The General Physics ClipArt gallery offers 222 images showing principles of the science and proof of theorems. Physics is the science of basic concepts such as energy and force.

"So a hare, in making for cover, often escapes a hound by making a number of quick turns. The greater inertia of the hound carries him to far, and thus obliges him to pass over a greater space, as seen [here], in which the continuous line shows the hare's path and the dotted line the hound's." —Quackenbos 1859

Inertia Demonstration

"So a hare, in making for cover, often escapes a hound by making a number of quick turns. The greater…

A machine designed to suppress the dead space which limits the efficiency of ordinary air-pumps.

Kravogl's Air-pump

A machine designed to suppress the dead space which limits the efficiency of ordinary air-pumps.

Leveling is an operation in which the object is to determine to difference of vertical height between two given points.

Levelling

Leveling is an operation in which the object is to determine to difference of vertical height between…

An old fashioned weight lifter. A is a plug s the air stays compressed. B is the rod portion of a piston.

Weight Lifter

An old fashioned weight lifter. A is a plug s the air stays compressed. B is the rod portion of a piston.

"The radiation of light, or the intensity of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light source." —Croft 1917

Light Intensity

"The radiation of light, or the intensity of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance…

This apparatus illustrates the principle stating that liquids tend to find their own level.

Vessels in Communication

This apparatus illustrates the principle stating that liquids tend to find their own level.

Liquids of varying densities. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion device.

Liquids of Varying Densities

Liquids of varying densities. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion device.

"The Atwood machine consists of a wheel or pulley, R, over the grooved edge of which are balanced two equal weights suspended by a long silk thread which is both light and strong. The axle of this wheel is preferably supported upon the circumfrences of four friction wheels, r, r, r', r', for greater delicacy of motion. As the thread is so light that its weight may be disregarded, it is evident that the weights will be in equilibrium whatever their position." — Avery, 1895

Atwood Machine

"The Atwood machine consists of a wheel or pulley, R, over the grooved edge of which are balanced two…

Two hemispheres which can be exactly fitted on each other; their exact adjustment is further assisted by a projecting internal rim, with is smeared with lard.

Magdeburg Hemisphere

Two hemispheres which can be exactly fitted on each other; their exact adjustment is further assisted…

"By means of the two hemispheres, it can be proved that the atmosphere presses upon a body equally in all directions. This device was invented by Otto Von Guericke, of Magdeburg, and is called the Magdeburg hemispheres." — Hallock, 1905

Magdeburg Hemispheres

"By means of the two hemispheres, it can be proved that the atmosphere presses upon a body equally in…

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust the air with a pump. Close the stopcock, remove the hemispheres from the pump, attach the second handle, and, holding the hemispheres in different positions, try to pull them apart. When you are sure that the pressure that holds them together is exerted inall directions, place them under the receiver of the air pump, and exhaust the air from around them. The pressure seems to be removed, for the hemispheres fall apart of their own weight." -Avery 1895

Magdeburg Hemispheres

"Grease the edges to make more sure of a tight joint, fit the hemispheres to each other, and exhaust…

Magnetic attraction on inclined plane. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion device.

Magnetic Attraction

Magnetic attraction on inclined plane. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion…

Magnetic pendulum, rotating field principle. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion device.

Magnetic Pendulum

Magnetic pendulum, rotating field principle. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion…

Koenig's manometric flame apparatus was a laboratory instrument invented in 1862 by the German physicist Rudolph Koenig, and used to visualize sound waves. It was the nearest equivalent of the modern oscilloscope in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Manometric Flame Apparatus

Koenig's manometric flame apparatus was a laboratory instrument invented in 1862 by the German physicist…

This is an apparatus employed to obtain a uniform flow of water. The device provides a constant pressure delivering a constant rate of flow.

Mariotte's Bottle

This is an apparatus employed to obtain a uniform flow of water. The device provides a constant pressure…

Example of the parallelogram of force, or the application of two forces on an object.

Elementary Mechanics

Example of the parallelogram of force, or the application of two forces on an object.

