"From one end of a scale-beam, suspend a cylindrical metal bucket, b, with a solid cylinder, a, that fits accurately into it hanging below. Conterpoise with weights (shot or sand) in the opposite scale-pan. Immerse a in water, and the counterpoise will descend, as if a had lost some of its weight. Carefully fill b with water. It will hold exactly the quantity displaced by a. Equilibrium will be restored." -Avery 1895

Archimedies Principle

"From one end of a scale-beam, suspend a cylindrical metal bucket, b, with a solid cylinder, a, that…

"A representation of a common form of the delicate balances employed in physical and chemical researches. the beam is constructed so as to combine lightness with strength, and rests by a fine knife-edge on an agate plane. It is surmounted by a weight moving on a screw, so that the sensibility may be increased or diminished, according as weight is raised or depressed." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Balance

"A representation of a common form of the delicate balances employed in physical and chemical researches.…

"On this principle the common balance, represented [here] is constructed. A beam is poised on the top of a pillar, so as to be exactly horizontal. From each end of the beam, at equal distances from the fulcrum, a pan is suspended by means of cords. The object to be weighed is placed in one of these plans, and the weights in the other." —Quackenbos 1859

Balance

"On this principle the common balance, represented [here] is constructed. A beam is poised on the top…

In the common balance there is a stiff piece of metal called the beam, which turns about the sharp edge of a steel wedge forming part of the beam. The scale pans rest upon the hooks of the wedges.

Balance

In the common balance there is a stiff piece of metal called the beam, which turns about the sharp edge…

A balance of great delicacy with the glass case that contains it.

Balance for Purposes of Accuracy

A balance of great delicacy with the glass case that contains it.

"This is a very convenient and quite accurate method of determining specific gravity." — Ford, 1912

Beam balance

"This is a very convenient and quite accurate method of determining specific gravity." — Ford,…

"When the load is uniformly distributed on a beam of any cross-section, it will sustain a load twice as great as when the load is applied in the middle between the supports." — Hallock, 1905

Beam Strength

"When the load is uniformly distributed on a beam of any cross-section, it will sustain a load twice…

Cross section of steel beam that can be used to find area of composite figures.

Cross Section of Beam

Cross section of steel beam that can be used to find area of composite figures.

"The maximum safe load in pounds that any cylindrical beam is capable of sustaining at the middle when its ends merely rest upon supports, is equal to four times the cube of its diameter multiplied by .6 of the constant given in the table, and the product divided by the distance between its supports in feet." —Hallock 1905

Cylindrical Beam

"The maximum safe load in pounds that any cylindrical beam is capable of sustaining at the middle when…

"A cantilever is a beam, bar, rod, etc., fixed at one end and subjected to a transverse stress. It has a tendency to overthrow the wall or structure to which it is attached." — Hallock, 1905

Cantilever

"A cantilever is a beam, bar, rod, etc., fixed at one end and subjected to a transverse stress. It has…

"When the load is uniformly distributed on a cantilever of any cross-section, it will sustain a load twice as great as when the load is applied at one end." — Hallock, 1905

Cantilever

"When the load is uniformly distributed on a cantilever of any cross-section, it will sustain a load…

A rectangular cantilever with supports on the end and the load on the middle.

Cantilever

A rectangular cantilever with supports on the end and the load on the middle.

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2 or 3 feet of the ground, and hollowing the top of the portion left standing in the ground into the form of a mortar, A. A small hole is then bored obliquely through from the bottom of the cavity to the outside, and a pipe, f, conveys the juice into a jar, g. B is a cylindrical piece of wood, sharpened at each end, to act as a pestle, which is kept in its place with sufficient pressure by the lever C and the ropes at E. Two men are required: one at I has a basket supplied with small lengths of freshly-cut cane, which he places, two or three at a time, in the mortar, and when necessary, removes the crushed ones; the other man sits on the other end of the train, balancing it, and at the same time drives oxen which are attached to the end of the beam D, and keep the movable parts of the mill constantly turning round." — Chambers, 1881

Chinapatam Sugar-mill

"The Chinapatam Sugar-mill consists of a mortar made by cutting down some hard-wood tree to within 2…

Compass beam is used for large circles a compass or a lengthening bar cannot draw.

Beam Compass

Compass beam is used for large circles a compass or a lengthening bar cannot draw.

"[This illustration] represents a fixed pulley. The block is attached to a projecting beam. P is the power, and W the weight. For every inch that P descends, W ascends the same distance." —Quackenbos 1859

Fixed Pulley

"[This illustration] represents a fixed pulley. The block is attached to a projecting beam. P is the…

"Frame of Iron Ship. A, double bottom; B, bracket frame; C, coal-bunkers; D, upper or spar deck; D', upper- or or spar-deck beam; F, main frame; H, hammock-berthing; I, inner bottom plating; K, keel; L, longitudinals; M, main deck; M', main-deck beam; P, outside plating; R, reverse frame; S, boilers; Y, protective deck; Y', protective-deck beam." -Whitney, 1911

Frame of Iron Ship

"Frame of Iron Ship. A, double bottom; B, bracket frame; C, coal-bunkers; D, upper or spar deck; D',…

