"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar, and upon which rests, in classic styles, the lower surface of the achitrave."—Wright, 1902

Abacus

"In architecture the slab or plinth which forms the upper member of the capital of a column or pillar,…

"Roman amphitheater at Pola, Dalmatia." -Breasted, 1914

Amphitheater

"Roman amphitheater at Pola, Dalmatia." -Breasted, 1914

"A street of tombs outside Rome, on the Appian Way." -Breasted, 1914

Appian Way Tombs

"A street of tombs outside Rome, on the Appian Way." -Breasted, 1914

"Part of a Roman Aqueduct. Aqueducts form one of the most characteristic features of Roman architecture. Although these simple successions of gigantic arches, which stretch for miles, have no pretensions to artistic beauty, yet their wonderful size and extent bear witness to the vast conceptions of Roman genius."

Roman Aqueduct

"Part of a Roman Aqueduct. Aqueducts form one of the most characteristic features of Roman architecture.…

An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. An engaged column is a column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wall, sometimes defined as semi or three-quarter detached. In Roman architecture they exist in profusion, most commonly embedded in the cella walls of pseudoperipteral buildings. Engaged columns are distinct from pilasters, which by definition are ornamental and not structural.

Roman Arcade with Engaged Columns

An arcade is a passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns.…

The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.

"Triumphal arches from a class apart among the monuments of Roman architecture. It was an early custom for victorious generals to make a triumphal entry into the city, during which were displayed the spoils of war in the shape of arms, temple vessels, jewels and more. Larger triumphal arches had a smaller passage on each side, besides the main entrance."

Arch of Constantine

"Triumphal arches from a class apart among the monuments of Roman architecture. It was an early custom…

"Roman Ovolo Molding, with Pearl Beading. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman architecture, and consequently became more massive and more copious itself."

Roman Astragal

"Roman Ovolo Molding, with Pearl Beading. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character…

"Ornamented Roman Astragal. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman architecture, and consequently became more massive and more copious itself."

Roman Astragal

"Ornamented Roman Astragal. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman…

A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design. The barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault: effectively a series of arches placed side by side, i.e., one after another.

Barrel Vault

A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by…

"Roman bridge at St. Chamas in Southern France." -Breasted, 1914

Bridge

"Roman bridge at St. Chamas in Southern France." -Breasted, 1914

"The usual form of independent monumental tombs was a ponderous tower-shaped block, sometimes square, and sometimes round, with a quadrangular substructure; as, for instance, the tomb of Cæcilia Metella at Rome, which belongs to the time of Julius Cæsar, and which was used in the Middle Ages as a fortress, with battlements added to it.

Tomb of Cæcilia Metella

"The usual form of independent monumental tombs was a ponderous tower-shaped block, sometimes square,…

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla. At the time the baths included marble seats for bathers, a public library, gymnasiums and restaurants.

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and…

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the emperor Caracalla. At the time the baths included marble seats for bathers, a public library, gymnasiums and restaurants.

Ruins of the Baths of Caracalla

The ruins of the baths of Caracalla were roman public baths built in Rome, Italy between AD 212 and…

In these Etruscan buildings traces are to be found of the arch; as, for instance, in the Gate of Volterra and other gates at Perugia; so also in the Cloacæ at Rome, of which the Cloaca Maxima is 20 feet broad. These are sewers which were intended to render the marshy district between the hills of Rome inhabitable. They were constructed in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, at the beginning of the sixth century B.C.

The Cloaca Maxima at Rome

In these Etruscan buildings traces are to be found of the arch; as, for instance, in the Gate of Volterra…

The Colosseum in Rome.

Colosseum

The Colosseum in Rome.

"The vast Flavian amphitheater at Rome now called the Colosseum." -Breasted, 1914

Colosseum

"The vast Flavian amphitheater at Rome now called the Colosseum." -Breasted, 1914

The construction of arches and vaults did not remain confined to the interior of buildings, but imparted its own expression to the architecture of the exterior also; for the shape of openings became circular instead of square, although they were surrounded by half-columns gave a rectilinear finish to the whole.

Architecture of the Colosseum

The construction of arches and vaults did not remain confined to the interior of buildings, but imparted…

"Elevation and Section of the Tiers of Seats and Substructure of the same from the Colosseum at Rome. The whole mass of the rows of seats was supported by a solid substructure of piers and arches, which formed passages of three stories one above the other, retaining the circular form of the building; whilst externally they formed arcades, which were surrounded with half-columns or piers with entablatures over them. The exterior of the straight portion of the building, which contained the stage and some chambers connected with it, was generally surrounded by a portico. The theaters were either open, or were protected against the sun and rain by an awning stretched over them."

