184 illustrations of birds including: wagtail, warbler, waxwing, weaver-bird, wheat-ear, whinchat, whippoorwill, widgeon, widow-bird, woodcock, woodlark, woodpecker, woodsnipe, wren, wrentits, wryneck, and yellow-throat

An illustration of warblers eating plant lice in a tree.

Warblers Eating Plant Lice

An illustration of warblers eating plant lice in a tree.

Fluvicola climacura is a watercap or water tyrant in the Tyrannidae family of tyrant flycatchers.

Water Tyrant

Fluvicola climacura is a watercap or water tyrant in the Tyrannidae family of tyrant flycatchers.

"The chief characteristic of the Water-en is a short and strong bill. They are lively, graceful and ornamental birds."

Water-Hen

"The chief characteristic of the Water-en is a short and strong bill. They are lively, graceful and…

This bohemian waxwing has more plumage than the typical Cedar waxwing of the U.S. Waxwings have a red patch on the wings that resemble red sealing wax, hence the name.

Waxwing

This bohemian waxwing has more plumage than the typical Cedar waxwing of the U.S. Waxwings have a red…

This bohemian waxwing has more plumage than the typical Cedar waxwing of the U.S. Waxwings have a red patch on the wings that resemble red sealing wax, hence the name.

Waxwing

This bohemian waxwing has more plumage than the typical Cedar waxwing of the U.S. Waxwings have a red…

Preferring a colder climate, the wax-wing feeds mostly on berries.

Waxwing

Preferring a colder climate, the wax-wing feeds mostly on berries.

"The Waxwing is an insessorial bird belonging to the dentirostral section of the order. It derives its names from the appendages attached to the secondary and tertiary quill feathers of the wings, which have the apperance of red sealing-wax. An American waxwing is the cedar bird."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Waxwing

"The Waxwing is an insessorial bird belonging to the dentirostral section of the order. It derives its…

A class of birds native to the United States and Europe, and so named from the secondary wing feathers being tipped with horny appendages resembling red or yellow sealing-wax.

Waxwing

A class of birds native to the United States and Europe, and so named from the secondary wing feathers…

"Both sexes of our irregular winter-visitor the Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus) are silky greyish-brown, with blackish wigs, and tail relieved by yellow and white; a black forehead, eye-stripe, and throat; chestnut under tail-coverts and basil margin of the erectile crest; and, in the adults, flattened wax-like tips to the shafts of the secondaries or even rectrices. The young are streaked below." A. H. Evans, 1900

One Waxwing Sitting on a Branch in the Forefront with Three Waxwings Sitting on Branches and Four Flying Around in the Background

"Both sexes of our irregular winter-visitor the Waxwing (Ampelis garrulus) are silky greyish-brown,…

"Ampelis garrulus. Bohemian Waxwing. General color brownish-ash, shading insensibly from the clear ash of the tail and its upper coverts and rump into a reddish-tinged ash anteriorly, this peculiar tint heightening on the head, especially on the forehead and sides of the head, into orange-brown. A narrow frontal line, and bordered with white. No yellowish on belly. Under tail-coverts orange-brown, or chestnut. Tail ash, deepening to blackish-ash toward the end broadly tipped with rich yellow. Wings ashy-blackish; primaries tipped (chiefly on the outer webs) with sharp spaces of yellow, or white, or both; secondaries with white spaces at the ends of the outer webs, the shafts usually ending with enlarged, horny, red appendages. Primary coverts tipped with white. Bill blackish-plumbeous, often paler at the base below; feet black." Elliot Coues, 1884

Bohemian Waxwing

"Ampelis garrulus. Bohemian Waxwing. General color brownish-ash, shading insensibly from the clear ash…

The Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) is a member of the family Bombycillidae or waxwing family of passerine birds. It breeds in open wooded areas in North America, principally southern Canada and the northern United States.

