The controversial General Benjamin Franklin Butler declares that the African Americans are "contraband of war" during the Civil War.

General Butler Declaring African Americans "Contraband of War"

The controversial General Benjamin Franklin Butler declares that the African Americans are "contraband…

An American soldier, politician, and lawyer.

Benjamin Franklin Butler

An American soldier, politician, and lawyer.

Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818 - 1893) was a lawyer and politician who was a U. S. Representative for the state of Massachusetts and governor of Massachusetts. During the Civil War, he was ranked one of the most controversial political generals because of occupied New Orleans, his policies regarding slaves as contraband, the Bermuda Hundred Campaign, and Fort Fisher. He was also known as "Beast Butler" by the Southern whites.

Benjamin Franklin Butler

Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818 - 1893) was a lawyer and politician who was a U. S. Representative for…

"General Butler was born in Deerfield, N. H., November 6th, 1818. At the time of President Lincoln's call for troops in April, 1861, he held the commission of brigadier general of militia. On the 17th of that month he marched to Annapolis with the Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and was placed in command of the District of Annapolis, in which the city of Baltimore was included. On May 13th, 1861, he entered Baltimore at the head of 900 men, occupied the city without opposition, and on May 16th was made a major general and assigned to the command of Fortress Monroe and the Department of Eastern Virginia. In August he captured Forts Hatteras and Clark. He then returned to Massachusetts to recruit an expedition for the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi. On March 23rd, 1862, the expedition reached Ship Island, and on April 17th went up the Mississippi. The fleet under Farragut having passed the forts, April 24th, and virtually capture New Orleans, General Butler took possession of the city on May 1st. Near the close of 1863 he was placed in command of the Army of the James. In December, 1864, he conducted an ineffectual expedition against Fort Fisher, and soon afterward was removed from command by General Grant. He died in Washington, D. C., January 11th, 1893." —Leslie, 1896

General Benjamin F. Butler

"General Butler was born in Deerfield, N. H., November 6th, 1818. At the time of President Lincoln's…

"Sherman's Campaign. The capture of Buzzard's Roost at Hovey Gap, Ga., May 8th, 1864. Among the strongholds selected by the Confederates for the defense of Atlanta against the Federals was Buzzard's Roost, carried in spite of all their endeavors, on the 8th of May, by the indomitable courage of Sherman's men. It is a high, rocky elevation on Mill Creek, a branch of the Oostanaula, between Ringgold and Dalton. Our artist said: 'Our advance engaged in some very heavy skirmishing, which lasted for several hours. At first our lines were slowly forced back by the vastly superior numbers of the enemy, who resisted with a stubborn desperation our attempted advance. From out their long lines of concealed rifle-pits they showered their leaden messengers of death with terrible effect upon our troops. A charge was finally ordered, and then ensued one of those furious encounters that can only occur in a hand-to-hand conflict. They drove the Confederates from the fortress, leaving only the dead and wounded in their rifle-pits.'"— Frank Leslie, 1896

Buzzard's Roost

"Sherman's Campaign. The capture of Buzzard's Roost at Hovey Gap, Ga., May 8th, 1864. Among the strongholds…

(1844-1925) Writer who fought in the Civil War that wrote Silent South and fought for equal rights for African-Americans

George W. Cable

(1844-1925) Writer who fought in the Civil War that wrote Silent South and fought for equal rights for…

"The war in Virginia. Caissons and horses on the field at Bristoe Station."— Frank Leslie, 1896

caissons and horses

"The war in Virginia. Caissons and horses on the field at Bristoe Station."— Frank Leslie, 1896

"Fort Calhoun, on the ripraps, situated between Fortress Monroe and Sewell's Point, in Hampton Roads, Va."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Fort Calhoun

"Fort Calhoun, on the ripraps, situated between Fortress Monroe and Sewell's Point, in Hampton Roads,…

"Camp Dennison, sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on the banks of the Miami River, General Cox commanding- the Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus Railroad passed directly through the camp grounds. This camp, which was organized for a camp of instruction and drill, was situated about sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on a field of seventy-five acres, on the banks of the Miami River, surrounded by high bluffs. The Cleveland, Cincinnati and Columbus Railroad passed directly through the grounds, and this road was guarded for miles by sentries in order to watch bridges, telegraph wires and culverts, as spies were infesting the whole country. There were 18,000 men in camp, including the splendid Kentucky Regiment of Guthrie Grays, and quarters were erected for 20,000 men, who were soon on the ground. The tents were rough-board shanties, but were comfortable, and the officers had marquees erected in the rear of the regimental quarters. This brigade was under the command of General Cox, a West Point officer, and under the immediate supvervision of General George B. McClellan. It was in a beautiful location, and the troops were kept under a very strict surveillance, there being but few spectators allowed to visit the ground." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Camp Dennison

