sir Banister Fletcher it is "the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century."

Plan of Farnese Palace

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy…

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet)."Du Cerceau, who flourished during the reign of Henry IV., connected the block of buildings which belong to the Louvre, and had been constructed under Catherine dei Medici, by a gallery with the Tuileries [shown here]. This architect abandoned the characteristic feature of the French Renaissance, which had prevailed hitherto, namely, of giving its peculiar columnar order to each storey, and assimilated his designs to those of the late Roman Renaissance, in which a striking effect was produced at the expense of truth by continuous columns and pilasters extending over several storeys and rows of windows."

Flore Pavilion and part of the Gallery of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

"There exists, however, a few Florentine palaces of a smaller type, which externally present a more habitable appearance. In these rustic-work is not the all-important feature, but it is only employed for the quoins of the fa&ccedilade, though it sometimes extends to the whole of the ground-floor. The roof. which projects very considerably, and shows the wooden construction, is not in accordance with the rest of the architectural features of the façade, nor is it supported by a strong enough cornice. Sometimes the upper storey forms an open arcade (as shown here). The figures and embellishments in sgraffitto which are introduced in this façade are not a necessary feature in these Florentine palaces. This method of ornamentation is also met in exceptional instances in some of the Roman palaces."

Gaudagni Palace at Florence

"There exists, however, a few Florentine palaces of a smaller type, which externally present a more…

"An expression of great massiveness is the main characteristics of this Florentine style, which was principally applied in the architecture of the palaces. The forms which were borrowed from the Roman columnar construction do not in this style, as they do more or less in the other styles of the Renaissance, constitute a pseudo-architecture. The massiveness, however, of the Florentine palaces conveys rather the notion of a fortress than of a mansion of a wealthy nobleman, and this impression is increased by the smallness of the windows in comparison with the rest of the building. This is especially the case with those façades which are entirely constructed of considerably projecting ashlar of irregular size, and to a less degree in the case of those the lowest storey of which alone displays these large undressed blocks." The palace was designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de' Medici, of the Medici family, and was built between 1445 and 1460. It was well known for its stone masonry that includes rustication and ashlar. The tripartite elevation was used here as a revelation of the Renaissance spirit of rationality, order, and classicism of human scale. This tripartite division is emphasized horizontal stringcourses that divide the building into stories of decreasing height. This makes the building seem lighter as the eye moves up to the extremely heavy cornice that caps and clearly defines the building's outline.Michelozzo di Bartolomeo was influenced in his building of this palace by both Roman principles and Brunelleschian principles. During the Renaissance revival of classical culture, Roman elements were often replicated in architecture, both built and imagined in paintings. In the Palazzo Medici Riccardi, the rusticated masonry and the cornice had precedents in Roman art.

Riccardi Palace at Florence

"An expression of great massiveness is the main characteristics of this Florentine style, which was…

"Those palaces which like the back of the Strozzi Place are constucted of dressed blocks with a less decided projection, present a more elegant appearance."Palazzo Strozzi is a palace in Florence, Italy. The Palace was begun in 1489 by Benedetto da Maiano, for Filippo Strozzi the Elder, a rival of the Medici who had returned to the city in November 1466 and desired the most magnificent palace to assert his family's continued prominence and, perhaps more importantly a political statement of his own status. A great number of other buildings were acquired during the 70s and demolished to provide enough space for the new construction. Giuliano da Sangallo the Younger provided a wood model of the design. Filippo Strozzi died in 1491, long before the construction's completion in 1538. Duke Cosimo I de' Medici confiscated it in the same year, not returning it to the Strozzi family until thirty years later.

Strozzi Palace at Florence

"Those palaces which like the back of the Strozzi Place are constucted of dressed blocks with a less…

The Chateau Fontainebleau is the largest royal castle in France. The palace was designed by numerous French monarchs, one of them being King Francis I during the 16th century. The palace is designed in an Italian Mannerist style which later became known as the "Fontainebleau style" during the 16th century.