Elevation and Section of the Colosseum

"Elevation and Section of the Tiers of Seats and Substructure of the same from the Colosseum at Rome.…

"Ground Plan of the Colosseum at Rome, with representation of the Tiers of Seats, and of the Substructure. The shape of the amphitheatre was borrowed from that of the theatre. Since no stage was necessary, and with a view to securing as many rows of seats as possible, the semicircular form of the theatre was done away with, and the whole became a circle, or rather an ellipse, which was afterwards the recognized shape for all buildings of this nature, whether at Rome or in the provinces."

Ground Plan of the Colosseum

"Ground Plan of the Colosseum at Rome, with representation of the Tiers of Seats, and of the Substructure.…

This Roman Colosseum is located in Rome, Italy. It is the largest elliptical amphitheater that was built during the Roman Empire. Its construction was completed in 80 A.D. during the rule of Emperor Titus. The Colosseum was used for Gladiator contests and public spectacles.

Roman Colosseum

This Roman Colosseum is located in Rome, Italy. It is the largest elliptical amphitheater that was built…

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a continuous bas-relief design (raised art) that winds up around the capital from the base to the top of the capital. The relief designs depict Emperor Trajan's two victorious wars against the Dacian's.

Trajan's Column

The Trajan's column is a monument in honor of Emperor Trajan located in Rome, Italy. The column is a…

"Semi-columns (Roman). Engaged columns of the Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France." -Whitney, 1911

Semi-Columns

"Semi-columns (Roman). Engaged columns of the Maison Carrée, Nîmes, France." -Whitney,…

Monuments in Constantinople by Greeks, Romans, and Turks.

Constantinople

Monuments in Constantinople by Greeks, Romans, and Turks.

The frame-work of Corinthian style of the Temple of Jupiter at Rome.

Corinthian Frame

The frame-work of Corinthian style of the Temple of Jupiter at Rome.

"Ornamented Cornice with Pearl Beading. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman architecture, and consequently became more massive and more copious itself."

Roman Cornice

"Ornamented Cornice with Pearl Beading. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character…

"Richly Ornamented Roman Ovolo. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman architecture, and consequently became more massive and more copious itself."

Roman Cornice

"Richly Ornamented Roman Ovolo. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman…

"Fragment of the Entrance-Façade of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. The tendency of the period of decadence is particularly illustrated by the introduction of small shafts resting on brackets, which serve no other purpose than to adorn and enliven the façade. Between these small shafts are alternate windows, with a semicircular head and niches of various shapes.

Entrance Façade of Diocletian's Palace

"Fragment of the Entrance-Façade of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro. The tendency of the…

Simple styles, such as the Doric, which accorded so intimately with the whole disposition of the Grecian temple, and the Ionic, were but rarely used; whilst, on the other hand, the Corinthian order was extremely prevalent, for it corresponded to the desire for splendor and magnificence. This order was employed, not, as among the Greeks, in small dimensions, but on the largest scale.

Corinthian Entablature from the Nerva at Rome

Simple styles, such as the Doric, which accorded so intimately with the whole disposition of the Grecian…

In these Etruscan buildings traces are to be found of the arch; as, for instance, in the Gate of Volterra and other gates at Perugia; so also in the Cloacæ at Rome, of which the Cloaca Maxima is 20 feet broad. These are sewers which were intended to render the marshy district between the hills of Rome inhabitable. They were constructed in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, at the beginning of the sixth century B.C.

Etruscan Arch at Perugia

In these Etruscan buildings traces are to be found of the arch; as, for instance, in the Gate of Volterra…

The most interesting monuments of Etruscan architecture which have been preserved are the tombs. They are for the most part chambers hewn in the rock, and supported by square piers. The tombs were either subterranean, and had an entrance façade hewn out of the rock, or they assume the shape of tumuli, which had one or more conical elevations resting on a superstructure. Sometimes these tombs are quadrangular with a pyramidal superstructure

Etruscan Tomb at Castel d'Asso

The most interesting monuments of Etruscan architecture which have been preserved are the tombs. They…

In the Giraud Palace and the great Palazzo della Cancelleria, pilasters appear in the external composition, and all the details of doors and windows betray the results of classic study, as well as the refined taste of their designer.