Cedar Waxwing

The Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) is a member of the family Bombycillidae or waxwing family of…

"Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. Carolina Waxwing. Cedar-bird. Cherry Bird. General color shading from clear pure ash on the upper tail-coverts and rump through olivaceous-cinnamon into a richer and somewhat purplish-cinnamon on the foreparts and head. On the under parts, the color shades through yellowish on the belly into white on the under tail-coverts. There is no demarcation of color whatever, and the tints are scarcely susceptible of adequate description. Frontlet, lores, and stripe through the eye, velvety-black; chin the same, soon shading into the color of the breast. A sharp white line on the side of the under jaw; a narrower one bordering the black frontlet and lores; lower eyelid white. quills of the wings slate-gray, blackening at the ends, paler along the edges of the inner webs; without white or yellow markings, as a rule; inner quills tipped with red horny appendages. Tail-feathers like the primaries, but tipped with yellow, and sometimes also showing red horny appendages. Bill plumbeous-black, sometimes paler at base; feet black." Elliot Coues, 1884

Cedar Waxwing

"Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. Carolina Waxwing. Cedar-bird. Cherry Bird. General color shading from…

A social weaver bird with its hive nest.

Weaver Bird

A social weaver bird with its hive nest.

"Pyromelaena flammiceps, the Weaver-birds, the coloration of these rather small birds is most striking, though the females are usually duller than the males, which have in some cases a sober winter garb.:" A. H. Evans, 1900. Plumage is usually red, yellow, and black in color.

Weaver-bird

"Pyromelaena flammiceps, the Weaver-birds, the coloration of these rather small birds is most striking,…

"Seventeen inches long; color brown; it flies badly, but runs with great swiftness; never takes to the water, scratches the earth like a hen, and feeds on worms and grubs. Found in New Zealand." — Goodrich, 1859

Weka

"Seventeen inches long; color brown; it flies badly, but runs with great swiftness; never takes to the…

A migratory species of bird, found in Europe, Greenland, and probably North America

Wheatear

A migratory species of bird, found in Europe, Greenland, and probably North America

Wheatear male has a bluish-gray back, black patch on ear, a white rump and sides of tail, and black wings. Female is buffer with a brown back.

Wheatear

Wheatear male has a bluish-gray back, black patch on ear, a white rump and sides of tail, and black…

"The Whidah-Birds have long, drooping tail feathers. They are natives of South Africa and Senegal."

Whidah-Birds

"The Whidah-Birds have long, drooping tail feathers. They are natives of South Africa and Senegal."

The whinchat is a migratory European bird, which subsists on a diet of worms, insects, small shell-mollusks, worms, and berries.

Whinchat

The whinchat is a migratory European bird, which subsists on a diet of worms, insects, small shell-mollusks,…

The Whip-poor-will or whippoorwill, Caprimulgus vociferus, is a medium-sized (22-27 cm) nightjar from North and Central America. The Whip-poor-will is commonly heard within its range, but less often seen. It is named onomatopoeically after its call. This bird is sometimes confused[1] with the related Chuck-will's-widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis) which has a similar but lower-pitched and slower call. Adults have mottled plumage: the upperparts are grey, black and brown; the lower parts are grey and black. They have a very short bill and a black throat. Males have a white patch below the throat and white tips on the outer tail feathers; in the female, these parts are light brown.

Whip-poor-will

The Whip-poor-will or whippoorwill, Caprimulgus vociferus, is a medium-sized (22-27 cm) nightjar from…

A whippoorwill chasing a winged insect. This bird derives its namesake from its distinctive call.

Whippoorwill

A whippoorwill chasing a winged insect. This bird derives its namesake from its distinctive call.

An American bird, allied to the nighthawk and nightjar, so called from its note, or the sounds of its voice.

Whippoorwill

An American bird, allied to the nighthawk and nightjar, so called from its note, or the sounds of its…

"Antrostomus vociferus. Whippoorwill. Night-jar. Upper parts variegated with gray, black, whitish, and tawny; prevailing tone gray; black streaks sharp on the head and back, the colors elsewhere delicately marbled, including the four median tail-feathers; wings and their coverts with bars of rufous spots; lateral tail-feathers black, with large white (male) or small tawny (female) terminal spaces; a white (male) or tawny (female) throat-bar. Adult male: Assuming stone-gray as the ground-color of the upper parts: Crown with a purplish cast, heavily dashed lengthwise with black; back darker, with smaller streaks; tail beautifully marbled with slate-gray and black tending crosswise on the 4 middle feathers; scapulars with bold black centre-fields set in frosty marbling; hind neck with white specks, as if continued around from the white throat-bar. Primaries black, with a little marbling at their ends, fully broken-barred with tawny-reddish; no white spaces. Three lateral tail-feathers mostly black, with pure white terminal spaces 1-2 inches long. Under parts quite blackish, on the breast powdered over with hoary-gray, more posteriorly marbled with gray and tawny, tending crosswise. Lores and ear-coverts dark brown. It is only in perfect plumage that the colors are as slaty and frosty as described; ordinarily more brown and ochrey." Elliot Coues, 1884

