"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle grounds of New Jersey. This picture is of Runyon's aid-de-camp, Captain James B. mulligan, of Elizabeth, N. J." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Aid-de-camp

"New Jersey Camp at Arling, Va., designated as Camp Princeton in honor of one of the Revolutionary battle…

The Siege of Alicant, Spain in 1709. Caption bellow illustration: "The mine at last blew up; the rock opened and shut; the whole mountain felt convulsion, the governor and field officers, with their company, ten guns, and two mortars, were buried in the Abyss."

The Siege of Alicant

The Siege of Alicant, Spain in 1709. Caption bellow illustration: "The mine at last blew up; the rock…

General Abercrombie was commander of the troops in the French and Indian War.

General Ambercrombie

General Abercrombie was commander of the troops in the French and Indian War.

An illustration of America's organization for war as in 1944.

America's Organization for War (1944)

An illustration of America's organization for war as in 1944.

"Armor-piercing shells are projectiles so constructed as to bore through the metallic plates with which modern ships of war are coated."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Armor-Piercing Shell

"Armor-piercing shells are projectiles so constructed as to bore through the metallic plates with which…

"Armor-piercing shells are projectiles so constructed as to bore through the metallic plates with which modern ships of war are coated."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Armor-Piercing Shell

"Armor-piercing shells are projectiles so constructed as to bore through the metallic plates with which…

A type of monetary instrument used during the French Revolution.

An Assignat

A type of monetary instrument used during the French Revolution.

A depiction of two soldiers fighting for Assyria, using bow and arrows against their enemies.

Assyrian Soldiers Fighting

A depiction of two soldiers fighting for Assyria, using bow and arrows against their enemies.

An image of the divinity whom the Phoenicians worshipped as Astarte, or the goddess associated with fertility, sexuality, and war.

Nana, The Phoenician Astarte

An image of the divinity whom the Phoenicians worshipped as Astarte, or the goddess associated with…

The Greek goddess of wisdom, strategy, and war.

Athena

The Greek goddess of wisdom, strategy, and war.

Showing the Battle for Atlanta, which Sherman won for the Union during the Civil War.

Battle of Atlanta

Showing the Battle for Atlanta, which Sherman won for the Union during the Civil War.

Attack on the Narraganset Indians at South Kingston by the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Attack on the Narraganset Indians at South Kingston

Attack on the Narraganset Indians at South Kingston by the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

"General Augur, born in New York in 1821, was graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1843. During the Mexican War he served as aid-de-camp to General Hopping, and after his death to General Caleb Cushing. He was promoted captain, August 1st, 1852, and served with distinction in a campaign against the Indians in Oregon in 1856. On May 14th, 1861, he was appointed major in the Thirteenth Infantry, and was for a time commandant of cadets at West Point. In November of that year he was commissioned a brigadier general of volunteers, and joined McDowell's corps. In July, 1862, he was assigned to a division under Banks, and in the battle of Cedar Mountain was severely wounded. He was promoted major general of volunteers, August 9th, 1862, and in November joined his corps and took part in the Louisiana campaign. He was breveted brigadier-general in the United States Army, March 13th, 1865, receiving on the same date the brevet of major-general for services in the field during the rebellion." —Leslie, 1896

General Christopher C. Augur

"General Augur, born in New York in 1821, was graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1843.…

"General Averill, born in Cameron, Steuben County, N. Y., November 5th, 1832, was graduated at the United States Military Academy in June, 1855, and assigned to the mounted riflemen. He was promoted to be first lieutenant of the mounted riflemen, May 14th, 1861, and was on staff duty in the neighborhood of Washington, participating in the battle of Bull Run and other engagements, until August 23rd, 1861, when he was appointed colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry. He was engaged with the Army of the Potomac in its most important campaigns. In March, 1863, he began the series of cavalry raids in Western Virginia that made his name famous. His services were continuous up to May, 1865, whn he resigned, having been brevetted major general in the meantime." — Frank Leslie, 1896

General W. W. Averill

"General Averill, born in Cameron, Steuben County, N. Y., November 5th, 1832, was graduated at the United…

"[African American] drivers of the baggage train attached to General Pleasonton's Cavalry brigade watering their mules in the Rappahannock. General Pleasonton's cavalry was attended by a very efficient forage brigade, consisting of mules and [African American] riders. Our sketch represents their drivers taking them to water at the river. The hard work these animals will endure is something wonderful, and justifies the high estimation in which they are held in the army." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Baggage train

"[African American] drivers of the baggage train attached to General Pleasonton's Cavalry brigade watering…

"General Banks's headquarters near Edward's Ferry, Md." —Leslie, 1896

Headquarters of Banks

"General Banks's headquarters near Edward's Ferry, Md." —Leslie, 1896

This painting was done by Frans Hals. It is an important piece from the military collection by the artist. The piece was painted in 1633.