Friction is the tendency of a body to resist movement when it is being moved on a surface. The coefficient of friction is the ratio between the resistance of the motion and the perpendicular pressure between the surfaces as shown. P/W

Elementary Mechanics

Friction is the tendency of a body to resist movement when it is being moved on a surface. The coefficient…

When gases of different densities are inclosed in the same space an intimate mixture takes place, so that each gas becomes uniformly diffused throughout the entire space.

Mixture of Gases

When gases of different densities are inclosed in the same space an intimate mixture takes place, so…

"Device used to prove that all things fall at the same rate due to gravity. When the device is triggered, one object is dropped while anothe object is shot horizontally from within, with the result being that both objects strike the ground at the same time." —Hallock 1905

Projectile Motion

"Device used to prove that all things fall at the same rate due to gravity. When the device is triggered,…

An illustration of Sir Isaac Newton sitting on the ground being hit by an apple falling out of a tree and discovering the law of gravity.

Isaac Newton Discovering Gravity

An illustration of Sir Isaac Newton sitting on the ground being hit by an apple falling out of a tree…

Waves are swimming motions of the water, caused by the action of the wind. Their height and velocity deepen on the forces of the wind, and depth of the basin in which they occur. The stronger the wind, and the deeper the ocean, the higher the waves and the greater their velocity.

Ocean Wave

Waves are swimming motions of the water, caused by the action of the wind. Their height and velocity…

Overbalancing wheel, gravity principle. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion device.

Overbalancing Wheel

Overbalancing wheel, gravity principle. Illustration of an unsuccessful scheme for a perpetual-motion…

"A pendulum has a strong tendency to maintain its plane of oscillation, a fact that has been used in the experimental demonstration of the earth upon its axis. The chief function of the wheel-work of a clock is to register the number of vibrations of the pendulum. If the clock gains time, the pendulum is lengthened by lowering the bob, if it loses time, the pendulum is shortened by raising the bob." — Avery, 1895

Pendulum

"A pendulum has a strong tendency to maintain its plane of oscillation, a fact that has been used in…

"A pendulum consists of a heavy ball suspended in such a way as to swing to and fro." —Quackenbos 1859

Pendulum

"A pendulum consists of a heavy ball suspended in such a way as to swing to and fro." —Quackenbos…

"From a cross piece, A, on a stout framework, a heavy block of wood, B, is suspended, in such a way as to move freely backward and forward. A ball fired into this block will drive it back to a distance proportioned to the ball's velocity. All other things being known, the ball's velocity can be discovered." —Quackenbos 1859

Ballistic Pendulum

"From a cross piece, A, on a stout framework, a heavy block of wood, B, is suspended, in such a way…

"When the pendulum is drawn from its vertical position, the force of gravity, MG, is resolved into two components, one of which, MC, produces pressure at the point of support, while the other, MH, acts at right angles to it, producing motion toward N." -Avery 1895

Motion of a Pendulum

"When the pendulum is drawn from its vertical position, the force of gravity, MG, is resolved into two…

"When the pendulum hands at rest in a vertical position, as Pa, it has no energy at all. Considered as a mass of matter seperate from the earth; it certainly has potential energy; but considered as a pendulum, it has not." — Avery, 1895

Path of a pendulum

"When the pendulum hands at rest in a vertical position, as Pa, it has no energy at all. Considered…

"Firmly fasten one end of a piece of spring-brass wire, about No. 27 and about 1 m. long so that the wire hangs vertical. To the lower end of the wire fasten a weight of 75 or 100 g. To this weight attach a pointer so that it extends horizontally from the direction of the wire. Turn the weight througha considerable angle, thus twisting the wire. Release the weight, and notice the rapid movements of the pointer of the torsional pendulum." -Avery 1895

Torsional Pendulum

"Firmly fasten one end of a piece of spring-brass wire, about No. 27 and about 1 m. long so that the…

"An apparatus devised by Mach for the illustration of the pendular motions of the particles of a medium transmitting waves of any kind, longitudinal or transverse, stationary or progressive." — Avery, 1895

Line of pendulums

"An apparatus devised by Mach for the illustration of the pendular motions of the particles of a medium…

Mercury, water, and oil are poured into a glass jar. The mercury goes to the bottom, the oil floats at the top, the surfaces of contact are seen to be horizontal.

