"This hygrometer consists of two thermometers a and b similar to each other in all respects except that one of them has a piece of muslin tied closely over the surface of its bulb c, and kept constantly wet by a few threads of cotton which connect it with the water in the vessel d. the water then which rises from the vessel by capillary attraction spreads over the muslin, and evaporates from its surface with more or less rapidity according to the dryness or moistness of the air; and the greater the dryness of the air the greater is the difference between the observed readings of the dry and the wet thermometers." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Bulb Hygrometer

"This hygrometer consists of two thermometers a and b similar to each other in all respects except that…

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but uniform bore, the lower end of which dips into colored water." — Avery, 1895

Glass bulb

"An air thermometer consists essentially of a large glass bulb at the upper end of a tube of small but…

"Various methods have been devised for measuring electrostatic quantity, one of the simplest of which is with the Kinnersley electrical air-thermometer. When a spark passes between the balls within the larger tube, the confined air is expanded, and the liquid column in the smaller communicating tube rises, and thus approximately indicates the quantity of the charge." — Avery, 1895

Kinnersley electrical air-thermometer

"Various methods have been devised for measuring electrostatic quantity, one of the simplest of which…

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck of a funnel. Cover the thermometer bulb to the depth of about half an inch with water. Upon the water, pour a little sulphuric ether and ignite it. The thermometer below will scarcely be affected, although the water above may be boiling. Stir the water and note the prompt movement of the thermometer index..." -Avery 1895

Funnel with Inverted Mercury Thermometer

"Pass the tube of an air thermometer or of an inverted mercury thermometer through a cork in the neck…

A device used for measuring the intensity of the heat of the sun.

Pyrheliometer

A device used for measuring the intensity of the heat of the sun.

"About two feet away from an air thermometer, place an inverted flower pot. Midway between the two, place a board or glass screen that reaches from the table to a height of several inches above teh bulb of the air theremometer. Upon the flower pot, place a very hot brick. Notice that the heat of the brick has little effect upon the thermometer. Then hold a sheet of tin plate over the screen so that energy radianted obliquely upward from the brick may be reflected obliquely downward toward the thermometer. By properly adjusting the position of the reflector, the thermometer may be quickly affected." -Avery 1895

Heat Reflection

"About two feet away from an air thermometer, place an inverted flower pot. Midway between the two,…

"It consists of a glass tube or capsule A, having on the bottom and a little way up a highly polished silver surface, and closed by a cork with two holes. through one of these holes the stem of a thermometer B passes, having its bulb at the bottom of the silvered capsule, and the other end may, if desired, be connected with an aspirator or air-pump. In making an observation as much either is introduced into the capsule A as will cover the bulb of the thermometer, and then by transmitting air through the tube C the ether vapor is withdrawn from the capsule A through another tube D." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Regnaults Hygrometer

"It consists of a glass tube or capsule A, having on the bottom and a little way up a highly polished…

A Centigrade and Fahrenheit thermometer side by side

Thermometer

A Centigrade and Fahrenheit thermometer side by side

An instrument for measuring temperature, founded on the principal that changes of temperature in bodies are accompanied by proportional changes in their volume of dimensions.

Thermometer

An instrument for measuring temperature, founded on the principal that changes of temperature in bodies…

"Thermometer bulb and stem." — Waldo, 1896

Thermometer

"Thermometer bulb and stem." — Waldo, 1896

"A bulb of liquid is placed in the base of the glass graduated tube. As temperature increases, the volume of the liquid increases and it expands up the tube where its level is read on the graduated scale." —Quackenbos 1859

Thermometer

"A bulb of liquid is placed in the base of the glass graduated tube. As temperature increases, the volume…

A thermometer showing both Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales.

Thermometer

A thermometer showing both Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales.

"Stevenson's louvre-boarded box for the thermometers, which is now very widely used for temperature observations. The box is made of wood, and louvred all round so as to protect the thermometers inside from radiation, and at the same time secure as free a circulation of air as is consistent with a satisfactory protection from radiation. The box is painted white, both inside and outside, and screwed to four stout wooden posts, also painted white, firmly fixed in the ground. The posts are of such a length that when the thermometers are hung in position the bulbs of the minimum thermometer and hygrometer are exactly at the same height of 4 feet above the ground, the maximum thermometer being hung immediately above the minimum thermometer." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Thermometer Box

"Stevenson's louvre-boarded box for the thermometers, which is now very widely used for temperature…

"Used to compare the temperature between two environments. As the temperature in one bulb increases, the liquid reading changes according to the air expanding within the bulb. If both bulbs are the same temperature, the scale measures zero." —Quackenbos 1859

Differential Thermometer

"Used to compare the temperature between two environments. As the temperature in one bulb increases,…

"Mercurial thermometer." — Waldo, 1896

Mercurial thermometer

"Mercurial thermometer." — Waldo, 1896

Blank Celsius Lab Thermometer

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

Blank Celsius Lab Thermometer

0 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

0 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-1 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-1 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-2 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-2 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-3 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-3 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-4 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-4 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-5 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-5 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-6 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-6 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-7 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-7 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-8 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-8 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-9 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-9 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-10 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-10 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-11 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-11 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-12 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-12 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-13 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-13 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-14 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-14 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-15 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-15 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-16 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-16 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-17 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-17 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-18 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-18 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-19 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-19 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

-20 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

-20 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

1 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

1 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

2 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

2 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

3 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

3 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

4 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

4 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

5 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

5 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

6 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

6 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

7 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

7 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

8 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

8 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

9 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

9 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

10 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

10 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

11 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

11 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

12 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

12 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

13 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

13 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

14 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

14 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

15 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

15 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

16 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

16 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

17 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

17 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

18 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

18 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

19 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

19 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

20 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

20 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

21 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

21 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

22 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

22 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

23 Degrees Celsius Centigrade

Celsius Centigrade Lab Thermometers

23 Degrees Celsius Centigrade