Banquet of the Officers of the Civic Guard

This painting was done by Frans Hals. It is an important piece from the military collection by the artist.…

"The Bouquet Battery, commanding the viaduct over the Patapsco River, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, near the Relay House, in 1861. The Relay House was a small railroad station about seven miles from Baltimore, on the Northern Central Railroad. It was of small population and trade, but its position elevated it into considerable importance. Immediately after the troubles in Baltimore this position was seized upon, and General Butler made it his headquarters, and by so doing not only held the control of the railrod to Harper's Ferry and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Patapsco River, but threatened the city of Baltimore with a strong military force. The Relay House was romantically situated in a country of exquisite natural beauty. Our sketch shows the battery stationed to command the viaduct, with the Relay House in the distance." —Leslie, 1896

Bouquet Battery

"The Bouquet Battery, commanding the viaduct over the Patapsco River, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,…

A modern battle scene

Battle

A modern battle scene

An illustration of a battle in 1861.

Battle

An illustration of a battle in 1861.

"In the Brave Days of Old." —Bulfinch, 1897

Roman battle

"In the Brave Days of Old." —Bulfinch, 1897

"General Bayard, born in Seneca Falls, N. Y., December 18th 1835, died December 14th, 1862, was graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1856. He was assigned to the First Cavalry. Four years were passed in frontier and garrison duty. He was severely wounded in a fight with the Kiowa Indians. In 1861 he was promoted to first lieutenant in Third Cavalry; captain, Fourth Cavalry, August 20th; and was granted leave of absence to become colonel of the First Pennsylvania Cavalry Volunteers, September 14th, 1861. He became brigadier general of volunteers, April 28th, 1862, and served in the arduous campaigns of the Shenandoah, Northern Virginia, and on the Rappahannock, distinguishing himself by the dash and bravery of his reconnoissances. He was mortally wounded at Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862, and died the following day. He was buried with military honors at Princeton, N. J." —Leslie, 1896

General George D. Bayard

"General Bayard, born in Seneca Falls, N. Y., December 18th 1835, died December 14th, 1862, was graduated…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great Kanawha. Bellaire is a town situated on the Ohio River, three miles below Wheeling, Va. It is the eastern terminus of the Central Ohio Railroad, and the point for crossing the river connecting the Baltimore and Ohio with the above-named railroad. The place contained a population of fifteen hundred or two thousand inhabitants in 1861. Its importance was owing to its eligible position for the rapid concentration of troops. The sketch represents a fleet of boats lying in the river awaiting the quoata of troops and munitions for the prosecution of the war on the Great Kanawha. At this date, 1896, two weekly newspapers are published here. It has two banks, two churches, also manufactures of window-glass and flintware, nails, pig iron, galvanized ware and agricultural machines. The city is lighted with gas, and has waterworks and a street railway. Coal, limestone and fire-clay abound here. Population, about ten thousand." —Leslie, 1896

Bellaire

"Bellaire, O.- Steamboats conveying troops and munitions of war for the Federal forces on the Great…

"General Berry, born in Thomaston (now Rockland), Me., August 27th, 1824, died at Chancellorsville, Va., May 2nd, 1863. He originated and commanded for several years the Rockland Guard, a volunteer company, which attained a very high reputation for drill and discipline. At the beginning of the Civil War he entered the service as colonel of the Fourth Maine Infantry. He took part in the battle of Bull Run and the siege of Yorktown, was made a brigadier general, April 4th, 1862, and was given command of the Third Brigade of the Third Division of Heintzelman's Third Army Corps. He was present at the battles of Williamsburg and Fair Oaks, bore a conspicuous part in the Seven Days' fight, and was in the second Bull Run campaign and Chantilly. In January, 1863, he was nominated by the President as major general of volunteers, with rank dating from November 29th, 1862, confirmed by the Senate on March 9th, 1863, and placed in command of the Second Division of the Third Army Corps, succeeding General Sickles. At the battle of Chancellorsville he headed one of his brigades in several successful bayonet charges, and in one of them was killed by a shot from the enemy." —Leslie, 1896

General Hiram G. Berry

"General Berry, born in Thomaston (now Rockland), Me., August 27th, 1824, died at Chancellorsville,…