Chateau Fontainebleau

The Chateau Fontainebleau is the largest royal castle in France. The palace was designed by numerous…

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).Charles Le Brun (February 24 1619 – February 22 1690) was a French painter and art theorist, one of the dominant artists in 17th century France."Little by little a method of ornamentation was introduced by successive decorators and architects, which was eminently suited to the French taste. Androuet Du Cercean and Jean Lepautre are especially noticeable as representatives of this school of establishment. The sumptuous Apollo Gallery in the Louvre is a characteristic example of the productions of the latter. [This image] exhibits a portion of the system of decoration which pervades the whole gallery."

Fragment from the Apollo Gallery in the Louvre at Paris

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or—in the Ionic or Corinthian order—decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave ('main beam') and is capped by the moldings of the cornice.In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels. The material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium.This image is "intended to convey an idea of the details of decoration which characterized the Renaissance style during its best period, and which display considerable grace and finish. They are based on the antique Roman type, but still display a peculiar independent treatment, as in the deeply under-cut foliage in the arabesques and the lightness and clearness of the stalks and tendrils."

Friezes at Venice

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or—in…

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or—in the Ionic or Corinthian order—decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon the architrave ('main beam') and is capped by the moldings of the cornice.In interiors, the frieze of a room is the section of wall above the picture rail and under the crown moldings or cornice. By extension, a frieze is a long stretch of painted, sculpted or even calligraphic decoration in such a position, normally above eye-level. Frieze decorations may depict scenes in a sequence of discrete panels. The material of which the frieze is made of may be plasterwork, carved wood or other decorative medium.This image is "intended to convey an idea of the details of decoration which characterized the Renaissance style during its best period, and which display considerable grace and finish. They are based on the antique Roman type, but still display a peculiar independent treatment, as in the deeply under-cut foliage in the arabesques and the lightness and clearness of the stalks and tendrils."

Friezes at Venice

In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain or—in…

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly as regards the heavy, ungraceful forms of details. This is shown by [this image], and there are other instances in which the faults are more marked than in the palaces in question. The palaces of Genoa may, however, be favorably contrasted with the Roman as regards height; for ground-floor and the mezzanine are raised considerably, in order to gain more light and a better view from the main storey. Owing, however, to the extreme narrowness of the streets and the consequent difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory point of view, the object is not obtained to the desired degree."

Half the Façade of a Palace at Genoa

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly…

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly as regards the heavy, ungraceful forms of details. This is shown by [this image], and there are other instances in which the faults are more marked than in the palaces in question. The palaces of Genoa may, however, be favorably contrasted with the Roman as regards height; for ground-floor and the mezzanine are raised considerably, in order to gain more light and a better view from the main storey. Owing, however, to the extreme narrowness of the streets and the consequent difficulty in obtaining a satisfactory point of view, the object is not obtained to the desired degree."

Façade of the Tursi-Doria Palace at Genoa

"The purity of style, however, of the Genoese palaces is not so great as in the Roman, particularly…

The Guildhall is located in London, England. It was used as a town hall for hundreds of years, and is still being used as the ceremonial and administrative center of the City of London. This shows the interior of the Guildhall which is designed with pointed arches.

Guildhall

The Guildhall is located in London, England. It was used as a town hall for hundreds of years, and is…

A landmark of Heidelberg, the castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps. The castle has only been partially rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl. The earliest castle structure was built before 1214 and later expanded into two castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt destroyed some rebuilt sections.

Entrance to Heidelberg Castle

A landmark of Heidelberg, the castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north…

Interior view of Heidelberg Castle with elaborately carved doorway and part of a courtyard.

Interior of Heidelberg Castle

Interior view of Heidelberg Castle with elaborately carved doorway and part of a courtyard.

View of the castle framed by an arch. A landmark of Heidelberg, the castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps. The castle has only been partially rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl. The earliest castle structure was built before 1214 and later expanded into two castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt destroyed some rebuilt sections.

