The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular than usual. Both the liver and caecum extend lower down than normal. The subdivisions of the abdominal cavity are indicated by dark lines.

Abdomen Laid Open After Removal of Jejunum and Ileum

The abdomen viscera after the removal of the jejunum and ileum. The transverse colon is much more regular…

The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left lobe at this age should be noted.

Abdomen of Fetus

The abdominal and thoracic viscera of a five months fetus. The large liver and large size if its left…

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and extends on the left side to the ribs, where it was folded back on itself for over an inch. The pyloric end of the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum are quite superficial below the liver, and all the viscera are displaced downwards.

Abdomen Showing Displacement Caused by Corset

Abdomen of female showing displacement resulting from tight lacing. The liver is much enlarged, and…

The muscles of the abdomen, showing the semilunar fold of Douglas. Viewed from in front.

Muscles of the Abdomen

The muscles of the abdomen, showing the semilunar fold of Douglas. Viewed from in front.

The transversalis, rectus, and pyramidalis muscles.

Muscles of the Abdomen

The transversalis, rectus, and pyramidalis muscles.

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level of foramen of Winslow. B, lower down. In A note, one of the vasa brevia arteris passing to the stomach between the layers of the gastrosplenic omentum, and also the foramen of Winslow leading into the lesser sac which lies behind the stomach.

Transverse Section of Abdomen

Diagrammatic transverse section of abdomen, to show the peritoneum on transverse tracing. A, at level…

A transverse section of the abdomen in the lumbar region showing abdominal muscles.

Transverse Section of the Abdomen

A transverse section of the abdomen in the lumbar region showing abdominal muscles.

"In human anatomy, certain regions into which the abdomen is arbitrarily divided for the purpose of mapping its surface with reference to the viscera which lie beneath these reions respectively."-Wright, 1902

Abdominal

"In human anatomy, certain regions into which the abdomen is arbitrarily divided for the purpose of…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small intestine.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, stomach; 4, large intestine; 5, small…

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver turned up; 2, gall bladder; 3, right kidney; 4, spleen; 5, left kidney.

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver; 2, gall bladder; 3, spleen; 4, pancreas.

Abdominal Organs

Abdominal organs. Labels: 1, liver; 2, gall bladder; 3, spleen; 4, pancreas.

Showing the average position of the abdominal viscera with their surface markings. Labels: A, sterno-ensiform point; A', sterno-ensiform line; B, mid-epigastric point; B', mid-epigastric or transpyloric line; C, umbilical point; C', umbilical line; D, mid-hypogastric point; D', mid-hypogastric line; E, outer border of the right and left rectus abdominis; F, Monro's point- on the right spino-umbilical line at the outer border of the rectus abdomninis.

Abdominal Region

Showing the average position of the abdominal viscera with their surface markings. Labels: A, sterno-ensiform…

View of the posterior abdominal wall to show the muscles and the nerves of the lumbo sacral plexus.

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

View of the posterior abdominal wall to show the muscles and the nerves of the lumbo sacral plexus.

Muscles of the back. On the left side is exposed the first layer; on the right side, the second layer and part of the third.

Back Muscles

Muscles of the back. On the left side is exposed the first layer; on the right side, the second layer…

Deep layers of the muscles of the back.

Back Muscles

Deep layers of the muscles of the back.

Deep muscles of the back.

Deep Back Muscles

Deep muscles of the back.

The superficial muscles of the back.

Superficial Muscles of the Back

The superficial muscles of the back.

A side view of the chest and abdomen in respiration. Labels: 1, The cavity of the chest. 2, The cavity of the abdomen. 3, The line of direction for the diaphragm when relaxed in expiration. 4, The line of direction for the diaphragm when contracted in inspiration. 5, 6, The position of the front walls of the chest and abdomen in inspiration. 7, 8, The position of the front walls of the abdomen and chest in expiration.

A Side View of the Chest and Abdomen in Respiration

A side view of the chest and abdomen in respiration. Labels: 1, The cavity of the chest. 2, The cavity…

A diagram showing the separate abdominal and chest cavities.

Chest and Abdominal Cavity

A diagram showing the separate abdominal and chest cavities.

A corset is a woman's close fitting foundation garment.

Corset Strip

A corset is a woman's close fitting foundation garment.

Torso of the Statue known as Venus of Melos (left) and New York Fashion, 1898 (right). "Since abdomen and chest alternately expand and contract in healthy breathing, anything which impedes their free movement is to be avoided. The tight lacing which is still indulged [in 1900] by those who think a distorted form beautiful, seriously impedes one of the most important functions of the body, and leads not only to shortness of breath and an incapacity for muscular exertion, but in many cases to actual deformity or disease." — Newell, 1900.