"Burning of the American merchantman "Harvey Birch," of New York, Captain Nelson, in the British Channel, by the Confederate Steamer "Nashville," Captain Peagrim, November 17th, 1861. On the 17th of November, 1861, the "Harvey Birch," a splendid New York vessel of 1,480 tons and valued at $150,000, was on her way from Havre to New York in ballast, commanded by Captain Nelson, with officers and crew, all told, twenty-nine men. In latitude 49.6 north, longitude 9.52 west, she was brought to by the Confederate steamer "Nashville," and boarded by an officer and boat's crew, who took the crew of the "Birch" on board the "Nashville," robbed the vessel of everything valuable, and then set fire to it, the commander, Peagrim, watching her destruction from his own deck." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Harvey Birch

"Burning of the American merchantman "Harvey Birch," of New York, Captain Nelson, in the British Channel,…

"The victory at Blue Ridge Pass, Sunday, September 14th, 1862- infantry charge, and rout of the Confederates. On Sunday, September 14th, 1862, having previously evacuated Frederick City, the rear of the Confederate army had reached the Blue Ridge Pass, on the line of the Federal road leading from Frederick City to Hagerstown and the fords of the Upper Potomac. Here it was overtaken by the Federal advance under Generals Hooker and Reno. The position was a strong one, and strongly guarded, but was carried after a severe action by the Federal forces, the Confederates falling back in disorder. In this engagement General Reno was killed on the Federal side, and General Garland on that of the Confederates." —Leslie, 1896

Blue Ridge Pass

"The victory at Blue Ridge Pass, Sunday, September 14th, 1862- infantry charge, and rout of the Confederates.…

The Seal of The Board of War in 1779.

Board of War

The Seal of The Board of War in 1779.

"Represents two forms of the bow; the upper, the Scythian or Parthian bow enstrung, agreeing with the form of that now used by the Tartars, the lower, the ordinary bow, like the one mentioned in the text." — Anthon, 1891

Ancient bows

"Represents two forms of the bow; the upper, the Scythian or Parthian bow enstrung, agreeing with the…

General Braddock was commander-in-chief of the British and colonial forces.

Braddock

General Braddock was commander-in-chief of the British and colonial forces.

"General Brannan, born in the District of Columbia in 1819, was graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1841, and stationed at Plattsburg, N. Y., in 1841-'42. During the Mexican War he was first lieutenant in the First Artillery. He took part in the battles of Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, La Hoya, Contreras and Churubusco, and for gallant and meritorious conduct was brevetted captain on August 28th, 1847. During the next fourteen years he performed much arduous service on the frontier, and from 1856 till 1858 took a gallant part in the campaign against the Seminoles. On September 28th, 1861, he was promoted to be brigadier general of volunteers, serving in the far South until January 24th, 1863. On October 10th, 1863, he became chief of artillery of the Department of the Cumberland, and held that position till June 25th, 1865. On March 13th, 1865, he was brevetted brigadier general in the regular army for his part in the capture of Atlanta, and major general for gallant and meritorious services during the war." —Leslie, 1896

General John M. Brannan

"General Brannan, born in the District of Columbia in 1819, was graduated from the United States Military…

"Advance of the Federal troops, near Howard's Bridge and Mill, four miles from Big Bethel, on the road to Yorktown." —Leslie, 1896

Howard's Bridge and Mill

"Advance of the Federal troops, near Howard's Bridge and Mill, four miles from Big Bethel, on the road…

"The Confederate forces under General Jackson advancing upon the Rapphannock Station at the river. Federal batteries replying to the Confederate artillery, August 23rd, 1862, being the commencement of the battles ending at Bull Run, August 30th. Our correspondent reported as follows: "The fight was opened by our batteries in front of the hill and woods on the centre and left. It was immediately replid to by the enemy's batteries in the orchard and along the crest of the hill, about three-quarters of a mile distant. After the artillery fighting had lasted some time, our infantry attacked the enemy's left flank. The fighting, however, was very severe. Huge columns of yellow smoke rolled up from the roads. The faint rattle and roll of distant musketry came across the open fields, interrupted occasionally by the boom of a heavy gun. Meanwhile, the enemy was making a very serious attempt to turn our left. Part of General McDowell's corps was sent to drive them back. They moved in solid column across the field from the right, while the enemy in overpowering force was pushing our small number back. The fighting was terriblly fierce at this point, the enemy throwing all their force on this flank. Our men retired across the field in the foreground and into the woods. On the right the enemy was driven from its position." —Leslie, 1896

Commencement of Bull Run

"The Confederate forces under General Jackson advancing upon the Rapphannock Station at the river. Federal…

