Vertical section of canine tooth to illustrate the various parts and structures.

Structure of Canine Tooth

Vertical section of canine tooth to illustrate the various parts and structures.

Sagittal section of canine tooth in situ.

Sagittal Section of Canine

Sagittal section of canine tooth in situ.

Canine teeth of left side, labiial (A) and lateral (B) aspects. C, temporary canines.

Temporary Canine

Canine teeth of left side, labiial (A) and lateral (B) aspects. C, temporary canines.

Transverse section of root of lower canine tooth.

Transverse Section of Root of Canine

Transverse section of root of lower canine tooth.

Vertical transverse section of the dental sac and pulp of a kitten. Labels: a, dental papilla or pulp; b, the cap of dentine formed upon the summit; c, its covering of enamel; d, inner layer of epithelium of the enamel organ; e, gelatinous tissue; f, outer epithelial layer of the enamel organ; g, inner layer, and h, outer layer of dental sac.

Dental Sac and Pulp

Vertical transverse section of the dental sac and pulp of a kitten. Labels: a, dental papilla or pulp;…

Section of a portion of the dentine and cement from the middle of the root of an incisor tooth. Labels: a, dental tubuli ramifying and terminating, some of them in the interglobular spaces b and c, which somewhat resemble bone lacunae; d, inner layer of the cement with numerous closely set canaliculi; e, outer later of cement; f, lacunae; g, canaliculi.

Dentine and Cement

Section of a portion of the dentine and cement from the middle of the root of an incisor tooth. Labels:…

Part of section of developing tooth of a young rat, showing the mode of deposition of the dentine. Labels: a, outer layer of fully formed dentine; b, uncalcified matrix with one or two nodules of calcareous matter near the calcified parts; c, odontoblasts sending processes into the dentine; d, pulp; e, fusiform or wedge-shape cells found between odontoblasts; f, stellate cells of pulp in fibrous connective tissue. The section is stained in carmine, which colors the uncalcified matrix, but not the calcified part.

Deposition of Dentine

Part of section of developing tooth of a young rat, showing the mode of deposition of the dentine. Labels:…

Enamel fibers. A, fragments and single fibers of the transversely striated enamel, isolated by the action of hydrochloric acid. B, surface of a small fragment of enamel, showing the hexagonal ends of the fibers with the darker centers, or not so high calcified.

Enamel Fibers

Enamel fibers. A, fragments and single fibers of the transversely striated enamel, isolated by the action…

Enamel prisms. A, Fragments and single fibers of the enamel isolated by the action of hydrochloric acid; B, Surface of a small fragment of enamel, showing the hexagonal ends of the fibers.

Enamel Prisms

Enamel prisms. A, Fragments and single fibers of the enamel isolated by the action of hydrochloric acid;…

Longitudinal section of enamel, treated with acid, showing disposition of ranges of enamel prisms (p, p') in striped of Schreger. Left third of figure shows alternative light(s) and dark (s') bands as seen by reflected light.

Longitudinal Section of Enamel

Longitudinal section of enamel, treated with acid, showing disposition of ranges of enamel prisms (p,…

"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." — Goodrich, 1844

Egyptian flax-comb

"The following is a figure of a hatchel or flax-comb." — Goodrich, 1844

"Side view of second upper molar tooth of Anchitherium (brachyodont form)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horse Molar

"Side view of second upper molar tooth of Anchitherium (brachyodont form)." — Encyclopedia Britannica,…

"Corresponding tooth of horse (hypsidont form)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horse Molar

"Corresponding tooth of horse (hypsidont form)." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

"Side view of skull of horse, with the bone removed so as to expose the whole of the teeth. PMx, premaxilla; Mx, maxilla; Na, nasal bone; Ma, malar bone; L, lacrymal bone; Fr, frontal bone; Sq, squamosal bone; Pa, parietal bone; oc, occipital condyle; pp, paroccipital process; i, the three incisor teeth; c, the canine tooth; pm1, the situation of the rudimentary first premolar, which has been lost in the lower, but is present in the upper jaw; pm2, pm3, and pm4, the three fully-developed premolar teeth; m, the three true molar teeth." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Horse Skull

"Side view of skull of horse, with the bone removed so as to expose the whole of the teeth. PMx, premaxilla;…

"Dentition of Hyaenodon leptorhynchus. The posterior molar is concealed behind the penultimate tooth." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Hyaenodon Leptorhynchus

"Dentition of Hyaenodon leptorhynchus. The posterior molar is concealed behind the penultimate tooth."…

Median incisor teeth of left side labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

Median Incisor Teeth

Median incisor teeth of left side labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

Temporary incisor teeth of left side. A, median; B, lateral incisors.

Temporary Incisor

Temporary incisor teeth of left side. A, median; B, lateral incisors.