Effect of Corset use on Respiration

Torso of the Statue known as Venus of Melos (left) and New York Fashion, 1898 (right). "Since abdomen…

Torso of the Statue known as Venus of Melos (left) and New York Fashion, 1898 (right). "Since abdomen and chest alternately expand and contract in healthy breathing, anything which impedes their free movement is to be avoided. The tight lacing which is still indulged [in 1900] by those who think a distorted form beautiful, seriously impedes one of the most important functions of the body, and leads not only to shortness of breath and an incapacity for muscular exertion, but in many cases to actual deformity or disease." — Newell, 1900.

Effect of Corset use on Respiration

Torso of the Statue known as Venus of Melos (left) and New York Fashion, 1898 (right). "Since abdomen…

The distribution of cutaneous nerves n the back of the trunk. On the left side the distribution of the several nerves is represented, the letters indicating their nomenclature. ACR.; Posterior supraclavicular branches from cervical plexus; CIRC: Cutaneous branches of axillary nerve; E.C.: Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, L.1: Lateral cutaneous branch of iliohypogastric nerve; S.1; Lateral branches of sacral nerves; T: T.1-12: Cutaneous branches of the posterior rami of the thoracic nerves. On the right side is a schematic representation of the areas supplied by the above nerves, the numeral and letter s indicate the spinal origins of the nerves distributed to each area.

Posterior View of the Cutaneous Nerves of Trunk

The distribution of cutaneous nerves n the back of the trunk. On the left side the distribution of the…

The distribution of the cutaneous nerves on the back of the trunk. On one side the distribution of the several nerves is represented, the letters indicating their nomenclature. Labels: G.O (C.2), great occipital; C.3, least occipital; T.1, et seq., posterior primary division of thoracic nerves; L.1, et seq., posterior primary divisions of first three lumbar nerves; S.1, et seq., posterior primary division of sacral nerves; Acr, acromial branches from cervical plexus; T.2-12, lateral branches of nerve; E.C, external cutaneous nerve; S.Sc, small sciatic nerve. One the other side a schematic representation is given of the areas supplied by the above nerves, the numeral indicating the spinal origin of the branches of distribution to each area.

Distribution of Cutaneous Nerves on the Back

The distribution of the cutaneous nerves on the back of the trunk. On one side the distribution of the…

A sculpture with a head or torso above a plain lower section.

An Archaic Herm

A sculpture with a head or torso above a plain lower section.

An incision in the right side above the kidney, showing a typical surgical approach to this organ, exposing the peritoneum and showing relations of abdominal muscles and fasciae.

Surgical Incision to the Kidney

An incision in the right side above the kidney, showing a typical surgical approach to this organ, exposing…

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion of deltoid, the external oblique, aponeurosis of the internal oblique, tensor fasciae latae, sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, pectineus, adductor longus and the gracilis muscles of the left side have been cut away to expose the underlying muscles. Anterior View.

Anterior View of the Muscles of the Trunk

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, anterior portion…

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The latissimus dorsi and trapezius on the right side have been cut away to expose the underlying muscles. Posterior View.

Posterior View of the Muscles of the Trunk

Superficial and deep muscles of the trunk. The latissimus dorsi and trapezius on the right side have…

The external oblique muscles

External Oblique Muscles

The external oblique muscles

The internal oblique muscles

Internal Oblique Muscles

The internal oblique muscles

The chief organs of the body from the side. Labels: a, arch of the aorta or main artery of the trunk; c, large intestine; d, diaphragm; e, throat; g, lung; k, kidney; l, spinal cord within the back bone; m, main artery divided to go to h legs; n, pancreas; o, gullet; s, spleen; tr, wind pipe; t, main vein of body; ap, appendix.

View of Organs from the Side

The chief organs of the body from the side. Labels: a, arch of the aorta or main artery of the trunk;…

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

Section of Pancreas

Section of human pancreas, showing pancreatic islands.

The trunk showing ribs.

Ribs

The trunk showing ribs.

Lymphatics and lymphatic glands on the left side of the body and shoulder.

Lymphatics of the Shoulder

Lymphatics and lymphatic glands on the left side of the body and shoulder.

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

Spleen, Liver, and Kidneys

Dissection of the spleen, liver, and kidneys from behind.

A diagram of the thoracic and abdominal regions. Labels: A, aortic valve; M, mitral valve; p, pulmonary valve; tricuspid valve.

