"Andrea nivalis, natural size; 2. the same much magnified; 3. spore-case with the torn calyptra; 4. spore-case after the discharge of the spores; 5. columella with a few spores adhering." -Lindley, 1853

Andrea nivalis

"Andrea nivalis, natural size; 2. the same much magnified; 3. spore-case with the torn calyptra; 4.…

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

Annuli

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

Annuli

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

Annuli

"The elastic ring which surrounds the spore case."-Whitney, 1902

Illustrated is the fruiting body of the apple scab fungi showing the spores.

Apple Scab

Illustrated is the fruiting body of the apple scab fungi showing the spores.

"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths of an inch. Fig. 21, A B, represents such a scale, the larger division, A B, representing the one-hundredth of an inch, and the smaller subdivision the one-thousandth of an inch; 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, represent the cells of which the apples are mostly composed. The granular dottings represent apple starch. The branching cellular structure represents the mycelium of a fungus penetrating the cells. At 9, three small starch granuals are represented in a line, and are confined within the division of the one-thousandth of an inch." -Watts, 1874

Microscopic view of a fermented apple

"Portions of the rotting pulp were placed on a microscopic slide, divided into hundredths and thousandths…

A species of Botrytis.

Botrytis

A species of Botrytis.

"Scleroderris fuliginosa. b, ascus containing spores and accompanied by paraphyses ... S. fuliginosa is said to be parasitic on twigs and branches of willows in Europe and North America." -Whitney, 1911

Willow Canker

"Scleroderris fuliginosa. b, ascus containing spores and accompanied by paraphyses ... S. fuliginosa…

Hyphomycetes on a clover.

Clover

Hyphomycetes on a clover.

Hyphomycetes on a tuft.

Clover

Hyphomycetes on a tuft.

Hyphomycetes on a clover, the threads and spores enlarged.

Clover

Hyphomycetes on a clover, the threads and spores enlarged.

"Agaricus- A large and important genus of fungi, characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, and a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores."-Whitney, 1902

Common Mushroom

"Agaricus- A large and important genus of fungi, characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, and…

"Danaea alata. 1. Collection of spore-cases; 2. sections of the same and spores, 2 of which are highly magnified." -Lindley, 1853

Danaea

"Danaea alata. 1. Collection of spore-cases; 2. sections of the same and spores, 2 of which are highly…

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

Elaters of Jungermannia

Two elaters and some spores from the same.

The spore-cases and cup of Trichomanes radicans or the Aerialroot Bristle Fern.

Aerialroot Bristle Fern

The spore-cases and cup of Trichomanes radicans or the Aerialroot Bristle Fern.

"1. Polyplocium inquinans, divided vertically, natural size; 2. flocci and spores; 3 and 4, the same more highly magnified." -Lindley, 1853

Flocci and Spores

"1. Polyplocium inquinans, divided vertically, natural size; 2. flocci and spores; 3 and 4, the same…

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

Fruiting

A fruiting portion, showing the structure; a sporocarp, and an antheidium.

These spores of fungi are species of the genus Agaricus. Most of these species have colorless spores but some are pink, brown, or black.

Spores of Fungi (Agaricus)

These spores of fungi are species of the genus Agaricus. Most of these species have colorless spores…

"Pisomyxa racodioides, Corda.-1. Natural size; 2, the fungus greatly magnified; 3, a spore-case bursting and discharging its spores." -Lindley, 1853

Fungus

"Pisomyxa racodioides, Corda.-1. Natural size; 2, the fungus greatly magnified; 3, a spore-case bursting…

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells; 3, 3, 3, 3, bearing spores which germinate; 4, 4, are fungoid aggregations, which throw out filaments; their relation to the black mycelium is not represented thus far; 5 represents what appears to be a cross section of the asci or fruit, when perfectly formed and cut through its greatest diameter crosswise." -Watts, 1874

Stages of fungus growth

This illustration "represents its mycelium growth; 2,2 its budding cells, which terminate in fruit cells;…