"Camp Dennison, sixteen miles above Cincinnati, on the banks of the Miami River, General Cox commanding-…

"Bird's-eye view of Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill., used for the detention of Confederate prisoners in 1862. At the commencement of the Civil War, in 1861, a Camp of Instruction was formed near Chicago, which, in honor of the 'Little Giant,' was called Camp Douglas. Here many of the Western regiments were drilled to that state of efficiency which has borne such glorious fruits as the victories of Fort Donelson and Pittsburg Landing. In the latter part of 1862 it was converted into a prison for Confederate prisoners, over eight thousand having been confined there at one time. They were chiefly Alabamians, Mississippians and Texans. Our sketch shows the vast barracks erected on the drill grounds in 1862."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Camp Douglas

"Bird's-eye view of Camp Douglas, Chicago, Ill., used for the detention of Confederate prisoners in…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." —Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." —Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." —Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861. This spot, where Fremont's army rested after their first day's march from Tipton, is on the vast prairies of Missouri, about fifteen miles from Tipton and two miles from Wheatland. The Grand Army of the West here pitched their tents on the afternoon of the 14th of October, 1861. A brilliant sunset fell over the whole, which looked more like a monster picnic than the advanced corps of an army bent on the destruction of traitorous brothers. The rapidity with which the evening's meal for a marching regiment is prepared has something of the marvelous in it. Appetite quickens practice, and the air is soon filled with the savory aromas of culinary processes. Then comes the hearty enjoyment of food which at another time would be passed by, but which now, under the appetizing provocative of hunger, is thankfully received. Not the least of a soldier's trials is the inroad a long march and privation makes upon that fastidiousness which plenty to eat engenders in the human diaphragm. The camp was called after the colonel of General Fremont's bodyguard, whose gallant achievements at Springfield on the 25th of October we have recorded." —Leslie, 1896

Camp Zagonyi

"Camp Zagonyi, encampment of Fremont's army on the prairie, near Wheatland, Mo., October 14th, 1861.…

"Siege of Vicksburg- cannon dismounted inside the Confederate works."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Cannon dismounted

"Siege of Vicksburg- cannon dismounted inside the Confederate works."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Cannon used at the time of the Civil War

Civil War Canon

Cannon used at the time of the Civil War

"The war in Mississippi- General McPherson driving the enemy from their position on the Canton Road, near Brownsville."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Canton Road

"The war in Mississippi- General McPherson driving the enemy from their position on the Canton Road,…

"Execution of Captain Wirz at Washington, D. C., Friday, November 10th, 1865."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Captain Wirz's execution

"Execution of Captain Wirz at Washington, D. C., Friday, November 10th, 1865."— Frank Leslie,…

"Lieutenant J. H. Raymond capturing the Confederate flag from the burning Confederate steamer <em>Fanny</em>, at the action off Elizabeth City, N. C., February 11th, 1862. Our sketch represents Lieutenant Raymond rushing on board the Confederate steamer <em>Fanny</em> and carrying off, through flame and smoke, the Confederate flag which was still flying on board the vessel. This heroic act was performed in the battle before Elizabeth City."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

capture Confederate flag

"Lieutenant J. H. Raymond capturing the Confederate flag from the burning Confederate steamer Fanny,…

"Battle of Carrick's Ford, between the troops of General McClellan's command, under General Morris, and the Confederates under General Garnett, July 13th, 1861. After a long march through drenching rain, the Federal troops under General Morris reached Carrick's Ford, where they found the Confederates holding the cliff on the opposite bank of the river. Both sides began a heavy firing. Then the Seventh Indiana Regiment plunged into the river and scaled the cliff on the right of the enemy, while the others kept up the fight in front. As soon as the flanking party reached the top of the cliff the Confederates retreated, and were pursued for about two miles."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Carrick's Ford

"Battle of Carrick's Ford, between the troops of General McClellan's command, under General Morris,…

"Reception of Brigadier General Corcoran by Mayor Opdyke and the citizens of New York, at Castle Garden, August 22nd, 1862. Mayor Opdyke escorting the general to his carriage. The 22nd of August, 1862, will be a memorable day for our Irish citizens, for on that day the people of New York turned out to give a hearty welcome to- not a victorious soldier, but to the true and patient man who had for thirteen months endured the worst of captivities to a brave soldier, compulsory inaction, when he knows his gallant companions are fighting for a great cause almost within cannon shot of his dungeon. And the reception was not given alone to the released general, but to everyone of those patient thousands who have suffered an equally cruel ordeal, although their names are unwept, unhonored and unsung. In this view, the oration which greeted the brave Corcoran was a noble and remarkabe one, and worthy of the great city that gave it."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Castle Garden