Heidelberg Castle Viewed from Terrace

View of the castle framed by an arch. A landmark of Heidelberg, the castle ruins are among the most…

Les Invalides in Paris, France, is a complex of buildings in the city's 7th arrondissement containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans. The buildings house the Musée de l'Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the burial site for some of France's war heroes, notably Napoleon Bonaparte."The principal architectural activity of this period was displayed by Jules Hardouin Mansard, who was head architect to the king and the head of the influential school, as Lenôtre at the same time was principal horticulturist. Mansard built the palaces of Versailles (1647-1708, Marly, the Grand Trianon, as also the Invalides at Paris [shown here]."

Invalides at Paris

Les Invalides in Paris, France, is a complex of buildings in the city's 7th arrondissement containing…

"The main essentials in all the Roccoco Styles are a certain independence in the ornamentation of the main architectural organism, the prominence of this ornamentation itself, and finally its shape and design. A luxurious elegance is displayed in the treatment of interiors, which was most happily employed in the embellishment of the state apartments. [This image] gives an example of the absence of connection among the various ornaments employed in the system of decoration, such as was especially peculiar to the churches of the Jesuits."

Jesuit Churh, Rome

"The main essentials in all the Roccoco Styles are a certain independence in the ornamentation of the…

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).The Louvre was built by "three prominent architects, [one of which was] Pierre Lescot (1510-1578), who desiged the celebrated Western Façade of the Louvre [shown here]."

Inner Façade of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet).The Louvre was built by "three prominent architects, [one of which was] Pierre Lescot (1510-1578), who desiged the celebrated Western Façade of the Louvre [shown here]."

Inner Façade of the Louvre

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

The Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre was named after King Louis XIII first chief minister, Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu. It is part of the Louvre Palace which is located along the Seine river in Paris, France. The Richelieu pavilion is located at the northern limb of the New Louvre.

Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre

The Richelieu Pavilion of the Louvre was named after King Louis XIII first chief minister, Cardinal-Duc…

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps.The castle has only been partially rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is located 80 m (262 ft) up the northern part of the Königstuhl hillside, and thereby dominates the view of the old downtown. It is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl.The earliest castle structure was built before AD 1214 and later expanded into 2 castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt destroyed some rebuilt sections."The Renaissance style was not employed in Germany before the middle of the sixteenth century, and the most noteworthy instances of it are the Belvedere of Ferdinand I., on the Hradschin at Prague, and the so-called Otto Henry buildings at Heidelberg Castle (1556-1559) The Façade of the last-mentioned structure, of which [this image] represents [a portion], in peculiar for a richness and variety of details which almost border on excess. At the same time a certain heaviness prevails, which forms a contrast to the graceful elegance of the best Italian buildings in the same style: in fact these faults may be said to characterize the productions of the German Renaissance style in general."

Façade of the Otto Heinrich Building in Heidelberg Castle

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and…

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg. The castle ruins are among the most important Renaissance structures north of the Alps.The castle has only been partially rebuilt since its demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is located 80 m (262 ft) up the northern part of the Königstuhl hillside, and thereby dominates the view of the old downtown. It is served by an intermediate station on the Heidelberger Bergbahn funicular railway that runs from Heidelberg's Kornmarkt to the summit of the Königstuhl.The earliest castle structure was built before AD 1214 and later expanded into 2 castles circa 1294; however, in 1537, a lightning-bolt destroyed the upper castle. The present structures had been expanded by 1650, before damage by later wars and fires. In 1764, another lightning-bolt destroyed some rebuilt sections."The Renaissance style was not employed in Germany before the middle of the sixteenth century, and the most noteworthy instances of it are the Belvedere of Ferdinand I., on the Hradschin at Prague, and the so-called Otto Henry buildings at Heidelberg Castle (1556-1559) The Façade of the last-mentioned structure, of which [this image] represents [a portion], in peculiar for a richness and variety of details which almost border on excess. At the same time a certain heaviness prevails, which forms a contrast to the graceful elegance of the best Italian buildings in the same style: in fact these faults may be said to characterize the productions of the German Renaissance style in general."

