"Sea-Fan; Sea Pen; Cornularia rugosa."-Whitney, 1902

Alcyonaria

"Sea-Fan; Sea Pen; Cornularia rugosa."-Whitney, 1902

"End of a branch of red coral of commerce, Corallium rubrum, with three anthozooids, A, B, C, in different degrees of expansion: k, mouth; a, the part of the coenosarc which rises into a cup around the base of each anthozooid."-Whitney, 1902

Anthozooids

"End of a branch of red coral of commerce, Corallium rubrum, with three anthozooids, A, B, C, in different…

A modern Bryozoan, a group of cells or zooecia seen from above, and a single cell seen from the side.

Bryozoan

A modern Bryozoan, a group of cells or zooecia seen from above, and a single cell seen from the side.

A modern Bryozoan, a single zooid expanded.

Bryozoan

A modern Bryozoan, a single zooid expanded.

A modern Bryozoan, a cluster of branches.

Bryozoan

A modern Bryozoan, a cluster of branches.

A modern Bryozoan, a single branch bearing ovicells and zooid cells.

Bryozoan

A modern Bryozoan, a single branch bearing ovicells and zooid cells.

Eschara elegans (Coscinopleura) is a prehistoric bryozoan, a marine animal similar to a coral.

Prehistoric Bryozoan

Eschara elegans (Coscinopleura) is a prehistoric bryozoan, a marine animal similar to a coral.

Eschara philomela is a prehistoric bryozoan, a marine animal similar to a coral.

Prehistoric Bryozoan

Eschara philomela is a prehistoric bryozoan, a marine animal similar to a coral.

An illustration of calcarina spengleri.

Calcarina Spengleri

An illustration of calcarina spengleri.

Formation of Coral Reeds, according to Darwin.

Coral

Formation of Coral Reeds, according to Darwin.

"Coral is the name applied to the stony structures secreted by many of the actinozoa, and applied to the animals themselves. The coral of commerce is the production of various polyps, and is of different colors and internal structure. A– a branch of Dendrophyllia."—(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Coral

"Coral is the name applied to the stony structures secreted by many of the actinozoa, and applied to…

"Coral is the name applied to the stony structures secreted by many of the actinozoa, and applied to the animals themselves. The coral of commerce is the production of various polyps, and is of different colors and internal structure. B&ndash; part of a stock of red coral, with <em>(a)</em> fully extended polyp and <em>(b, b)</em> two polyps, partly extended. "&mdash;(Charles Leonard-Stuart, 1911)

Coral

"Coral is the name applied to the stony structures secreted by many of the actinozoa, and applied to…

A living coral, a marine organism in the class Anthozoa.

Coral

A living coral, a marine organism in the class Anthozoa.

Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals. The group includes the important reef builders that are found in tropical oceans, which secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.

Coral

Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically…

A massive branching coral with very small calices; an important reef builder.

Coral

A massive branching coral with very small calices; an important reef builder.

Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone&ndash;like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals. The group includes the important reef builders that are found in tropical oceans, which secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.

Coral

Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone–like polyps,…

An illustration of coral. Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea anemone&ndash;like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals. The group includes the important reef builders that are found in tropical oceans, which secrete calcium carbonate to form a hard skeleton.

Coral

An illustration of coral. Corals are marine organisms from the class Anthozoa and exist as small sea…

Compound coral head with polyps partly expanded and partly contracted. The expanded polyps show the tentacles which surround the mouth; the contracted polyps show the polygonal outline from crowding.

Coral Head

Compound coral head with polyps partly expanded and partly contracted. The expanded polyps show the…

A compound coral head with crowded prismatic corallites. The specimen represents a worn pebble, formerly a part of a larger head.

Coral Head

A compound coral head with crowded prismatic corallites. The specimen represents a worn pebble, formerly…

This is an illustration of a relatively flat island, surrounded by coral-reefs.

Coral Island

This is an illustration of a relatively flat island, surrounded by coral-reefs.

Head of brain coral with soft parts.

Brain Coral

Head of brain coral with soft parts.

Head of brain coral with corallum.

Brain Coral

Head of brain coral with corallum.

Madrepore ("mother of pores") is a coral of the genus Madrepora, found often forming reefs or islands in tropical locations. They reproduce in three separate ways as discovered by the Victorian marine zoologist Anna Thynne (1806-1866). The name was formerly applied universally to any stone coral.

Madrepore Coral

Madrepore ("mother of pores") is a coral of the genus Madrepora, found often forming reefs or islands…

Madrepore ("mother of pores") is a coral of the genus Madrepora, found often forming reefs or islands in tropical locations. They reproduce in three separate ways as discovered by the Victorian marine zoologist Anna Thynne (1806-1866). The name was formerly applied universally to any stone coral.

Madrepore Coral

Madrepore ("mother of pores") is a coral of the genus Madrepora, found often forming reefs or islands…

An illustration of part of a stock of precious coral (red coral). Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. The distinguishing characteristic of precious corals is their durable and intensely colored red or pink skeleton, which is used for making jewelry.

Precious Coral

An illustration of part of a stock of precious coral (red coral). Precious coral or red coral is the…

"It appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, where it grows, especially on the southern coast, attached to rocks at considerable depths in the sea. It is fished up from the deep by means of nets and other instruments. The manufacture of ornaments of this coral at Naples is of great extent." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Red coral

"It appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, where it grows, especially on the southern coast,…

Reef coral with slightly enlarged calices.