"Burnside Expedition- the fleet and transports off Hatteras during the storm- the general giving orders. Never had any expedition in the history of the world to pass through a severer ordeal; everything seemed to conspire against it- nature with her storms, and human nature with her villainy. In addition to the warring elements there was the subtle treachery of Northern traitors who deliberately periled the lives of thousands for the sake of gain. Compared to such men as the New York contractors whom the gallant Burnside anathematized in the bitterness of his heart even Judas Isacriot becomes human. Our correspondent wrote that one of the most exciting scenes during this trying crisis was when, off Hatteras, General Burnside sprang up the rigging of the vessel to give his directions." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Burnside Expedition

"Burnside Expedition- the fleet and transports off Hatteras during the storm- the general giving orders.…

"The Burnside Expedition- melancholy deaths of Colonel J. W. Allen, Surgeon Waller and the Second Mate of the <em>Ann E. Thompson</em>, on January 15th, 1862, near Hatteras Inlet." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Burnside Expedition

"The Burnside Expedition- melancholy deaths of Colonel J. W. Allen, Surgeon Waller and the Second Mate…

"Traveling in state"- General Burnside on the road from New Berne to Beaufort, N. C.

General Burnside

"Traveling in state"- General Burnside on the road from New Berne to Beaufort, N. C.

"General Butler was born in Deerfield, N. H., November 6th, 1818. At the time of President Lincoln's call for troops in April, 1861, he held the commission of brigadier general of militia. On the 17th of that month he marched to Annapolis with the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and was placed in command of the District of Annapolis, in which the city of Baltimore was included. On May 13th, 1861, he entered Baltimore at the head of 900 men, occupied the city without opposition, and on May 16th was made a major general and assigned to the command of Fortress Monroe and the Department of Eastern Virginia. In August he captured Forts Hatteras and Clark. He then returned to Massachusetts to recruit an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi. On March 23rd, 1862, the expedition reached Ship Island, and on April 17th went up the Mississippi. The fleet under Farragut having passed the forts, April 24th, and virtually capture New Orleans, General Butler took possession of the city on May 1st. Near the close of 1863 he was placed in command of the Army of the James. In December, 1864, he conducted an ineffectual expedition against Fort Fisher, and soon afterward was removed from command by General Grant. He died in Washington, D. C., January 11th, 1893." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

General Benjamin F. Butler

"General Butler was born in Deerfield, N. H., November 6th, 1818. At the time of President Lincoln's…

"All histories of England commence with the invasion of Julius Caesar, the earliest event in that quarter of which we have any authentic account. The Island of Britain was an unknown region to the Romans, and nearly so to the rest of mankind, at the period when Caesar's conquests had reduced the greater part of Gaul to the Roman government. Britain, lying within sight of the northern shores of Gaul, attracted his notice, and he began to meditate schemes of conquest." &mdash; Goodrich, 1844

Caesar in England

"All histories of England commence with the invasion of Julius Caesar, the earliest event in that quarter…

"Camp Dennison, sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on the banks of the Miami River, General Cox commanding- the Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus Railroad passed directly through the camp grounds. This camp, which was organized for a camp of instruction and drill, was situated about sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on a field of seventy-five acres, on the banks of the Miami River, surrounded by high bluffs. The Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus Railroad passed directly through the grounds, and this road was guarded for miles by sentries in order to watch bridges, telegraph wires and culverts, as spies were infesting the whole country. There were 18,000 men in camp, including the splendid Kentucky Regiment of Guthrie Grays, and quarters were erected for 20,000 men, who were soon on the ground. The tents were rough-board shanties, but were comfortable, and the officers had marquees erected in the rear of the regimental quarters. This brigade was under the command of General Cox, a West Point officer, and under the immediate supvervision of General George B. McClellan. It was in a beautiful location, and the troops were kept under a very strict surveillance, there being but few spectators allowed to visit the ground." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Camp Dennison

"Camp Dennison, sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on the banks of the Miami River, General Cox commanding-…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

An illustration of soldiers loading a cannon.

Cannon & Soldiers

An illustration of soldiers loading a cannon.