"Reception of Brigadier General Corcoran by Mayor Opdyke and the citizens of New York, at Castle Garden,…

"Soldiers playing 'catch the pig.' Thanksgiving festivities at Fort Pulaski, Ga., Thursday, November 27th, 1862. While the loyal citizens of the North were eating their turkeys the Federal soldiers in the South were also celebrating their Thanksgiving. We illustrate the amusement indulged in at Fort Pulaski, Ga. The grand attraction of the day, however, was th <em>fete</em> given by the officers of the Forty-eighth Regiment, New York Volunteers, Colonel Barton, and Company G, Third Rhode Island Regiment."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Catching the Pig

"Soldiers playing 'catch the pig.' Thanksgiving festivities at Fort Pulaski, Ga., Thursday, November…

"General Catlin served in the Civil War."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

General Isaac S. Catlin

"General Catlin served in the Civil War."— Frank Leslie, 1896

"A federal cavalry camp&mdash; Winter Quarters." -Gordy, 1916

Cavalry Camp

"A federal cavalry camp— Winter Quarters." -Gordy, 1916

A sketch of a cavalry engagement during the Civil War.

Cavalry Engagement

A sketch of a cavalry engagement during the Civil War.

"Stuart's Confederate Cavalry, after their successful raid into Pennsylvania, escaping with their stolen horses into virginia by the lower fords of the Potomac, Sunday, October 12th 1862." &mdash;Leslie, 1896

Stuart's Cavalry

"Stuart's Confederate Cavalry, after their successful raid into Pennsylvania, escaping with their stolen…

"Gordon's and Crawford's Brigades driving the Confederate forces from the woods at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9th, 1862. As soon as the order to advance was given the brigade moved forward, until it came to the open field, in perfect silence. As soon as it was clear from the woods, with a cheer that could have been heard all over the battle ground, it took the double-quick, and though at every step its ranks grew thinner from the murderous fire through which it passed, yet there was no faltering, no hesitancy; onward, across the field, up the slope and into and through the woods it went, until it met the second line of the enemy's overpowering forces. Forced at last to yield to overwhelming odds, it retired over the ground gained at such a frightful cost until it reached the cover from which it started. Here what remained held their position until the third brigade could come to its support. When exhausted, cut to pieces, its officers all gone, with no one to direct it, those who survived gathered as fast as thy could, and in the morning all that was left of that brigade was less than seven hundred men." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Gordon's and Crawford's Brigades driving the Confederate forces from the woods at the Battle of Cedar…

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9th, 1862- wounded men lying on the ground, McDowell's division marching on the field. The scene at night was very striking. It was past ten o'clock, and there was a bright moonlight and a clear blue sky. The Federal troops were on a rising ground, while the enemy's batteries were shelling from the woods, the Federal batteries replying, and one by one driving them further back. The hospital was near the Federal position, and wounded men wre lying on the ground, waiting their turn to receive surgical attention. Near them were groups of stragglers, ambulances, ammunition wagons, etc." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"The Confederate batteries shelling the Federal position on the night of the Battle of Cedar Mountain,…

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by General Banks and the Confederate Army led by Generals Jackson, Ewell, Winder, etc.- final repulse of the Confederates. General Pope's report of the battle is as follows: "On Saturday, August 9th, 1862, the enemy advanced rapidly to Cedar Mountain, the sides of which they occupied in heavy force. General Banks was instructed to take up his position on the ground occupied by Crawford's brigade, of his command, which had been thrown out the day previous to observe the enemy's movements. He was directed not to advance beyond that point, and if attacked by the enemy to defend his position and send back timely notice. The artillery of the enemy was opened early in the afternoon, but he made no advance until nearly five o'clock, at which time a few skirmishers were thrown forward on each side under cover of the heavy wood in which his force was concealed. The enemy pushed forward a strong force in the rear of his skirmishers, and General Banks advanced to the attack. The engagement did not fairly open until after six o'clock, and for an hour and a half was furious and unceasing. I arrived personally on the field at 7 P.M., and found the action raging furiously. The infantry fire was incessant and severe. I found General Banks holding the position he took up early in the morning. His losses were heavy. Ricketts's division was immediately pushed forward and occupied the right of General Banks, the brigades of Crawford and Gordon being directed to change their position from the right and mass themselves in the centre. Before this change could be effected it was quite dark, though the artillery fire continued at short range without intermission. The artillery fire, at night, by the Second and Fifth Maine batteries in Ricketts's division of General McDowell's corps was most destructive, as was readily observable the next morning in the dead men and horses and broken gun carriages of the enemy's batteries which had been advanced against it. Our troops rested on their arms during the night in line of battle, the heavy shelling being kept up on both sides until midnight. At daylight the next morning the enemy fell back two miles from our front, and still higher up the mountain."" —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Cedar Mountain

