Carotid Arteries of Birds

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“h, root of aorta; 1, arch of aorta, to the right side; li, left innominate; ri, innominate; ls, left subclavian; rs, right subclavian; lc, left carotid; rc, right carotid. Aves laevo-carotidinae, with left carotid only.” Elliot Coues, 1884


Bird Anatomy


Elliot Coues Key to North American Birds (Boston, MA: Estes and Lauriat, 1884)


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