Large Whippoorwill

"Antrostomus vociferus. Whippoorwill. Night-jar. Upper parts variegated with gray, black, whitish, and…

"Antrostomus vociferus. Whippoorwill. Night-jar. Upper parts variegated with gray, black, whitish, and tawny; prevailing tone gray; black streaks sharp on the head and back, the colors elsewhere delicately marbled, including the four median tail-feathers; wings and their coverts with bars of rufous spots; lateral tail-feathers black, with large white (male) or small tawny (female) terminal spaces; a white (male) or tawny (female) throat-bar. Adult male: Assuming stone-gray as the ground-color of the upper parts: Crown with a purplish cast, heavily dashed lengthwise with black; back darker, with smaller streaks; tail beautifully marbled with slate-gray and black tending crosswise on the 4 middle feathers; scapulars with bold black centre-fields set in frosty marbling; hind neck with white specks, as if continued around from the white throat-bar. Primaries black, with a little marbling at their ends, fully broken-barred with tawny-reddish; no white spaces. Three lateral tail-feathers mostly black, with pure white terminal spaces 1-2 inches long. Under parts quite blackish, on the breast powdered over with hoary-gray, more posteriorly marbled with gray and tawny, tending crosswise. Lores and ear-coverts dark brown. It is only in perfect plumage that the colors are as slaty and frosty as described; ordinarily more brown and ochrey." Elliot Coues, 1884

Small Whippoorwill

"Antrostomus vociferus. Whippoorwill. Night-jar. Upper parts variegated with gray, black, whitish, and…

Loud birds with their distinctive whip-poor-will call.

Whippoorwills

Loud birds with their distinctive whip-poor-will call.

The American widgeon (or baldpate) averages about nineteen inches in length. It is common in North America, and accidental in Europe.

American Widgeon

The American widgeon (or baldpate) averages about nineteen inches in length. It is common in North America,…

The widowbird, also known as the whidahfinch. Although most specimens are about the size of a canary, the tail feathers of some males can reach a foot in length.

Widowbird

The widowbird, also known as the whidahfinch. Although most specimens are about the size of a canary,…

"Wigeon is one of the most popular birds with the American sportsman. Length about eighteen inches; the male has the forehead and top of head white, cheeks and hinged part of the neck reddish-chestnut, upper parts grayish-white, irregularly zigzagged with black, wing coverts white tipped with black, primaries dark brown, speculum green, edged with black; throat rufous, breast and belly white; the female has sober plumage of various shades of brown. The wigeon is one of the commonest ducks of the extreme N. of Europe, frequenting grassy swamps, lakes, and rivers, and feeding in the daytime, chiefly on aquatic vegetation. The American wigeon is larger than the European or common wigeon, and has the upper parts finely waved transversely with black and reddish-brown, top of head and under parts white. It breeds chiefly in the N. parts of America and is common in winter on the coasts of the United States and in the rice fields. The flesh of both species is esteemed for the table, and they are hunted both for food and for sport."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Wigeon

"Wigeon is one of the most popular birds with the American sportsman. Length about eighteen inches;…

"Mareca americana. American Wigeon. Bald-pate. Bill grayish-blue, with black tip and extreme base; feet similar, duller, with dusky webs and claws; iris brown. Top of head white, or nearly so; sides the same, or more buffy, speckled with dusky-green, purer green forming a broad patch from and below eye to hind head; chin dusky. Fore neck and breast light brownish-red, or very pale purplish-cinnamon, each feather with paler grayish edge; along the sides of the body the same, finely waved with dusky; the breast and belly pure white, the crissum abruptly black. Lower hind neck and fore back and scapulars finely waved with the same reddish color and with dusky; lower back and rump similarly waved with dusky and whitish. Lesser wing-coverts plain gray; middle and greater coverts pure white, forming a large area, the greater black-tipped, forming the fore border of the speculum, which is glossy green, bordered behind by velvety black, internally by the black and white stripes on the inner secondaries. Tail brownish-gray, the lateral upper coverts black; axillary feathers white. Only old drakes have the crown immaculate white, the chin dusky, the auricular definitely green; generally the whole head and upper neck are pale brownish-yellow or reddish-white, speckled with greenish-Dusky." Elliot Coues, 1884

American Wigeon

"Mareca americana. American Wigeon. Bald-pate. Bill grayish-blue, with black tip and extreme base; feet…