"Battle of Cedar Mountain, fought Saturday, August 9th, 1862, between the Federal troops commanded by…

"View of the town of Centreville, Va., with the battlefield of Bull Run, Bull Run Mountains, Thoroughfare Gap, and the Blue Ridge in the distance. An undying interest centres around the field of Bull Run, so often the scene of battle, skirmish and military operations. The ground dyed with the blood of so many thousand American soldiers, where some of the mightiest armies have met in deadly strife, will long show, in its broken outlines, in its ruined dwellings, in its grass-grown earthworks, and in its sadder graves and unburied remains of mortality, the traces of war. We give a view of Centreville, with a battery of the Third Connecticut Heavy Artillery in the foreground, their caissons and shelter tents beside the grassy mound that marks the intrenchments thrown up by the Confederates in the fall and winter of 1861. The village of Centreville lies to the right, the battle ground of Bull Run lies beyond the last two houses on the right, and still further in the background are the Bull Run Mountains, divided opposite the last house by Thoroughfare Gap, and in the remote distance looms up the Blue Ridge."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Centreville

"View of the town of Centreville, Va., with the battlefield of Bull Run, Bull Run Mountains, Thoroughfare…

"Cutting coarse forage into chaff. Hints to Soldiers in the camp and on campaign."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

chaff

"Cutting coarse forage into chaff. Hints to Soldiers in the camp and on campaign."— Frank Leslie,…

Burning of the engine-house at Chambersburg. The borough was the only major northern community burnt down by Confederate forces during the war.

Borough of Chambersburg

Burning of the engine-house at Chambersburg. The borough was the only major northern community burnt…

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals Hovey, Logan and Crocker, of Grant's army. On the morning of the 16th of May, General A. P. Hovey's division, occupying the right of McClernand's corps, encountered the Confederate pickets, but no engagement took place until about eleven o'clock, when the Indiana troops, led by General McGinnis, made a deliberate attack upon the rapidly increasing force which Pemberton had brought together at Champion Hills. Two batteries which had been planted along a high ridge were doing considerable damage, and it was finally determined to assault them. They were both taken by the Eleventh and Forty-sixth Indiana and the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, after a fierce hand-to-hand fight; but the arrival of fresh Confederate troops and the want of re-enforcements prevented their being held for any length of time. The Federals withdrew, and remained under cover of their artillery till joined by part of Quimby's late dvision, commanded by General Marcellus M. Crocker. Another advance was then ordered, and while Pemberton's right was thus engaged Logan's division attacked his left, and succeeded in flanking and in forcing it back in such manner as to completely isolate for awhile the whole of General Loring's brigade, which occupied the extreme Confederate right. The attack was so fierce that Stevenson's line became completely demoralized, yielded in turn, and by four o'clock the Confederates were in full retreat toward the Big Black River. Just then the other division of McClernand's corps came upon the scene, and a pursuit was ordered by Generals Carr and Osterhaus. This lasted until dark, and resulted in the capture of many prisoners and arms of all descriptions. The total loss in killed and wounded on both sides approximated to 4,000."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Champion Hills

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals…

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals Hovey, Logan and Crocker, of Grant's army. On the morning of the 16th of May, General A. P. Hovey's division, occupying the right of McClernand's corps, encountered the Confederate pickets, but no engagement took place until about eleven o'clock, when the Indiana troops, led by General McGinnis, made a deliberate attack upon the rapidly increasing force which Pemberton had brought together at Champion Hills. Two batteries which had been planted along a high ridge were doing considerable damage, and it was finally determined to assault them. They were both taken by the Eleventh and Forty-sixth Indiana and the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, after a fierce hand-to-hand fight; but the arrival of fresh Confederate troops and the want of re-enforcements prevented their being held for any length of time. The Federals withdrew, and remained under cover of their artillery till joined by part of Quimby's late dvision, commanded by General Marcellus M. Crocker. Another advance was then ordered, and while Pemberton's right was thus engaged Logan's division attacked his left, and succeeded in flanking and in forcing it back in such manner as to completely isolate for awhile the whole of General Loring's brigade, which occupied the extreme Confederate right. The attack was so fierce that Stevenson's line became completely demoralized, yielded in turn, and by four o'clock the Confederates were in full retreat toward the Big Black River. Just then the other division of McClernand's corps came upon the scene, and a pursuit was ordered by Generals Carr and Osterhaus. This lasted until dark, and resulted in the capture of many prisoners and arms of all descriptions. The total loss in killed and wounded on both sides approximated to 4,000."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Champion Hills