Façade of the Giraud Palace, Rome

In the Giraud Palace and the great Palazzo della Cancelleria, pilasters appear in the external composition,…

"Fenestella. In Roman Catholic churches, a niche on the south side of an altar, containing the piscina, and frequently also the credence." -Whitney, 1911

Fenestella in the Church of Norrey

"Fenestella. In Roman Catholic churches, a niche on the south side of an altar, containing the piscina,…

"Restoration of the Roman fortified wall on the German frontier." -Breasted, 1914

Fortified Wall

"Restoration of the Roman fortified wall on the German frontier." -Breasted, 1914

"Forum of Pompeii. A, principal entrance; B, a Corinthian temple; C, the public prison (carcer publicus); D is supposed to have been a horreum, or public granary; E, temple of Venus, the guardian goddess of the city; F, basilica; G, H, I, the curiae, or civil and commercial tribunals; K, a rectangular building which may have served the purpose of a shop for money-changers; L, a portico terminating in an apsis; M, temple of Mercury or Quirinus; N, a building with a large semicircular tribune, which probably constituted the residence of the priests called Augustales." -Whitney, 1911

Forum of Pompeii

"Forum of Pompeii. A, principal entrance; B, a Corinthian temple; C, the public prison (carcer publicus);…

"Fragment of an Ancient Roman Frieze. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character of Roman architecture, and consequently became more massive and more copious itself. This is an example of enrichment of which vegetable objects were the model."

Ancient Roman Frieze

"Fragment of an Ancient Roman Frieze. The ornamentation had to correspond with the massive character…

The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct and bridge that was built over the Gard River by the Roman Empire. It is located in Southern France, in the Vers-Pont-du-Gard and Remoulins area. The bridge is built on three levels. The lower level has 6 arches and carries a road, the middle level has 11 arches, and the upper level has 35 arches and was used as a water conduit.

Pont du Gard

The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct and bridge that was built over the Gard River by the Roman Empire. It…

The tower of Giralda is a mosque in Seville.

Giralda

The tower of Giralda is a mosque in Seville.

A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word groin refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults; cf. ribbed vault. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round.

Groin Vault

A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is produced…

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae. GUTTA. A drop; specifically, in architecture, one of a series of pendent ornaments, generally in the form of the frustum of a cone, but sometimes cylindrical, attached to the under side of the mutules and regulae of the Doric entablature." -Whitney, 1911

Gutta in Doric Architecture

"Guttae in Doric Architecture. A, form of gutta beneath regula; G, G, guttae beneath mutules and regulae.…

The Maison Carr&eacute;e at N&icirc;mes in southern France is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. It was built c. 16 <small>BC</small> by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, who was also the original patron of the Pantheon in Rome, and was dedicated to his two sons, Gaius Julius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, adopted heirs of Augustus who both died young.

Maison Carrée

The Maison Carrée at Nîmes in southern France is one of the best preserved temples to be…

Medieval Castle of the Holy Roman Empire. "1 Moat, 2 Drawbridge, 3 Wicket, 4 Merlons, 5 Embrasures, 6 Rampart, 7 Portcullis, 8 Donjon or Keep, 9 Turret, 10 Escutcheon." -Foster, 1921

Medieval Castle

Medieval Castle of the Holy Roman Empire. "1 Moat, 2 Drawbridge, 3 Wicket, 4 Merlons, 5 Embrasures,…

Medieval town of the Holy Roman Empire in 1491.

Medieval Town

Medieval town of the Holy Roman Empire in 1491.

"For tombs of smaller dimensions various forms and abnormal decorations were employed. An ornamented erection of a shape similar to an altar or a temple, and resting on a solid substructure, is a by no means uncommon form. Many tombs are constructed like real temples, while others consist only of simple columns."

Tomb of Nævoleia Tyche at Pompeii

"For tombs of smaller dimensions various forms and abnormal decorations were employed. An ornamented…

The arena of Nimes is a roman amphitheater located in city of Nimes, France. The amphitheater was built around 70 A.D. during the time of Emperor Caesar Augustus. The structure is designed in an enclosed ellipsis.

The Arena of Nimes

The arena of Nimes is a roman amphitheater located in city of Nimes, France. The amphitheater was built…

The square house of Nimes is also known as Maison Carree. It is an ancient Roman temple located in Nimes, Souther France. It was built by Roman statesman and general, Marcus Agrippa in dedication to his sons. The temple is made up of corinthian columns in the front entrance and attached columns all around the structure.

The Square House of Nimes

The square house of Nimes is also known as Maison Carree. It is an ancient Roman temple located in Nimes,…

Roman arches were, as a rule, ornamented with sunken panels of various shapes, in which were introduced rosettes and colored devices; though sometimes the arch was smooth and covered with paintings.