"Symphemia semipalmata. Semipalmated Tattler. Willet. Adult in summer: Upper parts ashy, confoundedly speckled to greater or less extent with blackish; this sometimes giving the prevailing tone, but in lighter colored cases the blackish restricted to an irregular central field on each feather, throwing out angular processes and tending to become traverse bars. When such dark fields prevail, the upper parts become quite blackish, speckled with ashy-white, like Totanus melanoleucus, for example. Furthermore, there is often a slight rufescence. Under parts white, sometimes with a rufous or brownish tinge, the jugulum and breast spotted and streaked, the sides barred or arrow-headed, with brownish-black. Axillars and lining of wing, edge of wing and primary coverts, sooty-blackish. Primaries blackish, with a great space white at base, partly overlaid and concealed by the primary coverts, partly showing conspicuously as a speculum; shafts white along this space. Most secondaries white most upper tail-coverts white, the shorter ones dark like rump, the longer ones barred like tail. Tail ashy, incompletely barred with blackish; lateral feathers pale, or marbled with white. Bill dark; legs bluish." Elliot Coues, 1884

Willet Head

"Symphemia semipalmata. Semipalmated Tattler. Willet. Adult in summer: Upper parts ashy, confoundedly…

"Symphemia semipalmata. Semipalmated Tattler. Willet. Adult in summer: Upper parts ashy, confoundedly speckled to greater or less extent with blackish; this sometimes giving the prevailing tone, but in lighter colored cases the blackish restricted to an irregular central field on each feather, throwing out angular processes and tending to become traverse bars. When such dark fields prevail, the upper parts become quite blackish, speckled with ashy-white, like Totanus melanoleucus, for example. Furthermore, there is often a slight rufescence. Under parts white, sometimes with a rufous or brownish tinge, the jugulum and breast spotted and streaked, the sides barred or arrow-headed, with brownish-black. Axillars and lining of wing, edge of wing and primary coverts, sooty-blackish. Primaries blackish, with a great space white at base, partly overlaid and concealed by the primary coverts, partly showing conspicuously as a speculum; shafts white along this space. Most secondaries white most upper tail-coverts white, the shorter ones dark like rump, the longer ones barred like tail. Tail ashy, incompletely barred with blackish; lateral feathers pale, or marbled with white. Bill dark; legs bluish." Elliot Coues, 1884

Willets

"Symphemia semipalmata. Semipalmated Tattler. Willet. Adult in summer: Upper parts ashy, confoundedly…

The Western Wood-Pewee, Contopus sordidulus, is a small tyrant flycatcher. Adults are gray-olive on the upperparts with light underparts, washed with olive on the breast. They have two wing bars and a dark bill with yellow at the base of the lower mandible. This bird is very similar in appearance to the Eastern Wood-Pewee; the two birds were formerly considered to be one species.

Western Wood Pewee

The Western Wood-Pewee, Contopus sordidulus, is a small tyrant flycatcher. Adults are gray-olive on…

Woodcocks live in woods, and do not frequent the sea-shore or river-banks.

Woodcock

Woodcocks live in woods, and do not frequent the sea-shore or river-banks.

Woodcocks live in woods, and do not frequent the sea-shore or river-banks.

Woodcock

Woodcocks live in woods, and do not frequent the sea-shore or river-banks.

The name of several birds commonly classed in the same genus as the snipes, but having a more bulky body and shorter and stronger legs than the true snipes.

Woodcock

The name of several birds commonly classed in the same genus as the snipes, but having a more bulky…

The Woodcock from Thomas Bewick's wood engraving in 'The Water Birds.'

Woodcock

The Woodcock from Thomas Bewick's wood engraving in 'The Water Birds.'

"Scolopas rusticula, the well known Woodcock, brown, grey, and buff in color, with blackish vermiculations and blotches above and bars below, has two transverse buff stripes on the black hind-crown. It inhabits Northern and Central Europe and Asia-with Atlantic Islands and Japan." A. H. Evans, 1900

Woodcock

"Scolopas rusticula, the well known Woodcock, brown, grey, and buff in color, with blackish vermiculations…