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals…

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals Hovey, Logan and Crocker, of Grant's army. On the morning of the 16th of May, General A. P. Hovey's division, occupying the right of McClernand's corps, encountered the Confederate pickets, but no engagement took place until about eleven o'clock, when the Indiana troops, led by General McGinnis, made a deliberate attack upon the rapidly increasing force which Pemberton had brought together at Champion Hills. Two batteries which had been planted along a high ridge were doing considerable damage, and it was finally determined to assault them. They were both taken by the Eleventh and Forty-sixth Indiana and the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, after a fierce hand-to-hand fight; but the arrival of fresh Confederate troops and the want of re-enforcements prevented their being held for any length of time. The Federals withdrew, and remained under cover of their artillery till joined by part of Quimby's late dvision, commanded by General Marcellus M. Crocker. Another advance was then ordered, and while Pemberton's right was thus engaged Logan's division attacked his left, and succeeded in flanking and in forcing it back in such manner as to completely isolate for awhile the whole of General Loring's brigade, which occupied the extreme Confederate right. The attack was so fierce that Stevenson's line became completely demoralized, yielded in turn, and by four o'clock the Confederates were in full retreat toward the Big Black River. Just then the other division of McClernand's corps came upon the scene, and a pursuit was ordered by Generals Carr and Osterhaus. This lasted until dark, and resulted in the capture of many prisoners and arms of all descriptions. The total loss in killed and wounded on both sides approximated to 4,000."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Champion Hills

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals…

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals Hovey, Logan and Crocker, of Grant's army. On the morning of the 16th of May, General A. P. Hovey's division, occupying the right of McClernand's corps, encountered the Confederate pickets, but no engagement took place until about eleven o'clock, when the Indiana troops, led by General McGinnis, made a deliberate attack upon the rapidly increasing force which Pemberton had brought together at Champion Hills. Two batteries which had been planted along a high ridge were doing considerable damage, and it was finally determined to assault them. They were both taken by the Eleventh and Forty-sixth Indiana and the Twenty-ninth Wisconsin, after a fierce hand-to-hand fight; but the arrival of fresh Confederate troops and the want of re-enforcements prevented their being held for any length of time. The Federals withdrew, and remained under cover of their artillery till joined by part of Quimby's late dvision, commanded by General Marcellus M. Crocker. Another advance was then ordered, and while Pemberton's right was thus engaged Logan's division attacked his left, and succeeded in flanking and in forcing it back in such manner as to completely isolate for awhile the whole of General Loring's brigade, which occupied the extreme Confederate right. The attack was so fierce that Stevenson's line became completely demoralized, yielded in turn, and by four o'clock the Confederates were in full retreat toward the Big Black River. Just then the other division of McClernand's corps came upon the scene, and a pursuit was ordered by Generals Carr and Osterhaus. This lasted until dark, and resulted in the capture of many prisoners and arms of all descriptions. The total loss in killed and wounded on both sides approximated to 4,000."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Champion Hills