Phial of the Four Elements

Mercury, water, and oil are poured into a glass jar. The mercury goes to the bottom, the oil floats…

A device used for demonstrating the elastic properties of materials.

Physics demonstration

A device used for demonstrating the elastic properties of materials.

The part of the pipe that is above the highest piston travel point is the delivery pipe and the part at the lowest point is the suction pipe. This is a larger scale of a lifting pump.

Delivery Pipe

The part of the pipe that is above the highest piston travel point is the delivery pipe and the part…

A pipette is a laboratory instrument used for transporting a volume of liquid. If one end is closed with a finger, the efflux of the liquid will cease immediately.

Pipette

A pipette is a laboratory instrument used for transporting a volume of liquid. If one end is closed…

Tension is the force which a gas always exerts when confined to a limited space. In the example, a partially filled football is placed in a glass jar (a receiver) from which air has been exhausted. The football immediately expands. This experiment also works with a bladder. A branch of mechanics that deals with the properties of gases is called pneumatics.

Pneumatics

Tension is the force which a gas always exerts when confined to a limited space. In the example, a partially…

A barometer is a device used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere. A mercurial barometer, picture shown, uses mercury to show the atmospheric pressure, much like it did for a thermometer.

Pneumatics

A barometer is a device used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere. A mercurial barometer, picture…

An aneroid barometer. This device is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

Pneumatics

An aneroid barometer. This device is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

"In the apparatus shown... three forces act on a small body and are allowed to assume a position of equilibrium. A triangle is then constructed with sides parallel respectively to the three forces; it will be found by measurement that the sides are also the lengths proportional to the forces, and as will be seen the arrowheads point concurrently round the triangle.

Polygon of Forces

"In the apparatus shown... three forces act on a small body and are allowed to assume a position of…

A hydraulic press which uses a hydraulic cylinder to generate force. The inventor of the device, Joseph Bramah, had also developed the flush toilet and studied the motion of the fluids in the toilet and developed the press to test it. O is a lever, which forces down piston a upon the water in cylinder A. The water goes through tube d into the cylinder where piston C works, causing it to rise which lifts platform K and compresses bales.

Hydraulic Press

A hydraulic press which uses a hydraulic cylinder to generate force. The inventor of the device, Joseph…

A baroscope, which is a version of the barometer. It measures atmospheric pressure.

Pressure

A baroscope, which is a version of the barometer. It measures atmospheric pressure.

An experimental verification of the Principle of Archimedes.

Experimental Verification of Principle of Archimedes

An experimental verification of the Principle of Archimedes.

"Suppose a cannon be loaded with a ball, and placed on top of a tower, at such a height from the ground, that it would take just three seconds for the ball to descend from it to the ground, if let fall perpendicularly. Now, suppose the cannon to be fired in an exact horizontal direction, and at the same instant, the ball to be dropped towards the ground. They will both reach the ground at the same instant..." -Comstock 1850

Projectile Motion of a Cannonball

"Suppose a cannon be loaded with a ball, and placed on top of a tower, at such a height from the ground,…

"[This illustration] shows the path of a stone thrown obliquely from the hand. The propelling force sends it in a straight line to A, and would take it on in the same direction to B, were it not that, as soon as its velocity becomes sufficiently diminished, gravity and the air's resistance give it a circular motion to C, and finally bring it to the earth at D." —Quackenbos 1859

Projectile Motion of a Stone

"[This illustration] shows the path of a stone thrown obliquely from the hand. The propelling force…

"Thus, we have a cannon planted on a towwer at such a height that it would take four seconds for a ball to fall from it to the ground. Dropped from the cannon's mouth, in the first second a ball would reach A; in the next, B; in the third, C; and in the fourth D." —Quackenbos 1859

Projectile Motion of a Cannon Ball

"Thus, we have a cannon planted on a towwer at such a height that it would take four seconds for a ball…

A manual air pump. R is the receiver. The space that the receiver encloses is what it removes the air from.

Air Pump

A manual air pump. R is the receiver. The space that the receiver encloses is what it removes the air…

This image is a centrifugal pump with one half of the casing removed. S is a hollow hub, a is a curved arm, also called a vane or wing, and are revolved with a high velocity of the arrow. The air between them is driven out by the discharge and pipe D. A centrifugal pump is a valuable instrument for raising water to enormous heights.