"Philohela. American Woodcock. First three primaries emarginate, attenuate and falcate, abruptly shorter and narrower than the 4th. Wings short and rounded; when folded, the primaries hidden by the coverts and inner quills. Legs short; tibiae feathered to the joint; tarsus shorter than middle toe and claw, scutellate before and behind; toes long and slender, cleft to the base Bill much longer than head, perfectly straight, stout at base, where the ridge rises high, knobbed at end of upper mandible, very deeply grooved nearly all its length, the culmen and line of gonys also furrowed toward end; very soft and sensitive; gape very short and narrow. Head large; neck short; ear under the eye, which is very full, set in back upper corner of the head. Sexes alike; Female largest." Elliot Coues, 1884

American Woodcock Head

"Philohela. American Woodcock. First three primaries emarginate, attenuate and falcate, abruptly shorter…

"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray, and russet; below, pale warm brown of variable shade, not barred. A dark stripe from bill to eye. Crown from opposite eye with black and light bars; along the inner edges of the wings a bluish-ashy stripe; lining of wings rust-brown; quills plain fuscous; tail black, spotted, and tipped; bill brownish flesh-color, dusky at end; feet pale reddish flesh-color." Elliot Coues, 1884

American Woodcock

"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray,…

The European woodcock averages about thirteen inches in length, and prefers to feed on earthworms. It is primarily a nocturnal bird.

European Woodcock

The European woodcock averages about thirteen inches in length, and prefers to feed on earthworms. It…

"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray, and russet; below, pale warm brown of variable shade, not barred. A dark stripe from bill to eye. Crown from opposite eye with black and light bars; along the inner edges of the wings a bluish-ashy stripe; lining of wings rust-brown; quills plain fuscous; tail black, spotted, and tipped; bill brownish flesh-color, dusky at end; feet pale reddish flesh-color." Elliot Coues, 1884

Probing American Woodcock

"Philohela minor. Woodcock. Bog-sucker. Colors above harmoniously blended and varied black, brown, gray,…

The woodcocks are a group of seven extant very similar wading bird species in the genus Scolopax, characterised by a long slender bill and cryptic brown and blackish plumage. Only two woodcocks are widespread, the others being localised island species. Their closest relatives are the typical snipes of the genus Gallinago (Thomas et al., 2004). These are woodland birds which feed at night or in the evenings, searching for invertebrates in soft ground with their long bills. Unlike in most birds the tip of the upper mandible is flexible. This habit and their unobtrusive plumage makes it difficult to see them when they are resting in the day. The tiny feathers that are located at the first joint of the woodcock's wings are referred to as "pin feathers" and these are much sought after by artists for fine painting work.

Young Woodcock

The woodcocks are a group of seven extant very similar wading bird species in the genus Scolopax, characterised…

"They are shy, timid birds, concealing themselves by day in the depths of the mots retired woods."

Woodcocks (White and Isabelle-colored)

"They are shy, timid birds, concealing themselves by day in the depths of the mots retired woods."

"Alauda- a genus of birds, typical of the family Alaudidæ, or larks."-Whitney, 1902

Woodlark

"Alauda- a genus of birds, typical of the family Alaudidæ, or larks."-Whitney, 1902

While a woodpecker is drilling, the two parts of the bill are closed together, making a wedge-pointed drill, and at the same time a snug case for the insect-catcher.

Woodpecker

While a woodpecker is drilling, the two parts of the bill are closed together, making a wedge-pointed…

A genus of birds belonging to the climbers, and so called from their habit of pecking into trees in search of insects. The body is quite slender, the beak long and powerful, the tongue pointed, and the tail stiff.

Woodpecker

A genus of birds belonging to the climbers, and so called from their habit of pecking into trees in…

The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds . Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known to live in desert areas.

Woodpecker

The woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks are a family, Picidae, of near-passerine birds . Members of this…

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and tail, flanks and crissum, green-black with intense bronzy lustre, especially on the back - this iridescence like that of Quiscalus aneus almost. Face dark crimson, in a patch of velvety feathers around bill and eyes. A narrow distant collar around back of neck, and breast, hoary bluish-gray, gradually brightening behind on the under parts to intense rose-red or lake, delicately pencilled in hair lines with the hoary-gray. No white on wings or tail, their under surfaces simply black. Bill blackish; feet greenish-plumbeous. Iris brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Lewis' Woodpecker Head

"Asyndesmus torquatus. Lewis' Woodpecker. Lared Woodpecker. Adult: Upper parts, including wings and…

Great Black Woodpecker (Drycopus martius). This bird of one of the largest of its tribe, black with a scarlet crest, and resembles somewhat the ivory-billed and pileated woodpeckers of the United States. It inhabits northerly portions of Europe.

