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“Clangula albeola. Buffle-head. Butter-ball. spirit-duck. Dipper. Bill with nostrils rather behind than before its middle line. Adult male: Head particularly puffy with much lengthened feathers of lateral and and hind parts, splendidly various with purple-violet and green iridescence; a large snowy patch on each side behind eye, blending on nape with its fellow. Bill dull bluish with dusky nail and base. Eyes brown. Feet pale flesh-color, with blackish claws. Upper parts at large black, fading to grayish-white posteriorly. Lower neck all around, under parts at large, scapulars in part, nearly all the wing-coverts, and most of the secondaries, white. Outer scapulars white, edged with black; inner secondaries velvet-black; sides and sometimes across lower belly shaded with dusky; lining of wings mixed dusky and white. Female much smaller than male; head scarcely puffy, but a thin compressed nuchal elongation of the feathers; dusky gray, with trace at least of the white space of the male, and common a white touch under eye. Bill dusky; feet livid bluish-gray, with dusky webs. above at large dusky-gray or blackish, with white speculum on outer webs only five or six secondaries; below white, shaded into dark along sides and across fore-breast and lower belly.” Elliot Coues, 1884


Birds: A-B


Elliot Coues Key to North American Birds (Boston, MA: Estes and Lauriat, 1884)


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