Reef Coral

Reef coral with slightly enlarged calices.

Corallina, a modern lime-secreting alga (entire plant).

Corallina

Corallina, a modern lime-secreting alga (entire plant).

Corallina, a modern lime-secreting alga (a small branch enlarged).

Corallina

Corallina, a modern lime-secreting alga (a small branch enlarged).

Coralline Rock is a type of rock formed by the death of layers of Coralline algae. It is visually quite bright like the algae, and is often desired as aquarium decoration. Since it is formed from the dead algae, it contains some nutrients and calcium carbonate, which has allowed it to be used in some building structures.

Coralline

Coralline Rock is a type of rock formed by the death of layers of Coralline algae. It is visually quite…

A simple cup-coral attached to the sea-bottom.

Cup-coral

A simple cup-coral attached to the sea-bottom.

An illustration of a branch of dendrophyllia.

Dendrophyllia

An illustration of a branch of dendrophyllia.

"In the genus Alcyonium, the polypidom is of a spongy nature, and contains a multitude of minute calcareous concretions, which serve to give firmness to the fabric. When the polypes are contracted, the surface of the polypidom, which is covered with a coriaceous skin, is seen to bear numerous scattered stellate marks, which, on examination, are found to consist of eight rays correstponding with the tentacula of the polypes which are to be protruded from these spots." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Alcyonium elegans

"In the genus Alcyonium, the polypidom is of a spongy nature, and contains a multitude of minute calcareous…

A hand&mdashlike coral: so called from its pale hand like tubers.

Dead Man's Fingers

A hand&mdashlike coral: so called from its pale hand like tubers.

These animalcule are so small that 1,000,000 are equal in bulk to only one cubic inch. They appear to live in the layers of water near the surface, and after death to fall gradually to the bottom of the sea.

Foraminifera

These animalcule are so small that 1,000,000 are equal in bulk to only one cubic inch. They appear to…

"Cidaris florigemma, with spine, a, and single ambulacral plate, magnified, b, (after Wright; Coral Rag." &mdash; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1893

Fossil Echinidea

"Cidaris florigemma, with spine, a, and single ambulacral plate, magnified, b, (after Wright; Coral…

This is an illustration of an island with an altitude of two thousand feet or more. It is surrounded by coral-reefs.

High Island

This is an illustration of an island with an altitude of two thousand feet or more. It is surrounded…

"[From left to right:] Fusus Longissimus, Pearl Oyster and Coral, Volute, Thorny Woodcock." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Mollusca

"[From left to right:] Fusus Longissimus, Pearl Oyster and Coral, Volute, Thorny Woodcock." —…

A marine creature of the class Cephalopoda. They are found only in the western Pacific, inhabiting waters around coral reefs.

Nautilus

A marine creature of the class Cephalopoda. They are found only in the western Pacific, inhabiting waters…

Coral that has branched out and looks like a brain.

Astraea Pallida

Coral that has branched out and looks like a brain.

A colony of polyps on a bit of seaweed.

Polpys

A colony of polyps on a bit of seaweed.

"It is to this family more especially that the formation of the coral reeds is to be attributed. In this the corals usually form thick stony masses; the stony rays of the cells are exceedingly numerous, and the cels themselves penetrate deeply into the mass of coral, although they are generally partially divided by imperfect transverse paritions." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Astraea rotulosa

"It is to this family more especially that the formation of the coral reeds is to be attributed. In…

"In the family of the Gorgonidae the substance of the polypidom is collected into a solid central axis, covered by the fleshy mass in which the polypes are imbedded. The axis is cometimes calcareous, sometimes horny; in certain casees it is formed of a series of joints united by horny rings. Many species grow in a more or less aborescent form, of which the <em>Sea-Fans</em> are an example." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Sea-fan

"In the family of the Gorgonidae the substance of the polypidom is collected into a solid central axis,…

"The Sea-fan (<em>gorgonia cavolinii</em>)." &mdash;Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

Sea-fan

"The Sea-fan (gorgonia cavolinii)." —Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

24. Various corals, 25. Razor-shell, 26. Cockle, 27. Various winkels, 28. Shore crab, 29. Father lasher, 30. Periophthalamus, 31. Lobworm, 32. Gunnel

Types of Seashore Life

24. Various corals, 25. Razor-shell, 26. Cockle, 27. Various winkels, 28. Shore crab, 29. Father lasher,…

"These animals are generally called <em>Tree-corals</em>, on account of the forms of the polypidons which they build and in which they live. They are very small, and possess twelve short tentacles placed in a circle around the mouth; they occupy the cells in the polypidom, which is of a porus nature, the openings of the cells being placed at the summits of tubercular prominences of greater or lesser elevations. " &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Tree-coral

"These animals are generally called Tree-corals, on account of the forms of the polypidons…

"a a, expanded polypes; b b, polypes withdrawn into their cells; c c, coral uncovered by flesh, showing the cells. In this the corals usually form thick stony masses; the stony rays of the cells are exceedingly numerous, and the cells themselves penetrate deeply into the mass of coral, although they are generally partially divided by imperfect transverse partitions." &mdash; Goodrich, 1859

Astrae virdis

"a a, expanded polypes; b b, polypes withdrawn into their cells; c c, coral uncovered by flesh, showing…