Ornament of a Vaulted Roof

Roman arches were, as a rule, ornamented with sunken panels of various shapes, in which were introduced…

Roman arches were, as a rule, ornamented with sunken panels of various shapes, in which were introduced rosettes and colored devices; though sometimes the arch was smooth and covered with paintings.

Ornament of a Vaulted Roof

Roman arches were, as a rule, ornamented with sunken panels of various shapes, in which were introduced…

Diocletian's Palace (Dioklecijanova palaca in Croatian) is a building in Split in Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD. The Latin name of the city, Spalatum, was drawn from that of the nearby Greek colony Aspalathos, which in turn was named after a white thorn common in the area. Contrary to popular belief, it has nothing to do with the Latin word for palace, palatium.

Palace of Diocletian, Plan

Diocletian's Palace (Dioklecijanova palaca in Croatian) is a building in Split in Croatia that was built…

"The most important and most beautiful of circular buildings without columns surrounding it is the Pantheon at Rome, which was completed in the reign of Augustus, in the year 25 A.D."

Façade of the Pantheon at Rome

"The most important and most beautiful of circular buildings without columns surrounding it is the Pantheon…

"The most important and most beautiful of circular buildings without columns surrounding it is the Pantheon at Rome, which was completed in the reign of Augustus, in the year 25 A.D."

Interior of the Pantheon at Rome

"The most important and most beautiful of circular buildings without columns surrounding it is the Pantheon…

The architecture in Pisa: a cathedral, baptistry, and Leaning Tower.

Pisa

The architecture in Pisa: a cathedral, baptistry, and Leaning Tower.

"For tombs of smaller dimensions various forms and abnormal decorations were employed. An ornamented erection of a shape similar to an altar or a temple, and resting on a solid substructure, is a by no means uncommon form. Many tombs are constructed like real temples, while others consist only of simple columns. These tombs were generally erected in rows along the main roads before the entrance to a town, so as to form a street of tombs, an arrangement which is still to be seen at Pompeii."

Street of Tombs at Pompeii

"For tombs of smaller dimensions various forms and abnormal decorations were employed. An ornamented…

A Roman mausoleum at St. Remy, France.

Roman Mausoleum

A Roman mausoleum at St. Remy, France.

This illustration shows a famous Roman statue in front of some Roman architecture.

Rome Personified

This illustration shows a famous Roman statue in front of some Roman architecture.

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the Gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus Agrippa Roman statesman, general, and son-in-law to Emperor Caesar Augustus. The structure has a circular body with columns and a dome that covers the ceiling.

The Pantheon at Rome

The pantheon at Rome is a temple that was built to all the Gods of Ancient Rome. It was built by Marcus…

"Profile and view from beneath of the Rafters in the Christian Basilica of San Miniato at Florence. The roofing of the basilicas consisted of beams with a flat paneling, which was richly gilt in earlier times, or the rafters of the timberworks were left without a casing, and were ornamented with colorful embellishments."

Profile of San Miniato al Monte

"Profile and view from beneath of the Rafters in the Christian Basilica of San Miniato at Florence.…

"Section of the Church of S. Constantia at Rome. The simplest desctiptions of this kind of building are the baptistries, for which the ancient Thermæ furnished models. They generally have a circular or octagonal ground plan, a main space covered with a round or polygonal dome, and a circular passage separated therefrom by pillars in the same way that the side aisles are separated from the main aisle in basilicas. Sometimes they were without this passage, and only had galleries running round the interior like boxes in a theater. These buildings were generally constructed in the vicinity of cathedrals.

Santa Costanza

"Section of the Church of S. Constantia at Rome. The simplest desctiptions of this kind of building…

"Tower of the Early Christian Basilica of S. Maria in Cosmedin at Rome." Santa Maria in Cosmedin (or de Schola Graeca) is a basilica church in Rome. The church was built in the 6th century over the remains of the Templum Herculis Pompeiani in the Forum Boarium and of the Statio annonae, one of the food distribution centres of ancient Rome.

Tower of Santa Maria in Cosmedin

"Tower of the Early Christian Basilica of S. Maria in Cosmedin at Rome." Santa Maria in Cosmedin (or…

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (died c. 280 BC) was one of the two elected Roman consuls in 298 BC. He led the Roman army to victory against the Etruscans near Volterra. A member of the noble Roman family of Scipiones, he was the father of Lucius Cornelius Scipio and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Asina and great-grandfather of Scipio Africanus.

Sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus

An illustration of the sarcophagus of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus…