This illustration shows an early form of a glove, used to cover the hands. This glove was likely made of goat or sheepskin.

Early Glove

This illustration shows an early form of a glove, used to cover the hands. This glove was likely made…

"A bar of copper marked with the figure of a bull. Dates from the fourth century B.C."—Webster, 1913

Early Roman Bar Money

"A bar of copper marked with the figure of a bull. Dates from the fourth century B.C."—Webster,…

A statue of a man who recorded books and/or documents during the era of Ancient Egypt.

An Egyptian Scribe

A statue of a man who recorded books and/or documents during the era of Ancient Egypt.

"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown a set of models, that is, wooden images painted and wrapped in imitation of the different styles of mummies prepared at the establishment. The models were divided into three classes; first, second, and third; and among these the friends selected according to their rank and means. The dead body was then delivered to the embalmers, by whom the brain was removed through the nostrils. Then an incision was made in the left side with a sharp stone. Through this opening the entire viscera were removed, and being cleansed by washing with palm wine, were covered with pounded aromatics and deposited in four urns. The cavity of the body was filled with powdered myrrh, cassia, and other fragrant substances, and the wound carefully sewn up. The whole body was then packed for seventy days in salt and carbonate of soda, at the end of which time it was washed and then wrapped in linen bands anointed on the inner surface with a certain gum which acted as glue. The mummy was finally put into a wooden case in the form of a man, and delivered to the relatives, by whom it was set upright against the wall in one of the rooms of their house."—Ridpath 1885

Process of Embalming

"When an Egyptian died the friends of the deceased went at once to the embalmer, By him they were shown…

Reindeer Age (Aurignacian) Engravings and Carvings. Shown are engravings of stage and salmon, engraved on reindeer horn, engraved stone, head of a women carved in ivory, horses head carved in ivory, stone statuettes, and painted pebbles (Azilian age).

Reindeer Age Engravings and Carvings

Reindeer Age (Aurignacian) Engravings and Carvings. Shown are engravings of stage and salmon, engraved…

"The next evolution is presented in Euripides. He is less ideal than his predeccesor, but truer to nature. His drama is more of a reality. He takes his stand in the midst of human life as it is. His language is the language of the people. The heroes of his plays are more possible than those of Sophocles. They are redeemed with weaknesses, touched with folly, stained with tears. He has more variety in his action, greater freedom, more surprises and vicissitudes."—Ridpath, 1885

Euripides

"The next evolution is presented in Euripides. He is less ideal than his predeccesor, but truer to nature.…

"It was during the siege of Methone that Philip had the misfortune to lose on of his eyes. A random arrow discharged from the rampart fell square in the king's face and destroyed one-half of his sight. When the arrow-head was drawn away, it was found to contain the following label: "Astor to Philip's right eye." It appeared on inquiry that the unerring missile had been discharged by an offended archer who has recently offered his services to the king and been rejected. He hd represented to Philip that his skill with the bow was great that he could kill a small bird on the wing. The king not believing the story had put off the applicant with the remark, "Well, well, I shall make use of thee when I go to war with the starlings." Astor has then joined the Methoneans and now vindicated his skill in a way never to be forgotten."—Ridpath, 1885

Astor to Philip's Right Eye

"It was during the siege of Methone that Philip had the misfortune to lose on of his eyes. A random…

"The symbolic fasces borne by these officers were probably of Ertuscan origin. The Tarquins are said to have brought them to Rome along with other insignia of the kingly office."—Myers, 1904

Lictors with Fasces

"The symbolic fasces borne by these officers were probably of Ertuscan origin. The Tarquins are said…

The primitive processes of making fire.

Making Fire

The primitive processes of making fire.

"Remains of the Viking ships of Gokstad, after its removal from the mound where it was found."—Gordy, 1912

Remains of the Viking Ship Gokstad

"Remains of the Viking ships of Gokstad, after its removal from the mound where it was found."—Gordy,…

"A relief on the tomb of a certain Hegeso. It represents a woman, seated, taking a jewel from a casket held by an attendant."—Webster, 1913

An Athenian Gravestone

"A relief on the tomb of a certain Hegeso. It represents a woman, seated, taking a jewel from a casket…

"From a Greek vase of about the time of the battle of Marathon."—Webster, 1913

Greek Soldiers in Arms

"From a Greek vase of about the time of the battle of Marathon."—Webster, 1913

A monument of Athenian foot soldier, found near Marathon.

