A simple king-post roof.

King-post Roof

A simple king-post roof.

A simple m-roof.

Style M-Roof Type

A simple m-roof.

A simple queen-post roof.

Queen-post Roof

A simple queen-post roof.

"Fahlias and paeonies may be grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots of each kind respectively the best method of doing so being to cut a triangular section near the upper end of the root, just large enough to admit the young shoot when slightly pared away in two sides to give it a similar form." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Root-Grafting

"Fahlias and paeonies may be grafted by inserting young shoots into the neck of one of the fleshy roots…

"In the case of large woody plants thus worked the grafted roots, after the operation is completed, are planted in nursery beds, so that the upper buds only are exposed to the atmosphere, as shown at c in the figure." — Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Root-Grafting

"In the case of large woody plants thus worked the grafted roots, after the operation is completed,…

"Samson Killing the Lion. By Albrecht Dürer. From the wood engraving." -Heath, 1901

Samson Killing the Lion

"Samson Killing the Lion. By Albrecht Dürer. From the wood engraving." -Heath, 1901

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather, or wood, bound on the foot by thongs. It was undoubtedly the custom to take off the sandals on holy ground, in the act of worship, and in the presence of a superior. This is still the well-known custom of the East– an Oriental taking off his shoe in case in which a European would remove his hat."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sandal

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather,…

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather, or wood, bound on the foot by thongs. It was undoubtedly the custom to take off the sandals on holy ground, in the act of worship, and in the presence of a superior. This is still the well-known custom of the East– an Oriental taking off his shoe in case in which a European would remove his hat."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sandal

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather,…

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather, or wood, bound on the foot by thongs. It was undoubtedly the custom to take off the sandals on holy ground, in the act of worship, and in the presence of a superior. This is still the well-known custom of the East– an Oriental taking off his shoe in case in which a European would remove his hat."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sandal

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather,…

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather, or wood, bound on the foot by thongs. It was undoubtedly the custom to take off the sandals on holy ground, in the act of worship, and in the presence of a superior. This is still the well-known custom of the East– an Oriental taking off his shoe in case in which a European would remove his hat."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sandal

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather,…

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather, or wood, bound on the foot by thongs. It was undoubtedly the custom to take off the sandals on holy ground, in the act of worship, and in the presence of a superior. This is still the well-known custom of the East– an Oriental taking off his shoe in case in which a European would remove his hat."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Sandal

"The Sandal is a protection for the foot, worn in ancient times. It was usually a sole of hide, leather,…

"a. shank for fixing the implement to a bench; c. punch, hinged to a base b and e; and pressed upward by springs; h. screw-support for the back of the blade; d. gauge which may be adjusted for different-sized teeth. The blade is moved along to bring alternate teeth under the punch, which his struck with a hammer." —Whitney, 1889

Saw Set for a Work Bench

"a. shank for fixing the implement to a bench; c. punch, hinged to a base b and e; and pressed upward…

An illustration of a small hand saw.

Hand Saw

An illustration of a small hand saw.

A saw-set is an "instrument used to wrest or turn the teeth of saws alternately to the right left so that they may make a kerf somewhat wider than the thickness of the blade. Also called saw-wrest. b. anvil used for setting saws in saw-factories, the setting being performed by blows of the peculiarly shaped hammer; a. Every second tooth is set in one direction, and, the saw-blade being turned over, the intervening teeth are set in the reverse direction; c and d are notched levers by which in ordinary setting the alternate teeth are set in opposite directions." —Whitney, 1889

Collection of Saw-Sets

A saw-set is an "instrument used to wrest or turn the teeth of saws alternately to the right left so…

"On the continent of Europe the <em>Sirex gigas</em> often appears in immense numbers, and does great damage in this way." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Sawfly

"On the continent of Europe the Sirex gigas often appears in immense numbers, and does great…

A particular method of uniting two pieces of timber together by the extremities, the end of one being cut or notched so as to fit into the other, making the part where the junction takes place of the same thickness as the rest of the pieces of timber.

Scarfing Design

A particular method of uniting two pieces of timber together by the extremities, the end of one being…

"A tool used by cabinet-makers in dressing off and smoothing veneers, etc." &mdash;Whitney, 1889
<p>The illustration shows two scrapers working on the wood and shows the form of the edges.