"Battle of Champion Hills, May 16th, 1863- the formidable position of General Pemberton carried by Generals…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., Friday, May 1st, 1863. We give a fine sketch of the point where the memorable battle of Chancellorsville began. It was at the junction of the Gordonsville Plank Road, the Old Turnpike, and the road from Ely's and United States stores. The first fighting took place here on Friday, May 1st, and on Saturday the Eleventh Corps was routed, and the enemy repulsed by consummate generalship and the most resolute bravery of the Federal troops. Here, too, on Sunday the enemy made an attack with such overhwhelming force as to force the Federal army back to the second line. Few spots possess greater interest than this scene of fearful battle."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va., Friday, May 1st, 1863. We give a fine sketch of the point where the…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. Attack on General Sedgwick's Corps. on Monday, May 4th, 1863, at 5 P.M., as seen from Falmouth Heights. After General Sedgwick had carried the fortifications on Sunday, May 3rd, he pushed along the Gordonsville Plank Road in pursuit till night stopped his advance. Before morning the enemy threw a heavy force in his rear, cutting him off from his small force at Fredericksburg on the rear, and began to mass troops on his front and left flank. About half-past five o'clock in the afternoon they began the attack, and columns poured from behind the breastworks and marched down the hill to the plain above the town and opposite Falmouth, receiving, as they came in range, a brisk fire from the Federal artillery beyond the river. Unchecked by this, however, they rushed on Sedgwick's line, which repeatedly repulsed them, falling back, however, gradually to Banks's Ford, which they crossed in the morning on pontoons. In the sketch the breastworks captured on Sunday are seen, with the Confederates passing between them and the river in columns to attack Sedgwick's troops, which are the continuous line in the distance."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. Attack on General Sedgwick's Corps. on Monday, May 4th, 1863, at 5…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy. Early on May 3rd, Stuart renewed the attack upon Hooker's force, with the battle cry, 'Charge and remember Jackson!' and the advance was made with such impetuosity that in a short time he was in possession of the crest from which the Eleventh Corps had been driven the preceding day. No time was lost in crowning that eminence with all the heavy artillery obtainable, and as soon as this could be made to play upon the Federal lines a charge was successively ordered upon the position held by Generals Berry and French, both of whom were supported by the divisions of Williams and Whipple. After a severe struggle the Confederates succeeded in capturing the high ground where the Federals had posted some more heavy artillery, and in turning the latter upon the Federals, who soon had to fall back to their second and third lines of intrenchments. The Confederates followed close upon them, and made charge after charge in order to capture the new positions, but unayailingly and when re-enforcements arrived from Meade's corps they were forced to abadon the attack."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy.…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy. Early on May 3rd, Stuart renewed the attack upon Hooker's force, with the battle cry, 'Charge and remember Jackson!' and the advance was made with such impetuosity that in a short time he was in possession of the crest from which the Eleventh Corps had been driven the preceding day. No time was lost in crowning that eminence with all the heavy artillery obtainable, and as soon as this could be made to play upon the Federal lines a charge was successively ordered upon the position held by Generals Berry and French, both of whom were supported by the divisions of Williams and Whipple. After a severe struggle the Confederates succeeded in capturing the high ground where the Federals had posted some more heavy artillery, and in turning the latter upon the Federals, who soon had to fall back to their second and third lines of intrenchments. The Confederates followed close upon them, and made charge after charge in order to capture the new positions, but unayailingly and when re-enforcements arrived from Meade's corps they were forced to abadon the attack."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy.…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy. Early on May 3rd, Stuart renewed the attack upon Hooker's force, with the battle cry, 'Charge and remember Jackson!' and the advance was made with such impetuosity that in a short time he was in possession of the crest from which the Eleventh Corps had been driven the preceding day. No time was lost in crowning that eminence with all the heavy artillery obtainable, and as soon as this could be made to play upon the Federal lines a charge was successively ordered upon the position held by Generals Berry and French, both of whom were supported by the divisions of Williams and Whipple. After a severe struggle the Confederates succeeded in capturing the high ground where the Federals had posted some more heavy artillery, and in turning the latter upon the Federals, who soon had to fall back to their second and third lines of intrenchments. The Confederates followed close upon them, and made charge after charge in order to capture the new positions, but unayailingly and when re-enforcements arrived from Meade's corps they were forced to abadon the attack."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy.…

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy. Early on May 3rd, Stuart renewed the attack upon Hooker's force, with the battle cry, 'Charge and remember Jackson!' and the advance was made with such impetuosity that in a short time he was in possession of the crest from which the Eleventh Corps had been driven the preceding day. No time was lost in crowning that eminence with all the heavy artillery obtainable, and as soon as this could be made to play upon the Federal lines a charge was successively ordered upon the position held by Generals Berry and French, both of whom were supported by the divisions of Williams and Whipple. After a severe struggle the Confederates succeeded in capturing the high ground where the Federals had posted some more heavy artillery, and in turning the latter upon the Federals, who soon had to fall back to their second and third lines of intrenchments. The Confederates followed close upon them, and made charge after charge in order to capture the new positions, but unayailingly and when re-enforcements arrived from Meade's corps they were forced to abadon the attack."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chancellorsville

"Battle of Chancellorsville, Sunday, May 3rd, 1863. General Hooker repulsing the attack of the enemy.…

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler, detaching itself from General Slocum's division and rushing to the support of the General Kearny's division, which had been driven back, thus turning the fortunes of the day, June 30th, 1862, six o'clock p.m." —Leslie, 1896

Battle of Charles City

"Battle of Charles City Road- charge of the Jersey Brigade- the first New Jersey brigade, General Tayler,…