Monument of a Greek Solider

A monument of Athenian foot soldier, found near Marathon.

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier obelisk built that is still in its original position.

Obelisk of Heliopolis

A 68-foot stone pillar located at Al-Matariyyah part of Heliopolis. It is considered to be the earlier…

A citizen-soldier of Ancient Greece.

Hoplite

A citizen-soldier of Ancient Greece.

Ancient household utensils from Pompeii

Household Utensils

Ancient household utensils from Pompeii

Neolithic age hut urns. The first drawing probably representing a lake dwelling. Not drawn to scale.

Neolithic Age Hut Urns

Neolithic age hut urns. The first drawing probably representing a lake dwelling. Not drawn to scale.

"[Caesar] mustered the soldiers in the Campius Martius, and requested a statement of their grievances. Their demands appeared to have a reference to a payment of their dues, the bestowal of promised presents, and a release from further duty. Caesar well knew that the best way to humiliate an insurrection is to grant what it clamors for. He accordingly made an address to his old legion, being careful to begin with "Citizens," instead of "Soldiers." This was gall and wormwood. To be addressed as citizens by their beloved commander! "I discharge you." said he. "You have had enough of fatigue and wounds. I release you from your oath. As to your presents, you shall be paid to the last sesterce." The old veterans could stand no more. They burst into tears, and began to beg for forgiveness. With a certain prudent hesitation, Caesar received them back to favor; but he took care that the leaders who had fomented the mutiny should be executed."—Ridpath, 1885

Citizens! I Discharge You.

"[Caesar] mustered the soldiers in the Campius Martius, and requested a statement of their grievances.…

"The earliest implements of paleolithic type."—Myers, 1904

Paleolithic Implements

"The earliest implements of paleolithic type."—Myers, 1904

An ancient pen and ink holder.

Penner and Inkhorn

An ancient pen and ink holder.

Put into effect by Menepta, he collected all of the leprous, unclean, and diseased people of Israel and threw them into stone quarries, exiling them from their homes.

Exodus of Israel

Put into effect by Menepta, he collected all of the leprous, unclean, and diseased people of Israel…

Also known as Kohen Gadol or Kohen ha-Gadol. The High Priest of Israel could officiate sacrifices and enter the Holy of Holies on Yom Kippur.

High Priest of Israel

Also known as Kohen Gadol or Kohen ha-Gadol. The High Priest of Israel could officiate sacrifices and…

An illustration of ancient Jerusalem.

Ancient Jerusalem

An illustration of ancient Jerusalem.

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12 massive columns, each 67 feet in height and 33 feet in circumference. Additional support was afforded by several rows of shorter columns (122 in all) disposed on each side of those in the middle avenues."—Webster, 1913

Central Avenue, Hall of Columns, Karnak

"The hall measures 170 feet deep by 329 feet broad. Its roof was supported by a central avenue of 12…

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

Temple of Chesnu at Karnak

Gallery of columns. Built by Ramses III during ancient Egypt.

An Assyrian King and his chief Minister.

Assyrian King and his Chief Minster

An Assyrian King and his chief Minister.

"The Assyrian physiognomy, as determined by the sculptures exhumed from the ruins of Nimrud and Khorsabad, is identical with that which the Israelite has made familiar to all the world. The forehead is low and straight; the brow prominent; the eyes large and oriental; the nose aquiline and sometimes coarse; the mouth firm-set; the lips rather thick; the chin strong and symmetrical."—Ridpath, 1885

Assyrian King

"The Assyrian physiognomy, as determined by the sculptures exhumed from the ruins of Nimrud and Khorsabad,…

"Below the pictured hieroglyphics in the first line is the same text in a simpler writing known as hieratic. The two systems, however, were not distinct; they were as identical as our own printed and written characters. The third line illustrates old Babylonian cuneiform, in which the characters, like the hieroglyphics, are rude and broken down pictures of objects. Derived from them is the later cuneiform shown in lines four and five."—Webster, 1913

Beginning of Written Language

"Below the pictured hieroglyphics in the first line is the same text in a simpler writing known as hieratic.…

Some Late Mesozoic reptiles. Shown are the Tyrannosaurus, Trachodon, Triceratops, Pterodactyls, and the Archaeopteryx. The six-foot man is drawn to the same scale as the other animals.