"Eurotium repens. A, a small portion of the mycelium with a conidiophore (c), terminated by the sterigmata (st), from which the spores have fallen, also with the spiral female organ, the ascogonium (as). B the spiral ascogonium (as) with antheridium (p). C, the same beginning to be surrounded by threads, out of which the wall of the perithecium is formed. D, a perithecium. E, F, sections of young perithecia: w, cells composing the wall; f, false parenchyma underneath the wall; as ascogonium. G, ascus. H, an ascopore." -Whitney, 1911

Eurotium Fungus

"Eurotium repens. A, a small portion of the mycelium with a conidiophore (c), terminated by the sterigmata…

"The Scab-fungus (Venturia inaequalis). a, an infested apple, showing scabs caused by the fungus; b, portion of an infested leaf, showing the fungus in black patches; c, section of a diseased spot in the fruit, showing the spores of the fungus in position." -Whitney, 1911

Scab Fungus

"The Scab-fungus (Venturia inaequalis). a, an infested apple, showing scabs caused by the fungus; b,…

"1. Spore-case of Lycopodium denticulatum opened; 2. antheridium; 3. spore." -Lindley, 1853

Ground Pine

"1. Spore-case of Lycopodium denticulatum opened; 2. antheridium; 3. spore." -Lindley, 1853

This is the leaf of the common fern, or brake. On the back of the leaf are spores.

Fern Leaf

This is the leaf of the common fern, or brake. On the back of the leaf are spores.

Two of the asci and contained double spores, quite like those of a Lichen

Lichen

Two of the asci and contained double spores, quite like those of a Lichen

"It is not unusual to fine a decayed spot in the center of potatoes otherwise apparently in good condition. A microscopic examination a portion of the diseased part will show that the decay commenced where the vascular bundles concentrate. At that point the air is in greater volume than elsewhere. Although these mineral acids and caustic alkalies dissolve starch granuals, they do not affect the cellulose cells which contain the starch. When such spots are exposed to the atmosphere the fungus blue-mold forms on the surface. This disease, therefore, has not relation to potato-rot, as ordinarily understood. f represents the mycelium (roots) of blue-mold, Penicillium glaucum, and G that of potato-rot, Peronospora infestans." -Watts, 1874

Potato diseases at a microscopic level

"It is not unusual to fine a decayed spot in the center of potatoes otherwise apparently in good condition.…

"Grinnellia Americana. a, structure of the leaf; b, vertical section of a conceptacle, showing the chains of spores." -Whitney, 1911

Marine Red Algae

"Grinnellia Americana. a, structure of the leaf; b, vertical section of a conceptacle, showing the chains…

Also known as Puccinia graminis. This fungus is a significant detriment to cereal crops. It is currently spreading across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. This image depicts a a spore of the fungus germinating and producing Sporidia on the tips of small stalks.

Stem Rust

Also known as Puccinia graminis. This fungus is a significant detriment to cereal crops. It is currently…

Magnified section of a spore-case with some spores.

Spore-Case

Magnified section of a spore-case with some spores.

An image of spores.

Spores

An image of spores.

Spores germinating.

Spores

Spores germinating.

An illustration of the liberation of Cyclospora Cayetanensis spores.

Liberation of Spores

An illustration of the liberation of Cyclospora Cayetanensis spores.

An infected grain.

Tilletia

An infected grain.

Section of the infected grain enlarged.

Tilletia

Section of the infected grain enlarged.

An enlargement of spores.

Tilletia

An enlargement of spores.

An individual spore.

Tilletia

An individual spore.

A germinating spore.

Tilletia

A germinating spore.

Secondary conjugating spores.

Tilletia

Secondary conjugating spores.

Secondary spores.

Tilletia

Secondary spores.

Secondary producing Tertiary Spores.

Tilletia

Secondary producing Tertiary Spores.

Tertiary Spores germinating.

Tilletia

Tertiary Spores germinating.