"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

Diagram showing mountains and valleys due to block faulting in the background, and the dissection of the blocks and filling of the valleys, in the foreground. A stage of maturity has been reached in the development of these mountains.

Block Faulting Results

Diagram showing mountains and valleys due to block faulting in the background, and the dissection of…

True Bravery, the American Army at Valley Forge in 1777. Caption below illustration: "After mentioning the reason which induced him not to accept the challenge, he applied a large hand-grenade to the candle, and when the fuse had caught fire, threw it on the floor, saying, 'Here gentlemen, this will quickly determine which of us all bare brave danger most.'"

True Bravery

True Bravery, the American Army at Valley Forge in 1777. Caption below illustration: "After mentioning…

"Section of a Limestone Cavern...A limestone hill, perforated by a cavern (b b) which communicates with the valley (v) by an opening (a). The bottom of the cavern is covered with ossiferous loam, above which lies a layer of stalagmite (d d), while stalactites hang from the roof, and by joining the floor separate the cavern into two chambers." -Geikie, 1893

Limestone Cavern

"Section of a Limestone Cavern...A limestone hill, perforated by a cavern (b b) which communicates with…

"Section of a Limestone Cavern with fallen-in roof and concealed entrance." -Geikie, 1893

Limestone Cavern

"Section of a Limestone Cavern with fallen-in roof and concealed entrance." -Geikie, 1893

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village, capital of Harrison County, is situated on the west fork of the Monongahela River, at the mouth of Elk Creek, about two hundred and twenty miles northwest of Richmond. It is built on a high tableland environed by hills. It had in 1861 several churches, academies, two printing offices and many fine stores. Stove coal abounded in its vicinity. The Northwestern Railroad, a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio, passed through it. It has about two thousand inhabitants. For a short time Clarksburg was the headquarters of General Rosecrans. The situation was briefly this: The Cheat Mountain Gaps, the key to the whole country, were held by a strong force, a portion of General Reynolds's brigade, the remainder of which was stationed at Bevery, Huttonsville, and in that vicinity. Other portions of General Rosecrans's command were scattered over almost the whole northwestern part of Virginia, guarding the railroad lines from Wheeling and Parkersburg down to Grafton, and then eastward through the Cheat River country, Oakland, Altamont, and almost to Cumberland, occupying the Kanawha Valley by General Cox's brigade, and holding towns like Weston, Buckhannon, Summerville, Philippi and Bealington." —Leslie, 1896

Village of Clarksburg

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village,…

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village, capital of Harrison County, is situated on the west fork of the Monongahela River, at the mouth of Elk Creek, about two hundred and twenty miles northwest of Richmond. It is built on a high tableland environed by hills. It had in 1861 several churches, academies, two printing offices and many fine stores. Stove coal abounded in its vicinity. The Northwestern Railroad, a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio, passed through it. It has about two thousand inhabitants. For a short time Clarksburg was the headquarters of General Rosecrans. The situation was briefly this: The Cheat Mountain Gaps, the key to the whole country, were held by a strong force, a portion of General Reynolds's brigade, the remainder of which was stationed at Bevery, Huttonsville, and in that vicinity. Other portions of General Rosecrans's command were scattered over almost the whole northwestern part of Virginia, guarding the railroad lines from Wheeling and Parkersburg down to Grafton, and then eastward through the Cheat River country, Oakland, Altamont, and almost to Cumberland, occupying the Kanawha Valley by General Cox's brigade, and holding towns like Weston, Buckhannon, Summerville, Philippi and Bealington." —Leslie, 1896