Unworn surfaces of upper and lower permanent incisor teeth, lingual aspect.

Unworn Incisor

Unworn surfaces of upper and lower permanent incisor teeth, lingual aspect.

Horizontal section through both the upper and lower jaws to show the roots of the teeth. The sections were carried through the bones a short distance from the edge of their alveolar borders. The upper figure shows the upper teeth, the lower figure the lower teeth. Note the flattened roots of the lower incisors, the two root canals in the anterior root of each lower molar, and the confluence of the three roots of the upper wisdom teeth.

Jaw Showing Roots of Teeth

Horizontal section through both the upper and lower jaws to show the roots of the teeth. The sections…

Right half of lower jaw, with the corresponding teeth. The letters and numbers point to the various cusps or their modifications on the different teeth.

Lower Jaw with Teeth

Right half of lower jaw, with the corresponding teeth. The letters and numbers point to the various…

Right half of upper jaw (from below), with the corresponding teeth. The letters and numbers point to the classes of teeth and the numbers in classes.

Upper Jaw with Teeth

Right half of upper jaw (from below), with the corresponding teeth. The letters and numbers point to…

Lower jawbone with the teeth.

The lower jaw

Lower jawbone with the teeth.

The inner aspect of the right superior maxilla.

Inner Aspect of Superior Maxilla

The inner aspect of the right superior maxilla.

Ossification of superior maxilla. A, outer side. B, inner side. C, under side. Labels: a, nasal process; b, orbital plate; c, anterior nasal spine; d, infraorbital groove; e, infraorbital foramen; f, anterior palatine groove; g, palatal process; h, premaxillary suture; i, alveolar process.

Ossification of Superior Maxilla

Ossification of superior maxilla. A, outer side. B, inner side. C, under side. Labels: a, nasal process;…

An outer view of the right superior maxilla.

Outer View of Superior Maxilla

An outer view of the right superior maxilla.

The lower maxillary bone, including the bottom set of teeth.

Maxillary

The lower maxillary bone, including the bottom set of teeth.

The molar teeth of a human, horse and dog. The first image to the left in a molar tooth of a horse. Labels: 1, The enamel. 2, The ivory. 3, Canals for blood vessels. The center image is a molar tooth of a human. Label: 1, The enamel. 2, The ivory. 3, The cavity containing blood vessels. 4, 5, Artery and nerve. The image on the right is a molar tooth of a dog. Labels: 1, The enamel. 2, The ivory. 3, Cavity for blood-vessels.

Comparison of the Molar Teeth of a Human, Horse, and Dog

The molar teeth of a human, horse and dog. The first image to the left in a molar tooth of a horse.…

Second molar teeth to the left side, labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

Second Molar

Second molar teeth to the left side, labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

Longitudinal section (A) and transverse section (B) of a human molar tooth. Labels: c, cement; d, dentine; e, enamel; v, pulp cavity

Structure of a Molar

Longitudinal section (A) and transverse section (B) of a human molar tooth. Labels: c, cement; d, dentine;…

Triturating surfaces of molar teeth of right side. The upper margin of the figures corresponds to the labial surface.

Surface of Molar

Triturating surfaces of molar teeth of right side. The upper margin of the figures corresponds to the…

Vertical section of a molar tooth. Labels: a, enamel of the crown, the line of which indicate the arrangement of its columns; b, dentine; c,cement; d, pulp cavity.

Vertical Section of a Molar

Vertical section of a molar tooth. Labels: a, enamel of the crown, the line of which indicate the arrangement…

A colt's nippers at five years of age (side view)

Nippers at five years

A colt's nippers at five years of age (side view)

Side view of a colt's nippers at seven years of age.

Nippers at seven years

Side view of a colt's nippers at seven years of age.

Side view of a colt's nippers at six years of age.

Nippers at six years

Side view of a colt's nippers at six years of age.

Side view of the nippers of an old horse.

Nippers of an Old Horse

Side view of the nippers of an old horse.

A colt's lower nippers at eight years.

Lower nippers at eight years

A colt's lower nippers at eight years.

Lower nippers of a colt at five years of age.

Lower nippers at five years

Lower nippers of a colt at five years of age.

The lower nippers of a colt at four years.

Lower nippers at four years

The lower nippers of a colt at four years.

Lower nippers of a colt at six years of age.

Lower nippers at six years

Lower nippers of a colt at six years of age.

The lower nippers of a colt at three years of age.

Lower nippers at three years

The lower nippers of a colt at three years of age.

The lower nippers of a colt two years old.

Lower nippers at two years

The lower nippers of a colt two years old.

Lower nippers of an old horse.

Lower Nippers of an Old Horse

Lower nippers of an old horse.

A premolar tooth of a cat.

Premolar of a Cat

A premolar tooth of a cat.