Late Mesozoic Age Reptiles

Some Late Mesozoic reptiles. Shown are the Tyrannosaurus, Trachodon, Triceratops, Pterodactyls, and…

Some reptiles of the Late Paleozoic Age. The six-foot man is drawn to the same scale as the other animals.

Reptiles of the late Paleozoic age

Some reptiles of the Late Paleozoic Age. The six-foot man is drawn to the same scale as the other animals.

A wall relief of the ancient Assyrian lion. These sculptures were placed in doorways as protective entities.

Assyrian Lion

A wall relief of the ancient Assyrian lion. These sculptures were placed in doorways as protective entities.

The head of a Cro-Magnon man during the Paleolithic age. Cro-Magnon men were the first true men.

Cro-Magnon Man

The head of a Cro-Magnon man during the Paleolithic age. Cro-Magnon men were the first true men.

"A papyrus of the first century A.D., containing the Ten Commandments. It was discovered in Egypt."—Webster, 1913

Ancient Hebrew Manuscript

"A papyrus of the first century A.D., containing the Ten Commandments. It was discovered in Egypt."—Webster,…

"Near the southern extremity of the plain of Marathon rises a conical mound, 30 feet high. it covers the remains of the 192 Greeks who fell in the battle. Excavations undertaken in 1890-1891 disclosed ashes, human bones and fragments of pottery belonging to the era of the Persian wars."—Webster, 1913

The Mound at Marathon

"Near the southern extremity of the plain of Marathon rises a conical mound, 30 feet high. it covers…

Statue of the Greek dramatist. He is representative of Athenian New Comedy.

Menander

Statue of the Greek dramatist. He is representative of Athenian New Comedy.

Also known as Merneptah. He ruled Egypt as pharaoh for ten years, and was the thirteenth son of Ramessess II.

Menepta

Also known as Merneptah. He ruled Egypt as pharaoh for ten years, and was the thirteenth son of Ramessess…

The fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, reigning from 1213 to 1203 BC.

Merneptah

The fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, reigning from 1213 to 1203 BC.

An ancient Babylonian stone carving of King Merodach-idin-akhi, the Mesopotamian sun god.

King Merodach-idin-akhi

An ancient Babylonian stone carving of King Merodach-idin-akhi, the Mesopotamian sun god.

Some Mesozoic reptiles. Shown are the Brontosaurus, Stegosaurus, Pterodactyl, Camptosaurus, and the Diplodocus. The six-foot man is drawn to the same scale as the other animals.

Mesozoic Age Reptiles

Some Mesozoic reptiles. Shown are the Brontosaurus, Stegosaurus, Pterodactyl, Camptosaurus, and the…

"The monks also became copyists, and with great painstaking and industry gathered and multiplied ancient manuscripts, and thus preserved and transmitted to the modern world much classical learning and literature that would otherwise have been lost."—Myers, 1905

Monk Copyist

"The monks also became copyists, and with great painstaking and industry gathered and multiplied ancient…

The leaf enrichment moulding is a design found in Erechtheum, Athens an ancient Greek Temple.

Leaf Enrichment Moulding

The leaf enrichment moulding is a design found in Erechtheum, Athens an ancient Greek Temple.

The animal life of Assyria was extremely varied. This image depicts a mule from this area.

Assyrian Mule

The animal life of Assyria was extremely varied. This image depicts a mule from this area.