Great Black Woodpecker

Great Black Woodpecker (Drycopus martius). This bird of one of the largest of its tribe, black with…

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker. Williamson's Woodpecker. Adult: Glossy black, including all the tail-feathers. Belly gamboge yellow. A narrow scarlet patch on the throat. Upper tail-coverts, a broad oblique bar on the wing-coverts, a post-ocular stripe, a stripe from nostrils below eye and ear, and small, in part paired, spots on the quills, white. Lining of wings, sides of body, flanks and crissum varied with white, leaving the black in bars and cordate spots. Bill slate-color; feet greenish-gray; iris reddish-brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Brown-headed Woodpecker

"Sphyropicus thyroides. Brown-headed Woodpecker. Black-breasted Woodpecker. Red-throated Woodpecker.…

"Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. Californian Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; rump, bases of all the quills, edge of the wing, and under parts from the breast, white; sides with sparse black streaks; forehead squarely white, continuous with a stripe down in front of hte eyes and thence broadly encircling the throat, there becoming yellowish; this cuts off the black around base of bill and on the chin completely; crown in the male crimson from the white front, in the female separated from the white by a black interval; frequently a few red feathers in the black breast-patch, which is not sharply defined behind, but changes by streaks into the white of the belly. Bill black; eyes white, often rosy, creamy, yellowish, milky, bluish, or brown." Elliot Coues, 1884

Californian Woodpecker

"Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi. Californian Woodpecker. Glossy blue-black; rump, bases of all the quills,…

The woodpeckers are typical climbers, with two toes turned forward and two backward, (zygodactyl).

Downy Woodpecker

The woodpeckers are typical climbers, with two toes turned forward and two backward, (zygodactyl).

The Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens, is the smallest woodpecker in North America. Adults are mainly black on the upper parts and wings, with a white back, throat and belly and white spotting on the wings. There is a white bar above and below the eye. They have a black tail with white outer feathers barred with black. Adult males have a red patch on the back of the head.

Downy Woodpecker

The Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens, is the smallest woodpecker in North America. Adults are mainly…

"Picus pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. Usually 6-7 long; outer tail-feathers barred with black and white. Exactly like P. villosus, except in these respects. Length 6.00-7.00; entent 11.00-12.00; wing 3.50-4.00; tail under 3.00; bill about .66; whole foot 1.25." Elliot Coues, 1884

Downy Woodpecker

"Picus pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. Usually 6-7 long; outer tail-feathers barred with black and white.…

"Picus major. European Spotted Woodpecker. Bill more or less nearly equal to head in length, stout, straight, truncate at tip, bevelled toward end, with sharp culmen and distinct lateral ridges on upper mandible; at base rather broader than high, with large nasal tufts hiding the nostrils; culmen, commissure and gonys straight or nearly so. Feet with the outer posterior longer than outer anterior toe; inner anterior intermediate between these. Wing long, pointed by the 4th, 3d, and 5th quills; 2d decidedly shorter (shorter than 7th, except in P. borealis); 1st fairly spurious. Species of medium and small size. All black and white (one brown-backed), the back striped or barred, the wings with numerous small round white spots on the quills; Male with red on the head." Elliot Coues, 1884

European Spotted Woodpecker

"Picus major. European Spotted Woodpecker. Bill more or less nearly equal to head in length, stout,…

The golden-winged woodpecker is known for burrowing its own holes into live trees to use as a nest.

Golden-Winged Woodpecker

The golden-winged woodpecker is known for burrowing its own holes into live trees to use as a nest.

Chiefly making its habitat in Northern Europe, the great black woodpecker uses its long, sharp bill to bore into trees in search of insects.

Great black Woodpecker

Chiefly making its habitat in Northern Europe, the great black woodpecker uses its long, sharp bill…

The great spotted woodpecker measures an average of nine and a half inches long, and is found throughout Europe.

Great Spotted Woodpecker

The great spotted woodpecker measures an average of nine and a half inches long, and is found throughout…

A loud bird that uses it beak to bore holes in tree trunks to feed on bugs.

Great Spotted Woodpecker

A loud bird that uses it beak to bore holes in tree trunks to feed on bugs.

The green woodpecker is found throughout Europe, and uses its beak to make holes in tree trunks to roost in.

Green Woodpecker

The green woodpecker is found throughout Europe, and uses its beak to make holes in tree trunks to roost…