James II of England
James II of England and Ireland, James VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) was King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Parliament of England deemed James to have abdicated on 11 December 1688. The Parliament of Scotland on 11 April 1689 declared him to have forfeited the throne. He was replaced not by his Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by Mary II and William III. William and Mary became joint rulers in 1689. Mary was the eldest daughter of James and a Protestant. William was both his nephew and son-in-law. James II made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689.