Façade of the Otto Heinrich Building in Heidelberg Castle

The Heidelberg Castle (in German language named: Heidelberger Schloss) is a famous ruin in Germany and…

"Palladio, who became the special champion of this style of architecture, was born in Vicenza in 1518, and died in 1580. He was undoubtedly a man of great talent, and, after Michelangelo, exercised, perhaps, more influence than anyone else on architecture. Still the introduction of great confusion of ideas is attributable to this architect, for he adorned buildings of every kind and of the building as a whole, so that the order was frequently carried up through several storeys without any reference to its arrangement. But although these reproductions of columns and the employment of pilasters were meaningless in themselves, they served, in a merely decorative point of view, to give a striking appearance to the buildings."Palazzo Valmarana is a patrician palace in Vicenza, Italy, built by architect Andrea Palladio in 1565 for the noble Isabella Nogarola Valmarana.

Palace at Vicenza

"Palladio, who became the special champion of this style of architecture, was born in Vicenza in 1518,…

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Château de Versailles."It was principally the above-mentioned system of Roccoco decoration and architectural detail which characterized the architecture of the time of Louis XV.; it is, consequently, sometimes designated as the style of Louis XV." This image depicts the entire wall."Internal arrangement and decoration are the main characteristics of the style of this period, and in this direction the best results were doubtless produced. Large and lofty rooms, as well as scope for display, were indispensable; consequently this style of embellishment was most happily carried out in each state apartments, especially in the princely castles and palaces, or, as the French call them, the "Hôtels" of the aristocracy."

Saloon in the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France…

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France region of France. In French, it is known as the Château de Versailles."It was principally the above-mentioned system of Roccoco decoration and architectural detail which characterized the architecture of the time of Louis XV.; it is, consequently, sometimes designated as the style of Louis XV. [This image] gives a portion of an interior drawn in perspective.""Internal arrangement and decoration are the main characteristics of the style of this period, and in this direction the best results were doubtless produced. Large and lofty rooms, as well as scope for display, were indispensable; consequently this style of embellishment was most happily carried out in each state apartments, especially in the princely castles and palaces, or, as the French call them, the "Hôtels" of the aristocracy."

Saloon in the Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, the île-de-France…

The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning "Every god") is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. It was originally built as a church dedicated to St. Genevieve, but after many changes now combines liturgical functions with its role as a famous burial place. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a façade modeled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a small dome that owes some of its character to Bramante's "Tempietto". Located in the 5th arrondissement on the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the Panthéon looks out over all of Paris. Its architect, Jacques-Germain Soufflot, had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the gothic cathedral with classical principles. Soufflot died before his work was achieved, and his plans were not entirely followed. The transparency he had planned for his masterpiece was not attained. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important architectural achievements of its time and the first great neoclassical monument."Toward the end of the reign of Louis XV. a reaction set in, which was caused partly by the excess and caprice displayed in the application of this style, and partly by the tide again setting in the direction of the antique. This evidence by the Colonnades de la Place de Concorde, and by the Church of Ste. Geneviève, which was begun by Soufflot in the year 1755, and subsequently received the name of Pantheon [shown here]. From thenceforth imitations of ancient buildings came into vogue, as they also did in other countries."

West Front of the Pantheon at Paris

The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning "Every god") is a building in the Latin…

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great Louvre, or simply the Louvre — is the national museum of France, the most visited museum in the world, and a historic monument. It is a central landmark of Paris, located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the 1st arrondissement (neighborhood). Nearly 35,000 objects from the 6th century BC to the 19th century are exhibited over an area of 60,600 square meters (652,300 square feet)."Du Cerceau, who flourished during the reign of Henry IV., connected the block of buildings which belong to the Louvre, and had been constructed under Catherine dei Medici, by a gallery with the Tuileries. This architect abandoned the characteristic feature of the French Renaissance, which had prevailed hitherto, namely, of giving its peculiar columnar order to each storey, and assimilated his designs to those of the late Roman Renaissance, in which a striking effect was produced at the expense of truth by continuous columns and pilasters extending over several storeys and rows of windows.Although Du Cerceau was obligated to leave France in the year 1604, the impulse which he had given in the direction of the above-mentioned manner led to its being generally adopted. The new buildings were more correct, but less picturesque than those built during the earlier period of the French Renaissance, and a certain insipidity seems to characterize the various structures erected during the reigns of Henry IV., and especially Louis XIII. As is shown [here], a combination of free-stone and brick was restored to in such a way that the former was employed for the mouldings, and for the quoins and dressings of the doors and windows, whilst brick was used for the spaces between. In the case of the windows the free-stone introduced assumed the forms of quoins. If ornamentation had been previously excessive, it now retired into the background, and was only employed in moderation; and the method of its treatment began to be distinguished from that of the former period. The forms of the details above all began to lose in purity: rustications were inappropriately introduced in the walls and columns, and the roofs were made high and steep, which gave the rest of the building a heavy and squat appearance, whilst the numerous turret-shaped chimneys, which were necessitated by these high roofs, formed a peculiar feature in the construction."