"Stuart's Confederate Cavalry, after their successful raid into Pennsylvania, escaping with their stolen horses into virginia by the lower fords of the Potomac, Sunday, October 12th 1862." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Stuart's Cavalry

"Stuart's Confederate Cavalry, after their successful raid into Pennsylvania, escaping with their stolen…

"Gordon's and Crawford's Brigades driving the Confederate forces from the woods at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9th, 1862. As soon as the order to advance was given the brigade moved forward, until it came to the open field, in perfect silence. As soon as it was clear from the woods, with a cheer that could have been heard all over the battle ground, it took the double-quick, and though at every step its ranks grew thinner from the murderous fire through which it passed, yet there was no faltering, no hesitancy; onward, across the field, up the slope and into and through the woods it went, until it met the second line of the enemy's overpowering forces. Forced at last to yield to overwhelming odds, it retired over the ground gained at such a frightful cost until it reached the cover from which it started. Here what remained held their position until the third brigade could come to its support. When exhausted, cut to pieces, its officers all gone, with no one to direct it, those who survived gathered as fast as thy could, and in the morning all that was left of that brigade was less than seven hundred men." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Gordon's and Crawford's Brigades driving the Confederate forces from the woods at the Battle of Cedar…

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9th, 1862- wounded men lying on the ground, McDowell's division marching on the field. The scene at night was very striking. It was past ten o'clock, and there was a bright moonlight and a clear blue sky. The Federal troops were on a rising ground, while the enemy's batteries were shelling from the woods, the Federal batteries replying, and one by one driving them further back. The hospital was near the Federal position, and wounded men wre lying on the ground, waiting their turn to receive surgical attention. Near them were groups of stragglers, ambulances, ammunition wagons, etc." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain,…

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by General Banks and the Confederate Army led by Generals Jackson, Ewell, Winder, etc.- final repulse of the Confederates. General Pope's report of the battle is as follows: "On Saturday, August 9th, 1862, the enemy advanced rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the sides of which they occupied in heavy force. General Banks was instructed to take up his position on the ground occupied by Crawford's brigade, of his command, which had been thrown out the day previous to observe the enemy's movements. He was directed not to advance beyond that point, and if attacked by the enemy to defend his position and send back timely notice. The artillery of the enemy was opened early in the afternoon, but he made no advance until nearly five o'clock, at which time a few skirmishers were thrown forward on each side under cover of the heavy wood in which his force was concealed. The enemy pushed forward a strong force in the rear of his skirmishers, and General Banks advanced to the attack. The engagement did not fairly open until after six o'clock, and for an hour and a half was furious and unceasing. I arrived personally on the field at 7 P.M., and found the action raging furiously. The infantry fire was incessant and severe. I found General Banks holding the position he took up early in the morning. His losses were heavy. Ricketts's division was immediately pushed forward and occupied the right of General Banks, the brigades of Crawford and Gordon being directed to change their position from the right and mass themselves in the centre. Before this change could be effected it was quite dark, though the artillery fire continued at short range without intermission. The artillery fire, at night, by the Second and Fifth Maine batteries in Ricketts's division of General McDowell's corps was most destructive, as was readily observable the next morning in the dead men and horses and broken gun carriages of the enemy's batteries which had been advanced against it. Our troops rested on their arms during the night in line of battle, the heavy shelling being kept up on both sides until midnight. At daylight the next morning the enemy fell back two miles from our front, and still higher up the mountain."" —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by…

An illustration of the ruins of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Chambersburg

An illustration of the ruins of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.

Assyrian war-chariot.

Chariot

Assyrian war-chariot.

Egyptian War-chariot

Chariot

Egyptian War-chariot

"Arms and a chariot are here assigned to June through not properly a warlike goddess. The idea itself, of giving such appendages to Diety, seems borrowed from the habits of the heroic age. The following delineation of a chariot is from an ancient one preserved in the Vatican; <em>Hoc regnum dea</em> etc." &mdash; Anthon, 1891

Chariot

"Arms and a chariot are here assigned to June through not properly a warlike goddess. The idea itself,…

"The stalwart character and aggressive bearing of the Assyrians were particularly shown in war. The same ferocity which they manifested in the pursuit and destruction of beasts they also exhibited in hunting men. The sculptures show that the feeling of the Assyrians towards the foe was one, not of hostility only, but of hatred and contempt."&mdash;Ridpath, 1885

Assyrian War Chariot

"The stalwart character and aggressive bearing of the Assyrians were particularly shown in war. The…

"In the battles, as depicted by Homer, the chiefs are the only important combatants, while the people are an almost useless mass, frequently put to rout by the prowess of a single hero. The chief is mounted in a war chariot, and stands by the side of his charioteer, who is frequently a friend." &mdash; Smith, 1882

Greek chariot

"In the battles, as depicted by Homer, the chiefs are the only important combatants, while the people…

A two wheeled car or vehicle used in various forms by the ancients in war, in processions, and for racing.

Greek Chariot

A two wheeled car or vehicle used in various forms by the ancients in war, in processions, and for racing.

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler, detaching itself from General Slocum's division and rushing to the support of the General Kearny's division, which had been driven back, thus turning the fortunes of the day, June 30th, 1862, six o'clock p.m." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Charles City

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler,…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…