"Seacoast operations against Charleston- brilliant dash and capture of Confederate rifle pits and prisoners by the Federal troops on James Island, S. C., February 9th, 1865."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Charleston

"Seacoast operations against Charleston- brilliant dash and capture of Confederate rifle pits and prisoners…

"The harbor of Charleston, S. C.- Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Charleston Harbor

"The harbor of Charleston, S. C.- Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island."— Frank Leslie, 1896

"The advance upon Charleston, S. C.- entrance to the Stono River."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Advance upon Charleston

"The advance upon Charleston, S. C.- entrance to the Stono River."— Frank Leslie, 1896

"The advance upon Charleston, S. C.- pioneer movement- landing of the One Hundredth New York Volunteers upon Cole's Island, March 28th, 1863. On the morning of the 28th of March, 1863, the One Hundredth New York Volunteers, Colonel G. B. Danby, landed on Cole's Island, at the foot of James Island, nine miles from Charleston. This regiment was part of the Eighteenth Army Corps, and may be considered the pioneer of the grand expedition against Charleston. A reconnoissance of the island disclosed a Confederate battery near the end of the causeway that leads from Cole's Island to James Island, and also evidences of numerous concealed works on Folly and James Islands, where the Confederates had gathered a very large force. We will briefly describe the topography of this scene of action. John's Island is to the southwest of James Island, and may be said to include Seabrook and Cole's Island, which are only separated from it by a sort of marshy bayou, which at times is almost emptied of water."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Advance upon Charleston

"The advance upon Charleston, S. C.- pioneer movement- landing of the One Hundredth New York Volunteers…

"Siege of Charleston- the doomed city fired by Gillmore's explosive shells from Fort Putnam, January 3rd, 1864."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Siege of Charleston

"Siege of Charleston- the doomed city fired by Gillmore's explosive shells from Fort Putnam, January…

An illustration of Charleston, South Carolina during the Civil War.

Charleston, South Carolina

An illustration of Charleston, South Carolina during the Civil War.

"The Banks Expedition- a Confederate Schooner running into the United States transport <em>Che-Kiang</em>, off the Florida reefs, on the night of December 11th, 1862, with the intention of sinking her. On the night of December 11th, 1862, as the United States transport <em>Che-Kiang</em>, laden with troops, was off the Florida Reefs, a schooner supposed to be a Confederate one, ran at full sail against the <em>Che-Kiang</em>. As the latter vessel was painted white and had no lights burning, there can be little doubt it was a daring and desperate attempt to wreck the transport, more especially as the schooner's crew, immediately after the collision, put off into a boat and rowed away with all expedition. After disengaging herself from the sinking schooner the <em>Che-Kiang</em> pursued her way, and reached Ship Island in such a leaky condition that the troops had to be landed."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Che-Kiang

"The Banks Expedition- a Confederate Schooner running into the United States transport Che-Kiang,…

"The naval victory off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864- the pirate <em>Alabama</em> Captain Semmes, sunk after an engagement of one hour by the United States steamer <em>Kearsarge</em>, Captain Winslow."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Victory off Cherbourg

"The naval victory off Cherbourg, France, June 19th, 1864- the pirate Alabama Captain Semmes,…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." — Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the battles between the Federal forces commanded by General McClellan and the Confederate armies led by Generals Lee, Jackson, Magruder and Longstreet. About two o'clock in the afternoon, June 26th, 1862, the Confederates were seen advancing in large force across the Chickahominy, near the railroad, close the Mechanicsville, where General McCall's division was encamped. Placing their batteries in the rear of the Federals, the Confederates commenced a steady fire. The Federal batteries replied, and very soon the roar of the artillery was deafening. For three hours the fight raged with great fierceness, the enemy attempting a flank movement, which was defeated. Toward six o'clock in the evening General Morell's division arrived on the ground, and marched straight on the enemy, in spite of the shower of shot and shell rained upon them." &mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Valley of Chickahominy

"Valley of the Chickahominy, looking southeast from the vicinity of Mechanicsville, the scene of the…

"Battle of Chickamauga- repulse of the Confederates at Crawfish Creek. We present a most interesting sketch of the battle of Chickamauga, the repulse and check of the Confederate cavalry by the Twenty-fourth Illinois and Company K of the Nineteenth Illinois. They were separated from the Confederates by a stone fence and a small creek. Their daring and heroic resistance was never surpassed, some of them climbing the stone fence to meet the Confederates as they rushed madly down upon the gallant little band. They had the whole Confederate cavalry and four divisions of infantry and artillery to fight, but notwithstanding this vast odds they held their position until re-enforcements reached them. The Twenty-fourth Illinois was commanded by Colonel G. Michalotzy, who was slightly wounded in the right hand. They went into the battle with 330 men, and came out with but 163, less than half their number."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chickamauga