Paris, Royal Palace Façade

The Musée du Louvre or officially the Grand Louvre — in English, the Louvre Museum or Great…

The Turgot Pavilion is part of the Louvre Palace which is located along the Seine river in Paris, France. The Turgot pavilion was built in the New Louvre section, the northern limb of the palace.

The Turgot Pavilion

The Turgot Pavilion is part of the Louvre Palace which is located along the Seine river in Paris, France.…

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance palace in Florence, Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Arno, a short distance from the Ponte Vecchio. The core of the present palazzo dates from 1458 and was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker.The palace was bought by the Medici family in 1549 and became the chief residence of the ruling families of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It grew as a great treasure house as later generations amassed paintings, plates, jewelry and luxurious possessions.In the late 18th century, the palazzo was used as a power base by Napoleon, and later served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly united Italy. The palace and its contents were donated to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1919, and its doors were opened to the public as one of Florence's largest art galleries. Today, it houses several minor collections in addition to those of the Medici family, and is fully open to the public."Columns, pilasters, and mouldings are intermingled and intertwined in a fantastic and meaningless manner, the cornices are often interrupted; the essentially component parts of the architecture are frequently mutilated; for instance, columns and wall-pilasters are executed in rustic work, i. e., formed of extensively projecting hewn stones, yet are furnished with a capital and base as is shown [in this image], which is an illustration taken from the Late Italian Renaissance. For the sake of peculiarity, the various component elements assumed a form diametrically opposed to their original designation; mere decorative and secondary details were raised to the rank of essentials, whilst the real principal forms sank to an entirely subordinate position."

Part of the Back of the Pitti Palace at Florence

The Palazzo Pitti, in English sometimes called the Pitti Palace, is a vast mainly Renaissance palace…

This is a plan of the St Paul's Cathedral in London, England. It is an example of English Renaissance architecture. The construction lasted from 1675 to 1710. Sir Christopher Wren designed the cathedral. "In plan, Wren's design was in accordance with the traditional arrangement of an English cathedral, with nave, north and south transepts and choir, in all the cases with side aisles together...Wren introduced a series of cupolas over the main arms of the cathedral, which enabled him to light with clerestory windows; these are not visible on the exterior, as they are masked by the upper storey which Wren carried round the whole structure, in order, probably, to give it greater height and importance." The scale is given in feet.

Plan of St Paul's Cathedral, London, 1675–1710

This is a plan of the St Paul's Cathedral in London, England. It is an example of English Renaissance…

This is a plan of the St Peter's at Rome. It is an example of Italian Renaissance architecture. The construction lasted from 1546 to 1564AD. "In 1505, on the advise of Michelangelo, Bramante was instructed to prepare designs for a new church in Rome dedicated to St Peter, to take the place of the early basilica, which, built in haste, began to show serious signs of failure [...] In 1546 Michelangelo, then seventy–two years of age, was entrusted with the continuance of the work, and he made radical changes, chiefly in the design of the dome. "

Plan of St Peter's at Rome, 1546–1564

This is a plan of the St Peter's at Rome. It is an example of Italian Renaissance architecture. The…