Village of Clarksburg

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village,…

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village, capital of Harrison County, is situated on the west fork of the Monongahela River, at the mouth of Elk Creek, about two hundred and twenty miles northwest of Richmond. It is built on a high tableland environed by hills. It had in 1861 several churches, academies, two printing offices and many fine stores. Stove coal abounded in its vicinity. The Northwestern Railroad, a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio, passed through it. It has about two thousand inhabitants. For a short time Clarksburg was the headquarters of General Rosecrans. The situation was briefly this: The Cheat Mountain Gaps, the key to the whole country, were held by a strong force, a portion of General Reynolds's brigade, the remainder of which was stationed at Bevery, Huttonsville, and in that vicinity. Other portions of General Rosecrans's command were scattered over almost the whole northwestern part of Virginia, guarding the railroad lines from Wheeling and Parkersburg down to Grafton, and then eastward through the Cheat River country, Oakland, Altamont, and almost to Cumberland, occupying the Kanawha Valley by General Cox's brigade, and holding towns like Weston, Buckhannon, Summerville, Philippi and Bealington." —Leslie, 1896

Village of Clarksburg

"Village of Clarksburg, Western Virginia, headquarters of General Rosecrans. Clarksburg, a post village,…

"Confederate position near Centreville, Va., at the crossing of the Orange and Alexandria Railway over Bull Run, showing Confederate encampment, fortifications, etc. Our illustration of the Confederate position near Centreville, the scene of the first battle of Bull Run, cannot fail to interest our readers. The advance of the Federal army into Virginia is thus described by our correspondent: 'About noon Generals McClellan and McDowell, with their staffs, and two thousand cavalry for an escort, came up and took the road to Manassas. All along, to the left of the road, was one continuous string of huts, tents and forts, all empty now. The tree-tops bear the evidence of the way the shot and shell flew around. Large limbs were cut off, and tree-tops twisted in a hundred directions, as though struck by lightning."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Confederate Position

"Confederate position near Centreville, Va., at the crossing of the Orange and Alexandria Railway over…

"Battle of Cross Keys, Sunday June 8th, 1862- centre and front of the Federal army in the engagement. We illustrated the opening of this battle on page 159, and now add a sketch of the centre and front of the Federal army in the engagement, described by our correspondent, as follows: "General Melroy had the centre, and pressed steadily forward from the ground where he first took position, planting his guns each time nearer the enemy's batteries. His artillery delivered its fire with a precision truly remarkable. The ground where the enemy's guns were planted was furrowed with our shot and shell as with a plow, and where one battery stood I counted twelve dead horses. General Melroy's infantry deployed through the woods, taking advantage of a deep gully to cross a wheatfield, where they were exposed, and charged gallantly up the hill, where one of the opposing batteries was planted, cutting down the gunners with their fire. Had they been supported they would have captured a battery. They made the crest of the hill too hot to hold on the part of the enemy, and held their position until recalled." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cross Keys

"Battle of Cross Keys, Sunday June 8th, 1862- centre and front of the Federal army in the engagement.…

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." —Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." —Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A desperate and disastrous action occurred on the banks of the Potomac, at Dam No. 4. General Butterfield's brigade, consisting of the Forty-fourth New York, Seventeenth New York, Eighteenth Massachusetts and One Hundred and Eighteenth Pennsylvania, were ordered to make a reconnoissance on the Virginia side. Crossing over at Dam No. 4, which is about six miles northwest in a straight line from Sharpsburg, and eight south from Williamsport, they had hardly landed when a most murderous fire was opened upon them from an entire division of the Confederate army, every volley of which told, as they had the Federals completely under range. The Federals made a desperate resistance, but they were compelled to retire before superior numbers, and retreated in moderate order across the river." —Leslie, 1896

Battle at Dam No. 4

"Battle at Dam No. 4, Potomac River, between Butterfield's brigade and a large Confederate force. A…

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the fracture has moved with respect to the rock on the other side.