"The following, also, are specimens of other ancient necklances. The first, small golden lizards alternate with drops. The second one was found at St. Agatha, near Naples, in the sepulchre of a Greek lady. It has 71 pendants. The third, fourth, and fifth, were found in Etrurian tombs." — Anthon, 1891

Ancient necklaces

"The following, also, are specimens of other ancient necklances. The first, small golden lizards alternate…

"Nippur was the ancient 'Calneh in the land of Shinar.' Excavations here were conducted by the University of Philadelphia during 1889-1900. The city contained an imposing temple, a library, and even a little museum of antiquities."—Webster, 1913

Excavations at Nippur

"Nippur was the ancient 'Calneh in the land of Shinar.' Excavations here were conducted by the University…

Augustulus is deposed from the crown by Odoacer, and was thus the last Western Roman Emperor.

Odoacer Compels Augustulus to Yield the Crown

Augustulus is deposed from the crown by Odoacer, and was thus the last Western Roman Emperor.

Mammals from the Oligocene age. Shown are the Titanothere, Entelodont, Hyracodon, Uintathere, and the Hyaenodou. The six-foot man is drawn to the same scale as the other animals.

Mammals from the Oligocene Mammals

Mammals from the Oligocene age. Shown are the Titanothere, Entelodont, Hyracodon, Uintathere, and the…

The Olympieum in Athens, Greece.

The Olympieum

The Olympieum in Athens, Greece.

An ancient city located in the heart of the Syrian Desert.

Ruins of Palmyra

An ancient city located in the heart of the Syrian Desert.

Pebble cup mortar. Crafted during the Reindeer age.

Reindeer age articles, Pebble cup mortar

Pebble cup mortar. Crafted during the Reindeer age.

"Phidias was the chief glory of the administration of Pericles. To him was committed the work of making the Parthenon sublime. From his studio went forth trophy after trophy to adorn the crowning glory of the Acropolis."

Phidias in His Study

"Phidias was the chief glory of the administration of Pericles. To him was committed the work of making…

"Fighting as pictured in the Bayeux tapestry, a contemporary work."—Gordy, 1912

Pictured Fighting

"Fighting as pictured in the Bayeux tapestry, a contemporary work."—Gordy, 1912

"Early Egyptian Pictures. Ploughing, breaking clods, and sowing."—Gordy, 1912

Early Egyptian Pictures

"Early Egyptian Pictures. Ploughing, breaking clods, and sowing."—Gordy, 1912

Neolithic age pottery from lake dwelling. Not drawn to scale.

Neolithic Age Pottery

Neolithic age pottery from lake dwelling. Not drawn to scale.

"The printing press- originating at the middle of the fifteenth, the art of printing continued to be conducted until the middle of the seventeenth century in a very clumsy manner." -Lupton

Modern Printing Press

"The printing press- originating at the middle of the fifteenth, the art of printing continued to be…

"The next Emperor was Aurelius Probus, officer of the army of Germany. He was chosen by the legions, and recognized by the Senate, A certain Florianus, brother of Tacitus, had in the mean tie assumed the purple without recognition by either the civil or the military power; but presently finding himself abandoned, he made an end by suicide. Probus, who was a soldier and man of worth, was thus left in undisputed possession of the throne. His reign of six years was almost wholly occupied in war."—Ridpath, 1885

Probus

"The next Emperor was Aurelius Probus, officer of the army of Germany. He was chosen by the legions,…

He was a mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer. "The name of a line Graeco-Egyptain kings, who succeeded on the division of the empire of Alexander the Great, to the portion of his dominions of which Egypt was the head." -Marshall

Ptolemy

He was a mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer. "The name of a line Graeco-Egyptain…

A portion of detail from a photograph of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

Detail of the Great Pyramid

A portion of detail from a photograph of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is often regarded as one of the most powerful pharaohs throughout history.

Ramses the Great

Also known as Ramses II. A profile portrait of Ramses the Great with carvings behind his head. He is…

"Hussey's Reaping-machine (cutting part)." — Chambers, 1881

Reaping-machine

"Hussey's Reaping-machine (cutting part)." — Chambers, 1881

Five different reindeer horn. Crafted during the Reindeer age.

Reindeer age articles, Reindeer horns

Five different reindeer horn. Crafted during the Reindeer age.