First premolar teeth of left side, labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

First Premolar

First premolar teeth of left side, labial (A) and lateral (B) aspects.

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling a cord wound upon its axis. Set such a wheel in rapid motion and hold the edge of a card against its teeth. As the speed of the wheel diminishes, the shrill tone produced by the rapid vibrations of the card correspondingly falls in pitch." — Avery, 1895

Savart wheel

"The Savart wheel consists of a heavy metal toothed wheel that may be put in rapid revolution by pulling…

Full permanent set of teeth, seen in front.

Teeth

Full permanent set of teeth, seen in front.

To show the relation of the upper to the lower teeth when the mouth is closed. The manner in which a tooth of one row usually strikes against two teeth of the opposite row, and the resulting interlocking of the teeth, is to be noted.

Teeth

To show the relation of the upper to the lower teeth when the mouth is closed. The manner in which a…

1. Dentition (teeth) of man. 2. Dentition of hyena. 3. Dentition of pig. 4. Dentition of Patagonian cavy (type of rodent). 5. Section of skull of Indian elephant, showing dentition of right side. 6. Crown of upper molar of horse, showing enamal folds. 7. Grinding surface of molar of African elephant, with enamal folds. 8. Single tooth of blue shark. 9. Longitudinal section of human tooth. 1. Incisors (human); C, canines; P, premolars; M, molars. a, enamel; b, dentine; c, cement (crusta petrosa); d, pulp cavity.

Teeth of Man and Several Animal Species

1. Dentition (teeth) of man. 2. Dentition of hyena. 3. Dentition of pig. 4. Dentition of Patagonian…

The adult teeth. Labels: 1, 2, The cutting teeth (incisors). 3, Eyetooth (cuspid). 4,5, Small grinders (bicuspids). 6, 7, 8, Grinders (molars). 9, 9, Neck of the tooth.

The Adult Teeth

The adult teeth. Labels: 1, 2, The cutting teeth (incisors). 3, Eyetooth (cuspid). 4,5, Small grinders…

Well formed jaws, from which the alveolar plate has been removed to expose the developing permanent teeth in their crypt in the jaws.

Development of Permanent Teeth

Well formed jaws, from which the alveolar plate has been removed to expose the developing permanent…

A horse's mouth at eight years old.

Eight Year Old Horse Teeth

A horse's mouth at eight years old.

The teeth of a 6 and a half year old child. Label: I, the incisors; O, the canine; M, the molars; the last molar is the first permanent teeth; F, sacs of the permanent incisors; C, of the canine; B, of the bicuspids; N, of the second molar; the sac of the third molar is empty.

Emergence of Adult Teeth

The teeth of a 6 and a half year old child. Label: I, the incisors; O, the canine; M, the molars; the…

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it and developed from the dermis or true skin. True teeth consist of one, two, or more tissues differing in their chemical composition and in their microscopical appearances. Dentine, which forms the body of the tooth, and 'cement,' which forms its outer crust, are always present, the third tissue, the 'enamel,' when present, being situated between the dentine and cement. The incisors, or cutting teeth, are situated in front. In men there are two of these incisors in each side of each jaw. The permanent incisors, molars, and premolars are preceded by a set of deciduous or milk teeth, which are lost before maturity, and replaced by the permanent ones. The canines come next to the incisors. In man there is one canine tooth in each half-jaw. The premolars (known also as bicuspids and false molars) come next in order to the canines. In man there are two premolars in each half-jaw. The true molars (or multicuspids) are placed most posteriorly. In man there are three molars in each half-jaw, the posterior one being termed the wisdom tooth. The figures [in the illustration] refer to months after birth."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

First Teeth

"A Tooth is one of the hard bodies of the mouth, attached to the skeleton, but not forming part of it…

A horse's mouth at five years old.

Five Year Old Horse Teeth

A horse's mouth at five years old.

A horse's mouth at five years old.

Five Year Old Horse Teeth

A horse's mouth at five years old.

A horse's mouth at four and a half years old.

Four and a Half Year Old Horse Teeth

A horse's mouth at four and a half years old.

Incisor and canine teeth of a horse. A, front, B, lateral, and C, corner incisor; D, canine teeth.

Incisor and Canine Horse Teeth

Incisor and canine teeth of a horse. A, front, B, lateral, and C, corner incisor; D, canine teeth.

The lower permanent teeth, viewed from above.

Lower Permanent Teeth

The lower permanent teeth, viewed from above.

Teeth from a very old horse. The right tush has fallen out.

Old Horse Teeth

Teeth from a very old horse. The right tush has fallen out.

The permanent teeth of the right side. The numbers show at what age they appear. Labels: a, incisors; b, canines; c, premolars; d, molars.

Permanent Teeth

The permanent teeth of the right side. The numbers show at what age they appear. Labels: a, incisors;…