Fault Line Valley

A fault line valley. A fault line, is a planar fracture in rock in which the rock on one side of the…

"A reconnoitring detachment of General Banks's cavalry, Hyattstown, Md., in the distance. There are few sights more picturesque than a detachment of cavalry winding along the road to some quiet little village. Nature and man seem then so little in harmony that the contradiction becomes strikingly attractive. Our illustration represents a scene of this kind- a detachment of Federal cavalry, sent by order of General Banks, reconnoitring in the neighborhood of Hyattstown, a post village of Montgomery County, Md., and situated on Bennett's Creek, about thirty-six miles to the northwest of Washington." —Leslie, 1896

Cavalry of General Banks

"A reconnoitring detachment of General Banks's cavalry, Hyattstown, Md., in the distance. There are…

Diagram to illustrate the relationship of main and tributary glaciers. The surfaces of the two glaciers are in accord, but the valley of the main glacier is deepened much below that of the tributary glacier.

Glaciers

Diagram to illustrate the relationship of main and tributary glaciers. The surfaces of the two glaciers…

Landscape with rainbow and sheep.

Landscape

Landscape with rainbow and sheep.

Valley of the Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland. A typical U-shaped glaciated valley.

Lauterbrunnen

Valley of the Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland. A typical U-shaped glaciated valley.

Diagrammatic section of the Marjelen Lake, the Aletsch Glacier which holds it and the valley of the Viesch into which it drains when full.

Marjelen Lake

Diagrammatic section of the Marjelen Lake, the Aletsch Glacier which holds it and the valley of the…

In the valley glaciers, the rock fragments falling upon the ice from the valley sides, or sliding down in avalanches, accumulate upon the side of the ice, and as the glacier moves a long, such accumulations are strung out in lines of drift along the margin. This constitutes a lateral moraine.

Lateral Moraine

In the valley glaciers, the rock fragments falling upon the ice from the valley sides, or sliding down…

Where two glacial streams unite, their adjoining lateral moraines become confluent and are continued as a medial moraine.

Medial Moraine

Where two glacial streams unite, their adjoining lateral moraines become confluent and are continued…

Diagram showing the junction of the Oatka and Dale Valleys near Warsaw. The Dale is a hanging valley on the side of the over-deepened Oatka.

Oatka and Dale Valleys

Diagram showing the junction of the Oatka and Dale Valleys near Warsaw. The Dale is a hanging valley…

Old Parsonage and Church. This view is from the high plain on the right of the block-house, looking north. The building upon the hill across the ravine is the old parsonage, which was immediately built upon the ruins of the one that was burned. On the left I have placed a church in its proper relative position to the parsonage, as indicated by Mr. Lipe. It was about half a mile northwest of the fort. On the right are seen the Mohawk River and Plain, a train of cars in the distance, and the hills that bound the view on the north side of the Mohawk Valley, in the direction of Stone Arabia and Klock's Field, where two battles were fought in 1780. These will be hereafter noticed.

Old Parsonage and Church

Old Parsonage and Church. This view is from the high plain on the right of the block-house, looking…

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite Edward's Ferry, October 22nd, 1861- battery of Parrott Guns on the Maryland shore. Early in the evening the news of the death of Colonel Baker, and of the presence of an overwhelming Confederate force on the opposite bank, reached Edward's Ferry, and at once orders were given for bringing back to the Maryland shore the troops which had been passed in the scows, etc., during the day. This was effected by the same means, occupying until midnight. At this time word was received at Edward's Ferry that General Banks was approaching with his column to support the movement of the day, and immediately the same troops, which had crossed and recrossed, were again sent across the river in the same scows. Give hundred feet of fortifications were thrown up to support the lodgment, with only a slight brush with a detachment of Confederates, in which General Lander was wounded. During the night, Tuesday, October 22nd, the full epressing news of Baker's disaster became known, and the whistle of the Leesburg railway, bringing up Confederate re-enforcements from Manassas, sounded constantly in the ears of the Federals. On Tuesday morning, however, General McClellan had arrived at Edward's Ferry, and both with reference to further advance or a retreat, as circumstances might justify or require, ordered a bridge of boats to be thrown across the river. He, however, received such intelligence on Wednesday of the number and designs of the Confederates, that he resolved to withdraw the Federal forces from the Virginia side, which was effected silently and safely on the same night. Our engraving illustrates the position of the Federal troops on the Virginia shore, on Tuesday, during the attack in which General Lander was wounded." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle at Potomac