Scrapers for Making Cabinets

"A tool used by cabinet-makers in dressing off and smoothing veneers, etc." —Whitney, 1889 The…

"A wood-working tool with a straight or a curved blade and with one or two handles, used to remove address-marks from packing boxes and in finishing fine woodwork. a. handles; b. blades; c. scraper" &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Collection of Wood Scrapers

"A wood-working tool with a straight or a curved blade and with one or two handles, used to remove address-marks…

"A screw is a cylinder, generally made of wood or metal, with a spiral ridge (the thread) winding about its circumfrence. The thread works in a nut, withihn which there is a corresponding spiral groove to receive the thread." -Avery 1895

Screw press

"A screw is a cylinder, generally made of wood or metal, with a spiral ridge (the thread) winding about…

"A conduit or canal constructed, especially in a town or city, to carry off superfluous, water, soil, and other matters; a public drain. A, B, C, D, E forms used in London, Paris, and other European cities; F, G, H, I, J, K, L, special forms used in New York and other American cities. F shows a method of repairing with tiles at the bottom of an oval sewer. G, tile-bottomed sewer. H, barrel sewer...of wood bound with iron. I, a form used for large sewers. J, section of pipe sewer. K, half section of sewer having section similar to B, but also provided with a spandrel. L, the aqueduct form, used for large sewers only, it rests on a bed of concrete." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Collection of Sewer Cross-Sections

"A conduit or canal constructed, especially in a town or city, to carry off superfluous, water, soil,…

"The ordinary sheet-metal shears merely resemble very powerful scissors, and, their action being quite local, they serve well for dividing the plates or other thin sheets for which alone they are suitable." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Sheet-metal Shears

"The ordinary sheet-metal shears merely resemble very powerful scissors, and, their action being quite…

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding. The operator should be provided with a budding-knife in which the cutting edge of the blade is rounded off at the point, and which has a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock. A horizonal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn downwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a. A bud is then cut by a clean incision from the tree intended to be propagated, having a portion of the wood attached to it, and so that the whole may be an inch and a half long, as at d." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Shield-Budding

"The simplest and most generally practised form of budding is that called Shield budding or T-budding.…

"c, a shingle; d, plain shingles laid on a roof." -Whitney, 1911

Shingles

"c, a shingle; d, plain shingles laid on a roof." -Whitney, 1911

Fancy cut shingles laid on a roof.

Shingles

Fancy cut shingles laid on a roof.

A bundle of wooden roof shingles for market.

Shingles

A bundle of wooden roof shingles for market.

"Frame of a vessel supported by shores." A shore is a "post or beam of timber or iron for the temporary support of something; a prop." -Whitney, 1911

Shores

"Frame of a vessel supported by shores." A shore is a "post or beam of timber or iron for the temporary…

With the plane, one can make rough wood true, smooth and beautiful. The name plane, perhaps, comes from the work it does, for it is used to smooth or reduce wood to a true plane.

Side Plane

With the plane, one can make rough wood true, smooth and beautiful. The name plane, perhaps, comes from…

A six-panelled door is used mostly in the construction of housing the uppermost pair of panels are termed the 'frieze' panels, the other panels being respectively 'middle' or 'bottom', according to their position, the horizontal frame members taking the names  of 'top rail', 'frieze rail', 'middle' or 'lock rail', and 'bottom rail'.

Six-Panelled Door

A six-panelled door is used mostly in the construction of housing the uppermost pair of panels are termed…

"A wooden runner, of tough wood, from five to ten feet long, an or an inch and a half thick at the middle, but thinner toward the ends, an inch wider than the shoe of the user, and turned up in a curve at the front." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Ski - Side and Bottom View

"A wooden runner, of tough wood, from five to ten feet long, an or an inch and a half thick at the middle,…

"A circular box used for covering and protecting a seal. Old documents were commonly sealed by means of a ribbon which passed through the parchment, and to which was affixed a large circular wax seal, not attached to the parchment itself, but hanging below its edge. The skippet used to protect such a seal was commonly turned of wood, like a shallow box, with a cover formed of a simple disk of wood held to the box by strings passed through eyelet-holes." -Whitney, 1889

Skippet - Open Box with a Seal Inside

"A circular box used for covering and protecting a seal. Old documents were commonly sealed by means…

"The slotting machine also cuts grooves and slots, but in an entirely different manner. Those who are acquainted with the wood mortising machine, from which the idea of this tool was derived by Roberts of Manchester, will at once understand its principle, and will appreciate the good service which can be rendered by this principle, and will appreciate the good service which can be rendered by this powerful pairing tool." &mdash;The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1903

Slotting Machine

"The slotting machine also cuts grooves and slots, but in an entirely different manner. Those who are…

"A contrivance attached to the foot to enable the wearer to walk on deep snow without sinking to the extent of being disabled...The Canadian is a contracted oval in front and pointed behind, and is from 3 to 5 feet long and from 1 to 2 feet wide, the foot being fastened on the widest part of the shoe by means of thongs and so as to leave the heel free. It has a light rim of tough wood, on which is woven from side to side a web of rawhide." &mdash;Whitney, 1889

Canadian Snow Shoe

"A contrivance attached to the foot to enable the wearer to walk on deep snow without sinking to the…

A man carrying firewood and dog walking leaving footprints in the snow. A cottage is seen in the distance. Bare winter trees are along the way.