"Battle of Chickamauga- repulse of the Confederates at Crawfish Creek. We present a most interesting…

"Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19th-20th, 1863, between Generals Rosecrans and Bragg. Our sketch of this most important battle shows General Thomas and his staff anxiously looking for re-enforcements as his gallant troops from their temporary breastwork of loggs and knapsacks, are repulsing the retreated assaults of the overpowering Confederate forces and saving the whole Army of the Cumberland from destruction. After skirmishing on Thursday and Friday, September 17th and 18th, General Rosecrans on Saturday formed his line, with General Thomas on the left, having under him Brannan, Baird and Reynolds; Negley and Wood held the extreme right at Owen's Ford and Gordon's Mill. Crittenden's corps, consisting of Palmer's and Van Cleve's divisions, formed the centre, with part of McCook's on each side. The line generally followed the Chickamauga, though on the left it took the course of the Lafayette Road. Between ten and eleven A. M. Cranston's brigade, of Brannan's division, met the first attack, and in a few moments the whole division was forced back, Thomas then ordered his entire line to advance, and Longstreet was driven back with slaughter, losing the ground and cannon he had gained, and his corps was fast melting under the blows of Thomas, when Polk and Hill threw their corps with impetuosity on Crittenden, and after a fierce struggle routed him, and drove to the right, in similar disorder, Davis's division, of McCook's corps, leaving a wide gap in the line and exposing Thomas to a heavy flank attack. Back then his victorious troops returned to meet the new enemy, and Thomas, with Negley and Wood, from the right, rallying some of the routed centre, drove the enemy back. Before the deadly fire of this new line the Confederates everywhere retired, and before sunset Rosecrans's army held its old line. During the night Rosecrans fell back to a new line, resting Negley with his right on Missionary Ridge, Van Cleve, Wood and Sheridan on the left, and Thomas more in the centre. The fight commenced on the extreme left, and the Confederates, about ten in the morning, attacked Negley with all their strength, and Longstreet again rolled his verterans on Thomas, and again a bitterly contested fight took place. At last General Reynolds began to give way, and Wood was sent to his relief. As Davis moved to fill Wood's place the Confederates took them in flank, and routing them, severed Rosecrans's line, leaving him, with Sheridan, Davis and Wilder, cut off entirely from the mass of his army. Thomas gathered up the other portion of the army in a strong line on Missionary Ridge, and prepared to resist the last Confederate attack, made with all the inspiration of victory; but his men stood firm, and a cloud of dust to the left soon showed a line advancing on the Lafayette Road. Every eye was strained; a moment would tell whether the day's disaster must close in irreparable ruin or there was yet hope of repulsing the foe. It was General Granger with two fresh brigades, which, fresh for battle, now rushed on the enemy and drove them from a hill which they had gained; and thus aided, Thomas repulsed the enemy, and fell back, unmolested, to Rossville."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

Battle of Chickamauga

"Battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 19th-20th, 1863, between Generals Rosecrans and Bragg. Our sketch…

"Scene in camp life- chimney architecture- the Federal soldiers at their camp fires."&mdash; Frank Leslie, 1896

chimney architecture

"Scene in camp life- chimney architecture- the Federal soldiers at their camp fires."— Frank Leslie,…

Depiction of a Civil War battle.

Civil War Battle

Depiction of a Civil War battle.

"Extempore musical and terpischorean entertainment at the United States arsenal, Baton Rouge, La., under the patronage of the Forty-First Massachusetts, the one hundred and Thirty-First New York and the Twenty-Fifth Connecticut Volunteers- contraband children dancing the breakdown. If anything were necessary to show the sensuous nature of music, it would be found in the eagerness with which the contraband race pursued it. The Federals, with that love of fun which ever distinguishes the brave soldier off duty, got up, a few evenings after their arrival at Baton Rouge, an extempore musical and terpsichorean entertainment, in which the darky element was largely and loudly represented. The hall was one of the extensive rooms in the United States Arsenal building, and prominent among the promoters were the Forty-first Massachusetts, One Hundred and Thirty-first New York and the Twenty-fifth Cennecticut Volunteers. One of the features was a breakdown, which was dance, or rather jumped, with great vigor by a couple of contraband juveniles."— Frank Leslie, 1896

Civil War entertainment

"Extempore musical and terpischorean entertainment at the United States arsenal, Baton Rouge, La., under…