"Engagement between the Federal troops and the Confederates on the Virginia side of the Potomac, opposite…

"Cross section of Marsh Creek valley at McCammon, Idaho." -Lee, 1915

Rock Layers Showing Types of Rock

"Cross section of Marsh Creek valley at McCammon, Idaho." -Lee, 1915

Roger's Rock. This sketch is from the lake, a little south of Cook's Point, seen just over the boat on the left. Immediately beyond is seen the smooth rock. Nearly opposite the 'slide' is Anthony's Nose, a high, rocky promontory, having the appearance of a human nose in shape when viewed from a particular point.

Roger's Rock

Roger's Rock. This sketch is from the lake, a little south of Cook's Point, seen just over the boat…

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the Crossing of the Shenandoah River, Tuesday, June 3rd, 1862. As soon as colonel Pilson could bring up his guns they were unlimbered on either side of the road and opened on the Confederate batteries. Beyond the river stretched a broad plain, the further end of which sloped gradually up into an irregular eminence, along which the enemy had placed its artillery on its further side, and in the neighboring woods its troops were quietly encamped, out of range, and with the Shenandoah River in their rear were safe for the night, as they supposed. It was soon found that the distance was too great for the guns. Colonel Albert, chief of staff, was in advance, and reconnoitring the position, with a soldier's eye saw that the river bent suddenly half a mile beyond the bridge, and sent Schirmer's battery to a hill on this side, which flanked the confederate camp, and at once forced them to withdraw to a more secure position." —Leslie, 1896

Crossing of Shenandoah River

"Colonel Pilson's Battery shelling the rear guard of the Confederate General Jackson's Army, at the…

"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General Bayard, previous to its occupation by General Fremont." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"Reconnoissance of the Confederate poistion at Strasburg, VA., by a detachment of cavalry under General…

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General Banks, March 25th, 1862.  Towns which had hitherto remained buried in obscurity and pleasant foilage were suddenly converted into places of national importance. Strasburg, through whose rural streets the resounding tramp of two hostile armies had passed, was a post village of Shenandoah County, Va., on the north fork of Shenandoah River and on the Manassas Gap Railroad, eighteen miles southwest of Winchester. It had three churches and a population of about eight hundred persons. It was occupied by General Banks's division of th Federal army immediately after the battle of Winchester." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General…

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General Banks, March 25th, 1862.  Towns which had hitherto remained buried in obscurity and pleasant foilage were suddenly converted into places of national importance. Strasburg, through whose rural streets the resounding tramp of two hostile armies had passed, was a post village of Shenandoah County, Va., on the north fork of Shenandoah River and on the Manassas Gap Railroad, eighteen miles southwest of Winchester. It had three churches and a population of about eight hundred persons. It was occupied by General Banks's division of th Federal army immediately after the battle of Winchester." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General…

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General Banks, March 25th, 1862.  Towns which had hitherto remained buried in obscurity and pleasant foilage were suddenly converted into places of national importance. Strasburg, through whose rural streets the resounding tramp of two hostile armies had passed, was a post village of Shenandoah County, Va., on the north fork of Shenandoah River and on the Manassas Gap Railroad, eighteen miles southwest of Winchester. It had three churches and a population of about eight hundred persons. It was occupied by General Banks's division of th Federal army immediately after the battle of Winchester." —Leslie, 1896

Strasburg

"View of the town of Strasburg, valley of the Shenandoah, occupied by the Federal forces under General…

An image of what a regular valley would look like if it were cut to make a plateau and lowlands.

Valley

An image of what a regular valley would look like if it were cut to make a plateau and lowlands.