The Parts of a Bird Bill

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“Fig. 26 - Parts of a Bill. a, side of upper mandible; b, culmen; c, nasal fossa; d, nostril; e(see below); f, gape, or whole commissural line; g, rictus; h, commissural point or angle of the mouth; i, ramus of under jaw; j, tomia of under mandible (the reference lines e should have been drawn to indicate the correct tomia of upper mandible):k, angle of gonys; l, gonys; m, side of under mandible; n, tips of mandibles.” Elliot Coues, 1884


Bird Anatomy


Elliot Coues Key to North American Birds (Boston, MA: Estes and Lauriat, 1884)


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