Walking Through Snow

A man carrying firewood and dog walking leaving footprints in the snow. A cottage is seen in the distance.…

Somewhat aloof from human habitiation, the wood-sparrow can often be seen mingline with other sparrow and finches during the winter months.

Wood Sparrow

Somewhat aloof from human habitiation, the wood-sparrow can often be seen mingline with other sparrow…

A wooden hollow sphere created by using a lathe and wooden templet at a desired diameter.

Wooden Sphere

A wooden hollow sphere created by using a lathe and wooden templet at a desired diameter.

"This wedge has the shape of two inclined planes. Its primary function is splitting or rending objects that it is pressed into. The longer the wedge, the more effective it is." &mdash;Quackenbos 1859

Splitting Wedge

"This wedge has the shape of two inclined planes. Its primary function is splitting or rending objects…

An Egyptian carved wooden spoon with cover.

Carved Wooden Spoon with Cover

An Egyptian carved wooden spoon with cover.

The modern panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative…

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative…

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative…

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative…

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative effects.

Modern Square Panel

The modern square panel is a parquetry design of a geometric mosaic of wood pieces used for decorative…

The jewel case and stand is used to store jewelry. It is made out of New Zealand wood.

Jewel Case and Stand

The jewel case and stand is used to store jewelry. It is made out of New Zealand wood.

A plant stand made of wood.

Polding Plant Stand

A plant stand made of wood.

This walnut stippler brush is made from dark bristles of long-haired hogs. It is used to render small fine undergrainig found in some woods.

Walnut Stippler

This walnut stippler brush is made from dark bristles of long-haired hogs. It is used to render small…

"The wood-worker's main stand-by for boring is the stock or brace and set of bits." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Stock

"The wood-worker's main stand-by for boring is the stock or brace and set of bits." — Encyclopedia…

A stock used to tighten and loosen bolts.

Stock

A stock used to tighten and loosen bolts.

"G, G, garboard strakes; F, frame, K, keel. Nautical, the first range or strake of planks laid on a ship's bottom next the keel. Also called ground-strake." -Whitney, 1911

Garboard Strake

"G, G, garboard strakes; F, frame, K, keel. Nautical, the first range or strake of planks laid on a…

This table is made out of rosewood and locust tree wood. It is designed in a Venetian style, with massive scrolls that form its legs.

Table

This table is made out of rosewood and locust tree wood. It is designed in a Venetian style, with massive…

"The ordinary tail-vice used by mechanics has not yet been largely superseded, though many ingenious arrangements have been devised for remedying its main defect." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Tail-vice

"The ordinary tail-vice used by mechanics has not yet been largely superseded, though many ingenious…

"The targe of the Scottish Highlands, composed of wood and leather, and studded with brass decoratively applied, is a reversion to the early circular form."&mdash;Finley, 1917

Highland targe

"The targe of the Scottish Highlands, composed of wood and leather, and studded with brass decoratively…

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood, with decorated twisted threads.

Modern Tassel

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood,…

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood, with decorated twisted threads.

Modern Tassel

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood,…

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood, with decorated twisted threads.

Modern Tassel

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood,…

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood, with decorated twisted threads.

Modern Tassel

The modern tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood,…

The old standard tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of wood, with decorated twisted threads.

Old Standard Tassel

The old standard tassel consists of a tuft of threads or cords hanging straight down from a core of…

"Since the strength of the fibers in adhesion is very much less than in tension and compression, adhesion enters into nearly every test as an important factor. Thus, if a piece of wood consisting of several fibers is tested in tension, the fibers a and b would probably not break at all, but be merely pulled out, the failure, as far as they are concerned, being due to lack of adhesion and not to a lack of tensile strength. Every tension test presents numerous cases of this king, the broken fibers presenting no even fracture, but being splintered and drawn out especially if the wood is good."&mdash;Government Printing Office, 1897

Behavior of Fibers in Tension Test

"Since the strength of the fibers in adhesion is very much less than in tension and compression, adhesion…

The Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina, is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to other thrushes such as the American Robin and is widely distributed across North America, wintering in Central America and southern Mexico. The Wood Thrush is the official bird of the District of Columbia.

Wood Thrush

The Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina, is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to…

A small wheeled toy at the top of a small wooden incline.

Toy on ramp

A small wheeled toy at the top of a small wooden incline.