A Gallic Sword Blade.

Gallic Sword-Blade

A Gallic Sword Blade.

Sword-hilt and girdle used in the Gallic War.

Gallic Sword-hilt and Girdle

Sword-hilt and girdle used in the Gallic War.

Gallic soldier blowing long trumpet known as carnyx.

Gaul with Trumpet

Gallic soldier blowing long trumpet known as carnyx.

President Grant's Caesarism image appears to New York Herald Editor Bennett again.

Grant's Caesarism Appears to Bennett

President Grant's Caesarism image appears to New York Herald Editor Bennett again.

Military formation of the Romans, also agmen quadratum. Square formation with no troops in the middle.

Hollow Square

Military formation of the Romans, also agmen quadratum. Square formation with no troops in the middle.

"[Caesar] mustered the soldiers in the Campius Martius, and requested a statement of their grievances. Their demands appeared to have a reference to a payment of their dues, the bestowal of promised presents, and a release from further duty. Caesar well knew that the best way to humiliate an insurrection is to grant what it clamors for. He accordingly made an address to his old legion, being careful to begin with "Citizens," instead of "Soldiers." This was gall and wormwood. To be addressed as citizens by their beloved commander! "I discharge you." said he. "You have had enough of fatigue and wounds. I release you from your oath. As to your presents, you shall be paid to the last sesterce." The old veterans could stand no more. They burst into tears, and began to beg for forgiveness. With a certain prudent hesitation, Caesar received them back to favor; but he took care that the leaders who had fomented the mutiny should be executed."—Ridpath, 1885

Citizens! I Discharge You.

"[Caesar] mustered the soldiers in the Campius Martius, and requested a statement of their grievances.…

Coin of L. Plancus showing bust on front and amphora on back. Front.

Coin of L. Plancus

Coin of L. Plancus showing bust on front and amphora on back. Front.

Coin of L. Plancus showing bust on front and amphora on back. Back.

Coin of L. Plancus

Coin of L. Plancus showing bust on front and amphora on back. Back.

A Lituus, a horn used in Roman religious practice.

Lituus

A Lituus, a horn used in Roman religious practice.

Coin stamp to stamp coins with the image of Marius.

Coin Stamp of Marius

Coin stamp to stamp coins with the image of Marius.

A Roman general; born in 106 B.C. He distinguished himself against the enemies of the Roman senate, both within the state and without, and at last fell in the struggle against Caesar for absolute power.

Pompey the Great

A Roman general; born in 106 B.C. He distinguished himself against the enemies of the Roman senate,…

A Roman battle ship manned by many oarsmen.

Roman Battle Ship

A Roman battle ship manned by many oarsmen.

A cavlaryman of Cæsar's army during the Roman Republic.

Roman Cavalryman

A cavlaryman of Cæsar's army during the Roman Republic.

The spear point of the Roman javelin, or pila.

Roman Javelin

The spear point of the Roman javelin, or pila.

The attaching point for the spear point of the Roman javelin, or pila.

Roman Javelin

The attaching point for the spear point of the Roman javelin, or pila.

The Roman javelin, or pila.

Roman Javelin

The Roman javelin, or pila.

The Roman javelin, or pila.

Roman Javelin

The Roman javelin, or pila.

Roman Pack-wagons and carts carrying goods being drawn by horses.

Roman Pack-wagons

Roman Pack-wagons and carts carrying goods being drawn by horses.

A Roman Siege Works, with A and B, a double wall; C, C, C, Vineæ; D, an Agger; E, a movable tower; F, a ditch.

Roman Siege Works

A Roman Siege Works, with A and B, a double wall; C, C, C, Vineæ; D, an Agger; E, a movable tower;…

Roman Sword or gladii. In sheath decorated with carvings.

Roman Sword

Roman Sword or gladii. In sheath decorated with carvings.

Writing materials from the Roman empire.

Roman Writing Materials

Writing materials from the Roman empire.

An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern Italy. The idiom "Crossing the Rubicon" refers to Julius Caesar passing this river in 49 BC, and means to pass a point of no return.

Caesar Crossing the Rubicon

An image of Julius Caesar and his army crossing the Rubicon River, which is located in northeastern…

Roman Shipbuilder at work with tool.

Roman Shipbuilder

Roman Shipbuilder at work with tool.

Various standards of military units of Rome in the Gallic War.

Signa Militaria

Various standards of military units of Rome in the Gallic War.

A soldier using a sling to cast stones as weapons, known as a funditor.

Slinger

A soldier using a sling to cast stones as weapons, known as a funditor.

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

Sueve and Roman Rider

A Roman rider battling a Sueve. Suevi were Germanic people that posed a threat to the Romans.

Gallic Torques were heavy necklaces of braided metal. Gauls carried their wealth in the form of Gold Torques which they wore around their necks.

Gallic Torques

Gallic Torques were heavy necklaces of braided metal. Gauls carried their wealth in the form of Gold…

A Roman Trading vessel laden with goods.

Trading Vessel

A Roman Trading vessel laden with goods.

A Roman Tuba, a long narrow horn.

Roman Tuba

A Roman Tuba, a long narrow horn.

A Vinea, or Testudo, a small structure framed with wood used to protect soldiers attacking city walls.

Vinea

A Vinea, or Testudo, a small structure framed with wood used to protect soldiers attacking city walls.