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy in Italy."The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as, for example, Balthazar Peruzzi (1481 to 1536) as the principle of his works may be mentioned the Farnesia at Rome; Ant. di Sangallo of Florence (died 1546), whose principle work is the Farnese Palace at Rome. The third story of this palace is, however, the work of Michel-Angelo. The Farnese Palace forms to a certain extent the type of distinct class in the architecture of Roman palaces, and its chief characteristic is, that the façades are not divided by any orders of columns or pilasters, but the same effect and impression are produced by the architraves, cornices, and plinths of the windows, which invariably have rectilineal terminations, as well as the doors, and also by the string-courses which divide the storeys, and by a far-projecting cornice: at the same time especial consideration is devoted to the effect of good proportions. Ornaments are by sparingly introduced; whilst, on the other hand, the corners are generally marked by rustications.These palaces convey the impression of solidity without cumbersomeness, or richness without luxury, and above all, of simplicity in conjunction with dignity."

Farnese Palace at Rome

Palazzo Farnese is a prominent High Renaissance palace in Rome, which currently houses the French Embassy…

The Villa Farnese, also known as Palazzo Farnese or Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola in the province of Viterbo, Northern Lazio, Italy, approximately 50 kilometres (35 miles) north-west of Rome.The Villa Farnese is a massive Renaissance construction begun in the early 1520s by Antonio da Sangallo, opening to the Monte Cimini, a range of densely wooded volcanic hills. It has a five-sided plant, and is built in reddish gold stone; buttresses support the piano nobile above, with two floors above again housing an almost complete two-story villa in itself. As a centerpiece of the vast Farnese holdings, it has always been more than a villa in the ordinary agricultural or pleasure senses."Another school, which displays a still stricter imitation of classical forms than that of which Bramante was the founder, was represented and advocated by Giacomo Barozzio, who is known under the name of Vignola (1507- 1573). This architect, by his works and his great influence on his contemporaries and successors, and the effect of his example is, like Palladio's, to be traced not only in the architectural bias of his own times, but also in the course of history of the eighteenth century. This result was principally brought about by means of his book on the five columnar orders of antiquity, and this treatise has been regarded as an authority down to the latest times. His most noteworthy construction is the Castle of Caprarola, between Rome and Viterbo."

Farnese Palace at Rome

The Villa Farnese, also known as Palazzo Farnese or Villa Caprarola, is a mansion in the town of Caprarola…

"The decoration of the interiors of the buildings of the Renaissance is also copied from ancient Roman architecture. The rooms are either vaulted or have flat ceilings, but in both cases are adorned with paintings after the manner of those discovered in the Baths of Titus, as is shown in [this image], or by panel-work, that is, sunken coffers with a regularly distributed enrichment. These panels are themselves often adorned with historical or allegorical paintings, or with arabesques. Ornamented panels were employed in large palaces for horizontal ceilings, as also in churches, though in the latter case they were more often applied to cupola vaulting, as notable in St. Peter's."

Painted Vault of the Florentine Palace in Rome

"The decoration of the interiors of the buildings of the Renaissance is also copied from ancient Roman…

"The most remarkable productions of Bramante at Rome are the Cancelleria Palace, with the Church of San Lorenzo in Damaso contained within its precincts, the Giraud Palace, now the Torlonia, and the Court of the Vatican, with the celebrated Loggie, decorated by Raphael."The Giraud Palace, known today as the Palazzo Castellesi Giraud Torlonia, was built in the 16th century for Cardinal Adriano Cestellesi. The palace was later owned by Giraud and finally by Torlonia.

Giraud Palace at Rome

"The most remarkable productions of Bramante at Rome are the Cancelleria Palace, with the Church of…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance."

Modern Capital at Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

"The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as, for example, Balthazar Peruzzi (1481 to 1536) as the principle of his works may be mentioned the Farnesia at Rome;"

Small Palace at Rome by Balthazar Peruzzi

"The pupils of Bramante and other renowned architects pursued the path which he had marked out; as,…

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured figures, and the flat spaces between the windows and mouldings underwent ornamentation. This took place either by a manner of painting called sgraffito, in which the undercoating was black, with a thin surface-coating of white laid over it, and then the design or shading was engraved or scraped away down to the black grounding; or similar designs were executed in base-relief, whilst [this image] represents part of a façade painted in sgraffito."