Diagram of Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

A diagram of the thoracic and abdominal regions. Labels: A, aortic valve; M, mitral valve; p, pulmonary…

Diagram of the thoracic and abdominal regions. Labels: A, aortic valve; P, pulmonary valve; M, mitral valve; T, tricuspid valve.

Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

Diagram of the thoracic and abdominal regions. Labels: A, aortic valve; P, pulmonary valve; M, mitral…

The thorax consists of the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

Bony Walls of the Thorax

The thorax consists of the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

Lateral, sagittal section through the left thorax and upper portion of abdomen, viewed from the left. The plane of the section lies 4 cm to the left of the median plane.

Side View of the Thorax and Part of the Abdomen

Lateral, sagittal section through the left thorax and upper portion of abdomen, viewed from the left.…

The human torso. Labels: A, the heart; B, the lungs drawn aside to show the internal organs; C, the diaphragm; D, the liver; E, the gall cyst; F, the stomach; G, the small intestines; H, the transverse colon.

Torso

The human torso. Labels: A, the heart; B, the lungs drawn aside to show the internal organs; C, the…

Section through the pelvis immediately above the pubic symphysis.

Cross Section of the Trunk above Pubic Symphysis

Section through the pelvis immediately above the pubic symphysis.

Section immediately above the manubrium sterni.

Cross Section of the Trunk above the Manubrium Sterni

Section immediately above the manubrium sterni.

Section through the abdomen, an inch and a half above the umbilicus. The liver is unusually large in this individual.

Cross Section of the Trunk Above Umbilicus

Section through the abdomen, an inch and a half above the umbilicus. The liver is unusually large in…

Section through the pelvis at the level of the first sacral vertebra.

Cross Section of the Trunk at First Sacral Vertebra

Section through the pelvis at the level of the first sacral vertebra.

Section at the level of the junction of the manubrium and corpus sterni, exposing the great vessels at the base of the heart.

Cross Section of the Trunk at the Level of Junction of the Manubrium

Section at the level of the junction of the manubrium and corpus sterni, exposing the great vessels…

Section through the neck immediately above the shoulders.

Cross Section Through the Trunk at the Neck

Section through the neck immediately above the shoulders.

Section through the thyroid gland and the upper borders of the shoulders.

Cross Section Through the Trunk at the Shoulders

Section through the thyroid gland and the upper borders of the shoulders.

Section through the abdomen immediately below the umbilicus and the superior iliac crest.

Cross Section of the Trunk Below Umbilicus

Section through the abdomen immediately below the umbilicus and the superior iliac crest.

Section exposing the ventricles of the heart.

Cross Section of the Trunk Exposing the Ventricles of the Heart

Section exposing the ventricles of the heart.

Diagram of the relations of the large intestine and kidneys, from behind.

Trunk Showing Organs of Digestion

Diagram of the relations of the large intestine and kidneys, from behind.

Section passes through the lower portion of the costal arch, and through the hilus of the two kidneys.

Cross Section of the Trunk through Costal Arch

Section passes through the lower portion of the costal arch, and through the hilus of the two kidneys.

Section through first lumbar vertebra and one inch below ensiform process.

Cross Section of the Trunk through the First Lumbar Vertebra

Section through first lumbar vertebra and one inch below ensiform process.

Section through the body of the liver at the level of the arch of the seventh rib anteriorly.

Cross Section of the Trunk through the Liver

Section through the body of the liver at the level of the arch of the seventh rib anteriorly.

Section through the third lumbar vertebra and the inferior poles of the kidneys cutting the loop of the transverse colon. Upper surface. The liver is unusually large in this individual.

Cross Section of the Trunk through Third Lumbar Vertebra

Section through the third lumbar vertebra and the inferior poles of the kidneys cutting the loop of…

Section through the upper pole of the left kidney at the level of the tip of the xiphoid process.

Cross Section of the Trunk through Upper Kidney

Section through the upper pole of the left kidney at the level of the tip of the xiphoid process.

Section through the inferior portion of the heart, exposing the dome of the diaphragm on the right side.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Inferior Portion of the Heart

Section through the inferior portion of the heart, exposing the dome of the diaphragm on the right side.

Section through the aortic valves.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Aortic Valve

Section through the aortic valves.

Section through the liver and stomach, at the level of the xiphoid process.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Liver and Stomach

Section through the liver and stomach, at the level of the xiphoid process.

Section through the humeral heads and the apices of the lungs.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Lungs

Section through the humeral heads and the apices of the lungs.

Section through middle of manubrium sterni.

Cross Section of the Trunk Through the Manubrium Sterni

Section through middle of manubrium sterni.