"Girders (in cross-section). a to l, wrought-iron girders; m to z, cast-iron girders; aa, box-girder; bb, compound I-girder; cc, coumpound beam girder; dd, I-girder." -Whitney, 1911

Girder

"Girders (in cross-section). a to l, wrought-iron girders; m to z, cast-iron girders; aa, box-girder;…

"A beam only reaching partially across an opening." — Williams, 1889

Hammer-beam

"A beam only reaching partially across an opening." — Williams, 1889

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame.—If in place of Fresnel's compound arrangement of trapezoidal lenses and plane mirrors there are substituted mirrors R, R generated by the revolution of a parabolic profile round a horizontal axis, all the light will be at once sent out in parallel beams by them and the lenses L, and the apparatus is therefore geometrically perfect, but metallic instead of glass agents are still employed." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Holophotal Catadioptric

"Holophotal Catadioptric Apparatus Revolving round a Central Flame.—If in place of Fresnel's compound…

"The upright centre beam of a compound girder." — Williams, 1889

King-post

"The upright centre beam of a compound girder." — Williams, 1889

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made, and upon which the ends of both warp and weft threads are fastened at starting. Beneath are w, w, w, a series of trays or beams, one above the other, containing the reels of the supplies of warp threads; c, c represent the slide bars for the passage of the bobbin b with its thread from k to k, the landing bars, one on each side of the rank of warp threads; s, t are the combs which take it in turns to press together the twistings as they are made. The combs are so regulated that they come away clear from the threads as soon as they have pressed them together and fall into positions ready to perform their pressing operations again." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Lace Machine

"A section of part of a lace machine. E is the cylinder or beam upon which the lace is rolled as made,…

An arc lamp or arc light is the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric arc. The lamp consists of two electrodes, typically made of tungsten, which are separated by a gas.

Electric Arc Lamp

An arc lamp or arc light is the general term for a class of lamps that produce light by an electric…

Incandescent bulbs are made in a wide range of sizes and voltages, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment and have a low manufacturing cost, and work well on either alternating current or direct current.

Incandescent Lamp

Incandescent bulbs are made in a wide range of sizes and voltages, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts.…

"A movable pulley is one whos block is movable. One end of the cord is fastened to the beam, and the weight is sspended from the pulley, the other end of the cord being drawn by the application of a force P. A little consideration will show that if P moves through a certain distance, say 1 foot, W will move through half that distance, or 6 inches; hence, a pull of 1 pound at P will life 2 pounds at W." — Hallock, 1905

Movable Pulley

"A movable pulley is one whos block is movable. One end of the cord is fastened to the beam, and the…

"Its mechanism may be understood by the means of the subjoined figure, B represents the end of the beam, which is pulled downward, and pushed upward, by the motion of the piston-rod R P; the motion of B is in the direction of the dotted curve; that of R P is rectilinear." —Comstock, 1850

Parallel Motion

"Its mechanism may be understood by the means of the subjoined figure, B represents the end of the beam,…

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers, 1895

Pillar and beam

"Columns are largely employed in the architecture of Egyptian temples. They are of various forms." —D'Anvers,…

"The Romans, an essentially practical nation, largely improved on the plough, adding to it the coulter and mould-board, and occasionally attaching wheels to the beam to prevent the share from going too deep into the earth." — Chambers, 1881

Plough

"The Romans, an essentially practical nation, largely improved on the plough, adding to it the coulter…

"Consider a beam of light as made up of a number of ehter waves moving forward in air and side by side, as represented by the rays A, B, C. Imagine a plane, MN, normal to these yars, attached to the waves and moving forward in a straight line. As the wave front advances beyond MN, the ray, A, strikes the reflecting surface, RS, and is turned back into the air in accordance with the law just given." -Avery 1895

Explanation of Reflection

"Consider a beam of light as made up of a number of ehter waves moving forward in air and side by side,…

A cross-section of a ship.

Section of a ship

A cross-section of a ship.

"Frame of a vessel supported by shores." A shore is a "post or beam of timber or iron for the temporary support of something; a prop." -Whitney, 1911

Shores

"Frame of a vessel supported by shores." A shore is a "post or beam of timber or iron for the temporary…

"An instrument described by Foucault for transmitting a beam of light along the optical axis of a fixed horizontal telescope."—Finley, 1917

Siderostat

"An instrument described by Foucault for transmitting a beam of light along the optical axis of a fixed…

"The Steelyard is more portable then the ordinary balance. It consists of a lever, AB, moving round a knife-edge or point at C. The body to be weighed, W, is put into the scale which hangs from A; and a movable weight P, is made to slide along the longer arm, until the lever, AB, remains horizontal." — Chambers' Encyclopedia, 1875

Steelyard

"The Steelyard is more portable then the ordinary balance. It consists of a lever, AB, moving round…

"In the case of limed stock the hides, at the proper stage, are withdrawn from the pits and stretched over an unhairing beam." —The Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Tanner's Beam

"In the case of limed stock the hides, at the proper stage, are withdrawn from the pits and stretched…