Façade painted in Sgraffito at Rome

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured…

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured figures, and the flat spaces between the windows and mouldings underwent ornamentation. This took place either by a manner of painting called sgraffito, in which the undercoating was black, with a thin surface-coating of white laid over it, and then the design or shading was engraved or scraped away down to the black grounding; or similar designs were executed in base-relief, as is shown"The Palazzo Spada is a palace in Rome that houses a grand art collection, the Galleria Spada. The collection was originally assembled by Cardinal Bernardino Spada in the 17th century and added to by his grand-nephew Cardinal Fabrizio Spada (1643-1717), and by Virginio Spada (1596-1662).

Part of the Façade of the Spada Palace in Rome

"Besides the walls and ceilings of the interior, the façades were frequently decorated with sculptured…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance. This dome was only completed after Michel-Angelo's death. Both as regards its colossal dimensions, as well as its beautiful proportions and lines, it produces, both internally and externally, a most wonderful impression. It should be remarkable that Michel-Angelo, like Bramante before him, selected the form of the Greek cross for his church, and planned the dome accordingly, and that the nave, which is by Carlo Maderno, is, both externally and internally, prejudicial to the effect of the dome."The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.

Section of the Dome of St. Peter's, Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance. This dome was only completed after Michel-Angelo's death. Both as regards its colossal dimensions, as well as its beautiful proportions and lines, it produces, both internally and externally, a most wonderful impression. It should be remarkable that Michel-Angelo, like Bramante before him, selected the form of the Greek cross for his church, and planned the dome accordingly, and that the nave, which is by Carlo Maderno, is, both externally and internally, prejudicial to the effect of the dome."The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.

Ground-plan of St. Peter's, Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

"The decoration of the interiors of the buildings of the Renaissance is also copied from ancient Roman architecture. The rooms are either vaulted or have flat ceilings, but in both cases are adorned with paintings after the manner of those discovered in the Baths of Titus, or by panel-work, that is, sunken coffers with a regularly distributed enrichment [shown here]. These panels are themselves often adorned with historical or allegorical paintings, or with arabesques. Ornamented panels were employed in large palaces for horizontal ceilings, as also in churches, though in the latter case they were more often applied to cupola vaulting, as notable in St. Peter's."

Interior View of St. Peter's at Rome

"The decoration of the interiors of the buildings of the Renaissance is also copied from ancient Roman…

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his example necessarily entailed imitation and produced effects on subsequent times. When his deviations were moderate, they were considered by his imitators merely as marks of the originality of his wonderful talent, and by this means proved stepping-stones to the degeneration which marked the ensuing period of the Roccoco style. Amongst his architectural works, the design of the Capitol at Rome, with its wings, may be considered as the most pleasing, whilst as a testimony to his lofty genius the mighty and glorious dome of St. Peter's at Rome, which has no rival in the world, must be adducted as a striking instance. This dome was only completed after Michel-Angelo's death. Both as regards its colossal dimensions, as well as its beautiful proportions and lines, it produces, both internally and externally, a most wonderful impression. It should be remarkable that Michel-Angelo, like Bramante before him, selected the form of the Greek cross for his church, and planned the dome accordingly, and that the nave, which is by Carlo Maderno, is, both externally and internally, prejudicial to the effect of the dome."The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), officially known in Italian as the Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano and commonly known as St. Peter's Basilica, is located within the Vatican City. St. Peter's has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world, holding 60,000 people. It is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites and has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". In Catholic tradition, it is the burial site of its namesake Saint Peter, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to tradition, first Bishop of Rome and therefore first in the line of the papal succession.

Back View of St. Peter's, Rome

"Michel-Angelo assumed such considerable and prominent position by his genius and authority, that his…

This image "presents a type of the majority of the palaces if the Roman Renaissance style, at least so far as regards the architectural features and their arrangement; for the most important palaces in this style are both more imposing by their great length, whilst at the same time they are less simple and less correct in their details."The Verospi Palace, or The Palazzo Verospi, is located on the main street in Rome, the Via Del Corso.

Verospi Palace, Rome

This image "presents a type of the majority of the palaces if the Roman Renaissance style, at least…