Centrifugal Pump

This image is a centrifugal pump with one half of the casing removed. S is a hollow hub, a is a curved…

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with an ordinary suction pump.

Lifting Pump

A lifting pump is used when water needs to be raised to a greater height than what can be done with…

Sprengel's vacuum pump. c d is a long glass tube. A is a funnel, R is a receiver, B is a flask and H is a dish. This vacuum pump was invented by Hanover native Hermann Sprengel in 1865

Vacuum Pump

Sprengel's vacuum pump. c d is a long glass tube. A is a funnel, R is a receiver, B is a flask and H…

An instrument which serves to transform radiant energy into mechanical work. Have 4 vanes, with one side white and the other black.

Radiometer

An instrument which serves to transform radiant energy into mechanical work. Have 4 vanes, with one…

A hydraulic ram. It is used to raise the level of water from a point below water level of a spring to a point that is higher and has no power other than that of that caused by the inertia of the moving water.

Hydraulic Ram

A hydraulic ram. It is used to raise the level of water from a point below water level of a spring to…

"Suppose a, b, to be a marble floor, and c, to be an ivory ball, which has be thrown towards the floor in the direction of the line c e; it will rebound in the direction of the line e d, thus making the two angles f and g exactly equal." -Comstock 1850

Reflected Motion

"Suppose a, b, to be a marble floor, and c, to be an ivory ball, which has be thrown towards the floor…

"If the ball approaches the floor under a larger or smaller angle, its rebound will observe the same rule [of reflected motion]." -Comstock 1850

Reflected Motion

"If the ball approaches the floor under a larger or smaller angle, its rebound will observe the same…

"The angle, ABD, included between the direction of the moving body before it strikes the reflecting surface, and a perpendicular to that surface drawn from the point of contact, is called the angle of incidence. The angle between the perpendicular and the direction of the moving body after striking is called the angle of reflection." -Avery 1895

Law of Reflected Motion

"The angle, ABD, included between the direction of the moving body before it strikes the reflecting…

"... if a ball be thrown from F against the surface B C so as to strike it perpendicularly at A, it will return in the line A F. If thrown from D however, it will glance off on the other side of the perpendicular, at the same angle, to E." —Quackenbos 1859

Reflected Motion

"... if a ball be thrown from F against the surface B C so as to strike it perpendicularly at A, it…

"The ball C is placed on a square frame between two upright wires, on each of which a ball slides so as to strike C when it descends. Let the ball A drop, and it will drive C to D... Let the ball B drop, and it will drive C to E; this is simple motion. Let A and B drop at the same instant, and they will drive C to F; this is resultant motion." —Quackenbos 1859

Resultant Motion with Ball

"The ball C is placed on a square frame between two upright wires, on each of which a ball slides so…

"We have an example of resultant motion in a boat which a person attempts to row north across a river, while the tide carries it to the east. Each force produces the same effect as if acted alone; and the boatman, when he has crossed the river, will find himself neither due north nor due east of the point from which he started, but northeast of it." —Quackenbos 1859

Resultant Motion with Boat

"We have an example of resultant motion in a boat which a person attempts to row north across a river,…

"Let, for instance, the force used by the boatman be twice as great as that of the tide. Then by the time he would reach B, the tide would have carried his boat one-half of that distance, to D." —Quackenbos 1859

Resultant Motion with Boat

"Let, for instance, the force used by the boatman be twice as great as that of the tide. Then by the…

This figure represents the principle that says if an open vessel of liquid is rapidly rotated round a vertical axis, the surface of the liquid assumes a concave form.

Rotating Vessel of Liquid

This figure represents the principle that says if an open vessel of liquid is rapidly rotated round…

A measure of the heaviness of an object.

Scientific Type Scale

A measure of the heaviness of an object.

This is a hydraulic weighing scale were the object is placed on a base and later water is filled into the vessel to accurately measure the objects weight.

Weighing Scale

This is a hydraulic weighing scale were the object is placed on a base and later water is filled into…

An illustration of a lever scale.

Lever Scales

An illustration of a lever scale.